Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Impatiens walleriana
(busy lizzy)

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Datasheet

Impatiens walleriana (busy lizzy)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Impatiens walleriana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • busy lizzy
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Impatiens walleriana is one of the world’s most widely grown ornamental plant species. It has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and usually can be found naturalized in secondary forests, coastal thickets, for...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Impatiens walleriana (busy-lizzy); flowering habit. Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2003.
TitleHabit
CaptionImpatiens walleriana (busy-lizzy); flowering habit. Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2003.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Impatiens walleriana (busy-lizzy); flowering habit. Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2003.
HabitImpatiens walleriana (busy-lizzy); flowering habit. Keanae Arboretum, Maui, Hawaii, USA. August 2003.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Impatiens walleriana (busy-lizzy); flowering habit, showing colour variation. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionImpatiens walleriana (busy-lizzy); flowering habit, showing colour variation. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Impatiens walleriana (busy-lizzy); flowering habit, showing colour variation. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
HabitImpatiens walleriana (busy-lizzy); flowering habit, showing colour variation. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Impatiens walleriana (busy-lizzy); foliage, flowers and developing seed pods. Iao Tropical Gardens of Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2012.
TitleFoliage and flowers
CaptionImpatiens walleriana (busy-lizzy); foliage, flowers and developing seed pods. Iao Tropical Gardens of Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Impatiens walleriana (busy-lizzy); foliage, flowers and developing seed pods. Iao Tropical Gardens of Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2012.
Foliage and flowersImpatiens walleriana (busy-lizzy); foliage, flowers and developing seed pods. Iao Tropical Gardens of Maui, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Impatiens walleriana Hook. f.

Preferred Common Name

  • busy lizzy

Other Scientific Names

  • Impatiens giorgii De Wild.
  • Impatiens holstii Engl. & Warb.
  • Impatiens lujai De Wild.
  • Impatiens sultani Hook. f.
  • Impatiens sultanii Hook. f.

International Common Names

  • English: balsam; bizzy lizzy; bizzy-lizzie; busy lizzie; buzzy lizzy; garden impatiens; impatiens; Japanese balsam; jewel weed; patience plant; patient Lucy; shady lady; sultan's flower; touch-me-not; Zanzibar balsam
  • Spanish: amor de quince; China; china rosa
  • French: balsamine sauvage; impatiens
  • Chinese: su dan feng xian hua

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: beijinho; beijo; beijo-de-frade; beijo-turco; ciúmes; maravilha; maria-sem-vergonha; melindre; não-me-toque ; suspiro
  • El Salvador: china cimarrona
  • Germany: Fleissiges Lieschen
  • Guatemala: flor de china; quinceañera
  • Lesser Antilles: balsamine; impatience
  • Netherlands: sultansbalsemien
  • Puerto Rico: alegría; besos; miramelinda

EPPO code

  • IPAWA (Impatiens walleriana)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Impatiens walleriana is one of the world’s most widely grown ornamental plant species. It has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and usually can be found naturalized in secondary forests, coastal thickets, forest gullies, riversides, roadsides and damp shady places. When established it often forms dense and large stands in the understory of secondary forests and plantations that successfully outcompete native plant species and alter ecological succession. Currently, it is listed as invasive in China, Australia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Galapagos, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Hawaii and the Canary Islands. Impatiens walleriana remains a source of great interest among gardeners and breeders, and new hybrids and varieties are developed every year, facilitating the introduction and spread of this species into new areas and thus increasing the likelihood that further invasions will take place.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Balsaminales
  •                         Family: Balsaminaceae
  •                             Genus: Impatiens
  •                                 Species: Impatiens walleriana

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Balsaminaceae is a family comprising only 2 genera and 1001 species of fleshy herbs with more or less translucent stems, swollen nodes and usually spiral, toothed leaves.  While the genus Impatiens is very diverse and includes about 1000 species, the genus Hydrocera is monotypic, containing the single species Hydrocera triflora, that is native to South India, Sri Lanka, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, and the Celebes. Species within the genus Impatiens are distributed mostly across the Old World: Africa (especially Madagascar) and tropical and subtropical montane forests of Southeastern Asia (Janssens et al., 2009; Stevens, 2019).

Impatiens walleriana is very variable in leaf shape and flower colour and thus it is widely cultivated as ornamental. Numerous cultivars and hybrids have been developed and are available in the horticulture trade (Brickell and Cathey, 2004; Flora of China, 2018; Queensland Government, 2018).

Description

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The following description is adapted from Christenhusz (2009):

Succulent perennial herbs 30-50(-80) cm; stems not or much branched, occasionally rooting at the lower nodes, often tinged reddish, usually glabrous, but rarely slightly pubescent in young shoots.

Leaves alternate, petiolate; petioles 1-6(-8) cm, with 1-3 stalked glands scattered along the length of the petiole; blades (2.5-) 4-13(-14) × 2-5.5(-7.5) cm, broadly ovate, glabrous, membranaceous, often tinged reddish, the margins crenate or crenate-dentate, usually with fimbriae between the teeth, the apex rounded, acute, acuminate or somewhat cuspidate. Inflorescences axillary racemes, usually 2-flowered, rarely with solitary flowers or 3-5 flowers; peduncles 2-5(-6.5) cm, glabrous or somewhat pubescent; bracts 2 or more, 3-6 × 0.1-0.3 mm, linear-lanceolate or subulate, the apex acute; pedicels 1-3 cm.

Flowers variable in colour, usually pink, purplish, mauve violet, orange, red or white; lateral sepals 3-7 mm, linear or ovate-lanceolate, whitish or greenish white, sometimes pink, the apex acute; lower sepal (8-)10-16 mm, the spur 28-45 mm, filiform, curved, with a slightly swollen tip; upper petal 11-19 × 13-25 mm, broadly obovate with a narrow crest in the middle terminating in an acute point, the apex emarginate; lateral united petals deeply incised, the upper and lower almost equal in size, the upper lateral petal 12-23 × 9-18 mm, the lower lateral petal 14-20 × 7-14 mm; ovary glabrous. Capsules 15-20 × 4-6 mm, fusiform, glabrous.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Impatiens walleriana is native to East Africa, including Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique. It is widely cultivated and commonly naturalized in tropical and subtropical Asia and Africa, North, Central and South America, the West Indies, Europe, Australia, and on many islands in the Pacific Ocean (Broome et al., 2007; Christenhusz, 2009; DAISIE, 2018; Flora of China, 2018; GRIIS, 2018; PIER, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018; Queensland Government, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

KenyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
MalawiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
MozambiquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
SeychellesPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
South AfricaPresentIntroducedHenderson L (2013)
TanzaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
ZambiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
ZimbabwePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)Cultivated
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
-HebeiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
Hong KongPresentIntroducedInvasiveWu (2002)
IndiaPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
-KeralaPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
JapanPresentGBIF (2019)
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)Cultivated
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasiveWu ShanHuah et al. (2010); GRIIS (2018)

Europe

FrancePresentIntroducedDAISIE (2018)
HungaryPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2018)
IrelandPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
PortugalPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedGRIIS (2018)
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveGallo AC et al. (1997)

North America

AnguillaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Antigua and BarbudaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
BarbadosPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
BelizePresentIntroducedChristenhusz MJM (2009)
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-Sint EustatiusPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveChacón E and Saborío G (2003)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto and González-Oliva (2015)
DominicaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasiveSerra CA et al. (2003)Invading coffee at higher altitudes
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedChristenhusz MJM (2009)
GrenadaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedChristenhusz MJM (2009)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentIntroducedChristenhusz MJM (2009)
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentIntroducedChristenhusz MJM (2009)
MontserratPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Netherlands AntillesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedChristenhusz MJM (2009)
PanamaPresentIntroducedChristenhusz MJM (2009)
Puerto RicoPresent, WidespreadIntroducedRojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez (2015)Potentially invasive
Saint LuciaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Graveson (2012)Potential threat in lower montane rainforest
Saint MartinPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Sint MaartenPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent, WidespreadIntroducedRojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez (2015)Potentially invasive
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWunderlin et al. (2018)Cultivated
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)
-OhioPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2018)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasiveQueensland Government (2018)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveQueensland Government (2018)
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)Kosrae
FijiPresentIntroducedSmith (1985)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlorence et al. (2007)
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
NauruPresentIntroducedThaman et al. (1994)
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMacKee (1994)
New ZealandPresentGBIF (2019)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER (2018)

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFonseca et al. (2013)
BoliviaPresentIntroducedJørgensen et al. (2014)
BrazilPresentIntroducedInvasiveZenni and Ziller (2011)
-AlagoasPresent, WidespreadIntroducedNaturalizedForzza RC et al. (2015)Widely naturalized
-BahiaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedNaturalizedForzza RC et al. (2015)Widely naturalized
-CearaPresentIntroducedInvasiveI3N-Brasil (2018)
-Distrito FederalPresent, WidespreadIntroducedNaturalizedForzza RC et al. (2015)Widely naturalized
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedInvasiveI3N-Brasil (2018)
-MaranhaoPresent, WidespreadIntroducedNaturalizedForzza RC et al. (2015)Widely naturalized
-Mato GrossoPresent, WidespreadNaturalizedForzza RC et al. (2015)Widely naturalized
-Minas GeraisPresent, WidespreadIntroducedNaturalizedForzza RC et al. (2015)Widely naturalized
-ParanaPresentIntroducedInvasiveI3N-Brasil (2018)
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedInvasiveI3N-Brasil (2018)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedInvasiveI3N-Brasil (2018)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentIntroducedInvasiveI3N-Brasil (2018)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedInvasiveSchneider (2007)
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveI3N-Brasil (2018)
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedInvasiveI3N-Brasil (2018)
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)Invasive on Juan Fernandez Island
ColombiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveDíaz-Espinosa AM et al. (2012)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedJørgensen and León-Yánez (1999)
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveCharles Darwin Foundation (2008)
UruguayPresentIntroducedInvasiveFonseca et al. (2013)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedHokche et al. (2008)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Impatiens walleriana has been cultivated as ornamental by Europeans since the 1800s (Cumo, 2013). In Puerto Rico this species was first reported as naturalized in 1923 (Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introductions of I. walleriana is very high. Among all the cultivated Impatiens species, I. walleriana is currently the most widespread, being grown on all continents other than Antarctica. As the rate of introduction for this species increases and the plants growing in cultivation continue to spread, it becomes increasingly likely that further naturalizations and invasions of this species will take place (Adamowski, 2008).

Habitat

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Impatiens walleriana is commonly cultivated as an ornamental in gardens and greenhouses. It can also be found naturalized in clearings, roadsides, secondary forests, coastal forests, riverine thickets, river margins, wet grasslands, coffee and banana plantations, forest edges and shaded, humid places in the understory of tropical and subtropical forests (Christenhusz, 2009; Flora of China, 2018; I3N-Brasil, 2018; Queensland Government, 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Buildings Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Buildings Present, no further details Natural
Buildings Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for I. walleriana is 2n = 16 (Flora of China, 2018).

Reproductive biology

The flowers of I. walleriana are hermaphroditic and come in a wide variety of colours including pink, red, orange, white and purple. These flowers are usually visited and pollinated by bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds (Christenhusz, 2009).

Physiology and phenology

In China, I. walleriana has been recorded flowering from June to October (Flora of China, 2018), while in Australia and Central America flowering occurs throughout the year (Christenhusz, 2009Queensland Government, 2018).

Longevity

Impatiens walleriana is described as a short-lived (i.e. annual), or occasionally long-lived (i.e. perennial), herbaceous plant (Cumo, 2013; Queensland Government, 2018).

Environmental requirements

Impatiens walleriana prefers to grow in moist and shaded habitats at elevations ranging from near sea level up to 3000 m. However, this species is adapted to grow in a wide range of environmental conditions, tolerating mean annual temperatures ranging from 10°C to 28°C and mean annual precipitations ranging from 800 mm to >2500 mm. It requires well-drained soils, and the optimum temperature for germination is about 20-25°C (Christenhusz, 2009; Mandle et al., 2010; Cumo, 2013; Queensland Government, 2018).  

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
45 45

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 10 28

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall800>2500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Plasmopara obducens Pathogen

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In wild and cultivated Impatiens, two species have been shown to cause the fungal disease downy mildew, Plasmopara obducens and Bremiella sphaerosperma [Plasmopara constantinescui] (Lane et al., 2005). These pathogens were first reported in the United States in 2004 (USDA-ARS, 2018). Since then, P. obducens has been also recorded in Europe, Asia, and Australia infecting a number of wild and cultivated Impatiens species, including I. walleriana and I. balsamina (Jones and ONeill, 2004). The first reports of P. obducens from the UK (Lane et al., 2005), California (Wegulo et al., 2004) and Australia (Cunnington et al., 2008), indicate significant outbreaks in commercial I. walleriana, causing 80-100% disease incidence in the affected crops.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Impatiens walleriana spreads by seed, but stem fragments may readily take root. In cultivation, it is commonly propagated by cuttings. The fruit is an explosively-dehiscent capsule with the walls in-rolling from the base. Seeds are dispersed when they are ejected from the mature capsule. Seeds can be secondarily dispersed by wind and water and as a contaminant on topsoil, garden tools and machinery. Stem segments can also be dispersed in dumped garden waste (Adamowski, 2008; Christenhusz, 2009; Cumo, 2013; PIER, 2018; Queensland Government, 2018).  

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceOften naturalized along roadsides and disturbed forests Yes Yes Christenhusz, 2009
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped from gardens Yes Yes Christenhusz, 2009
Garden waste disposalStem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2018
HorticultureExtensively cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Adamowski, 2008
Intentional releaseExtensively cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Adamowski, 2008
Medicinal useUsed as medicinal herb Yes Yes Christenhusz, 2009
Nursery tradeExtensively cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Adamowski, 2008
Ornamental purposesExtensively cultivated as ornamental Yes Yes Adamowski, 2008
Seed tradeSeeds sold online Yes Yes ,

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesStem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2018
MailSeeds sold online Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2018
Land vehiclesStem fragments and seeds Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2018
WaterSeeds Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2018
WindSeeds Yes Yes Queensland Government, 2018

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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Impatiens walleriana is a successful invasive species. This species often escapes cultivation to become naturalized in a wide range of habitats, including disturbed sites, secondary forests, forest edges, riparian sites, coastal thickets and grasslands. It forms dense and large stands in the lower strata of shaded and humid areas, where it outcompetes native plant species and can also alter the natural regeneration of these areas (Adamowski, 2008; Christenhusz, 2009; GRIIS, 2018; I3N-Brasil, 2018; PIER, 2018; PROTA, 2018). In Australia, I. walleriana is ranked among the top 200 most invasive plant species and it has been recorded invading national parks and conservation areas, where it has colonized forest margins and is displacing native fern communities. It is also listed among the invasive species that threaten the integrity of particular stands of endangered littoral rainforest in New South Wales (Queensland Government, 2018).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition (unspecified)
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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Economic value

Worldwide, Impatiens species are extensively cultivated as ornamentals. Impatiens walleriana is the most popular annual bedding plant in the United States (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018). Together the most widespread species, I. walleriana and I. hawkeri, generate annual profits of about $250 million in the United States alone (Brickell and Cathey, 2004; Adamowski, 2008; Cumo, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2018). 

Social Benefit

Many Impatiens species, including I. walleriana, are used in folk medicine (Christenhusz, 2009)

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Impatiens walleriana is very similar to Impatiens sodenii and I. balsamina. These species can be distinguished by the following vegetative and floral traits (Christenhusz, 2009):

Impatiens balsamina: flowers usually solitary in leaf axils; lateral petals completely united, only shallowly incised, unevenly bilobed; fruits are hairy.

Impatiens sodenii: larger plant (often up to 1.5 m tall) with sessile leaves, all in dense whorls; flowers white or pale pink; older plants are suffruticose.

Impatiens walleriana: flowers usually in pairs or with three to five flowers, rarely solitary; lateral petals almost free, equal in size, deeply incised and united only at the very base; fruits are glabrous.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Chemical control

There is no information available for the control of I. walleriana, however, herbicides such as 2,4-D, triclopyr, and glyphosate have been recommended to control the closely related species I. glandulifera (Tanner, 2017).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adamowski, W., 2008. Balsams on the offensive: the role of planting in the invasion of Impatiens species. In: Plant invasions: human perception, ecological impacts and management, [ed. by Tokarska-Guzik, B., Brock, J. H., Brundu, G., Child, L., Daehler, C. C., Pyšek, P.]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers. 57-70.

Brickell C, Cathey HM, 2004. The American Horticultural Society A to Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants, New York, USA: DK publishing.

Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chacón E, Saborío G, 2003. (Lista De Especies De Plantas Introducidas En Costa Rica). San Jose, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad (ACEBIO).

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.unpaginated.

Chong, K. Y., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Christenhusz MJM, 2009. Balsaminaceae 3(2) i-vii. In: Flora Mesoamericana [ed. by Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F]. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

Cumo C, 2013. Encyclopedia of Cultivated Plants: From Acacia to Zinnia, California, USA: ABC-CLIO.

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DAISIE, 2018. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe . http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Díaz-Espinosa AM, Díaz-Triana JE, Vargas O, 2012. (Catálogo de plantas invasoras de los humedales de Bogotá). Bogotá, Colombia: Grupo de Restauración Ecológica de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia y Secretaría Distrital de Ambiente.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence, J., Chevillotte, H., Ollier, C., Meyer, J. Y., 2007. Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polinésie française (PAP)). In: Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polinésie française (PAP) . http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf/Selection_Taxon_ref.php

Fonseca, C. R., Guadagnin, D. L., Emer, C., Masciadri, S., Germain, P., Martin Zalba, S., 2013. Invasive alien plants in the Pampas grasslands: a tri-national cooperation challenge. Biological Invasions, 15(8), 1751-1763. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-013-0406-2 doi: 10.1007/s10530-013-0406-2

Forzza RC, Costa A, Walter BMT, Pirani JR, Morim MP, Queiroz LP, Martinelli G, Peixoto AL, Coelho MAN, Baumgratz JFA, Stehmann JR, Lohmann LG, 2015. Balsaminaceae. In: Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB130841

Gallo AC, de la Torre WW, Alamo EC, Felipe MTJ, 1997. Ornamental Flora Introduced and Naturalized in Tenerife. [Proceeding 36º Symposium IAVS: Serie Informes Nº 40], Spain: Universidad de La Laguna.

GBIF, 2019. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In: Global Biodiversity Information Facility . http://www.gbif.org/species

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. IUCN ISSG.http://www.griis.org/

Henderson L, 2013. South African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA) Database. South Africa: www.agis.agric.za

Hokche, O., Berry, P. E., Huber, O., 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.860 pp.

I3N-Brasil, 2018. I3N Brazil invasive alien species database. In: I3N Brazil invasive alien species database Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: Horus Institute for Environmental Conservation and Development.http://bd.institutohorus.org.br/www/

Janssens, S. B., Knox, E. B., Huysmans, S., Smets, E. F., Merckx, V. S. F. T., 2009. Rapid radiation of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) during Pliocene and Pleistocene: result of a global climate change. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 52(3), 806-824. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10557903 doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2009.04.013

Jones D, ONeill T, 2004. Impatiens downy mildew (Factsheet 05/04 Impatiens Protected Crops). East Malling, UK: Horticultural Development Council.

Jørgensen, P. M., León-Yánez, S., 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador, 1182 pp.

Jørgensen, P. M., Nee, M. H., Beck, S. G., 2014. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia, St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.1741 pp.

Kirschner R, 2013. First record of Plasmopara obducens on Impatiens walleriana in Taiwan: a destructive disease of chance of limiting the competitive ability of an invasive plant? Plant Pathology and Quarantine, 3(1):35-39

Lane, C. R., Beales, P. A., O'Neill, T. M., McPherson, G. M., Finlay, A. R., David, J., Constantinescu, O., Henricot, B., 2005. First report of Impatiens downy mildew (Plasmopara obducens) in the UK. Plant Pathology, 54(2), 243. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=ppa doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01133.x

MacKee, H. S., 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.unpaginated.

Mandle, L., Warren, D. L., Hoffmann, M. H., Peterson, A. T., Schmitt, J., Wettberg, E. J. von, 2010. Conclusions about niche expansion in introduced Impatiens walleriana populations depend on method of analysis. PLoS ONE, (No.December), e15297. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0015297 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015297

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Oviedo Prieto, R., González-Oliva, L., 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 9(Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Queensland Government, 2018. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition , Australia: Queensland Government.http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/search.html

Rojas-Sandoval, J., Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., 2015. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biological Invasions, 17(1), 149-163. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3/fulltext.html doi: 10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3

Schneider, A. A., 2007. The naturalized flora of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: subspontaneous herbaceous plants. (Flora naturalizada no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: herbáceas subespontâneas). Biociências, 15(2), 257-268. http://revistaseletronicas.pucrs.br/ojs/index.php/fabio/article/viewFile/254/3005

Serra CA, Jorge PE, Abud-Antun AJ, Alvarez P, Perguero B, 2003. Invasive Alien Species in the Dominican Republic: Their Impact and Strategies to Manage Introduced Pests. [Caribbean Food Crops Society, 39th Annual Meeting, July 13-18, 2003], Grenada

Smith, A. C., 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Volume 3: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, families 117-163, Lawai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden.vi + 758 pp.

Stevens, P. F., 2019. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Tanner R, 2017. Information on measures and related costs in relation to species included on the Union list: Impatiens glandulifera. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN for the European Commission.

Thaman, R. R., Fosberg, F. R., Manner, H. I., Hassall, D. C., 1994. Atoll Research Bulletin, 392, 1-223. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00775630.392.1

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Wegulo, S. N., Koike, S. T., Vilchez, M., Santos, P., 2004. First report of downy mildew caused by Plasmopara obducens on impatiens in California. Plant Disease, 88(8), 909. http://www.apsnet.org doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.8.909B

Wu ShanHuah, Yang TYA, Teng YungChing, Chang ChihYuan, Yang KuohCheng, Hsieh ChangFu, 2010. Insights of the latest naturalized flora of Taiwan: change in the past eight years. Taiwania, 55(2):139-159

Wu, T. L., 2002. Check List of Hong Kong Plants, (Edn 7) , China: Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany.384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Wunderlin, R. P., Hansen, B. F., Franck, A. R., Essig, F. B., 2018. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. In: Atlas of Florida vascular plants . Tampa, USA: University of South Florida.http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Zenni, R. D., Ziller, S. R., 2011. An overview of invasive plants in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Botânica, 34(3), 431-446. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-84042011000300016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en doi: 10.1590/S0100-84042011000300016

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chacón E, Saborío G, 2003. (Lista De Especies De Plantas Introducidas En Costa Rica)., San Jose, Costa Rica: Asociación para la Conservación y el Estudio de la Biodiversidad (ACEBIO).

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation. unpaginated.

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Christenhusz MJM, 2009. Balsaminaceae 3(2) i-vii. In: Flora Mesoamericana, [ed. by Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F]. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

DAISIE, 2018. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Díaz-Espinosa AM, Díaz-Triana JE, Vargas O, 2012. (Catálogo de plantas invasoras de los humedales de Bogotá)., Bogotá, Colombia: Grupo de Restauración Ecológica de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia y Secretaría Distrital de Ambiente.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J Y, 2007. Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polinésie française (PAP).). In: Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polinésie française (PAP), http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf/Selection_Taxon_ref.php

Fonseca C R, Guadagnin D L, Emer C, Masciadri S, Germain P, Martin Zalba S, 2013. Invasive alien plants in the Pampas grasslands: a tri-national cooperation challenge. Biological Invasions. 15 (8), 1751-1763. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-013-0406-2 DOI:10.1007/s10530-013-0406-2

Forzza RC, Costa A, Walter BMT, Pirani JR, Morim MP, Queiroz LP, Martinelli G, Peixoto AL, Coelho MAN, Baumgratz JFA, Stehmann JR, Lohmann LG, 2015. Balsaminaceae. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB130841

Gallo AC, de la Torre WW, Alamo EC, Felipe MTJ, 1997. Ornamental Flora Introduced and Naturalized in Tenerife. [Proceeding 36º Symposium IAVS: Serie Informes Nº 40], Spain: Universidad de La Laguna.

GBIF, 2019. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In: Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean)., http://www.saintlucianplants.com

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. IUCN ISSG. http://www.griis.org/

Henderson L, 2013. South African Plant Invaders Atlas (SAPIA) Database., South Africa: http://www.agis.agric.za

Hokche O, Berry P E, Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela. Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela. 860 pp.

I3N-Brasil, 2018. I3N Brazil invasive alien species database. In: I3N Brazil invasive alien species database. Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: Horus Institute for Environmental Conservation and Development. http://bd.institutohorus.org.br/www/

Jørgensen P M, León-Yánez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. 1182 pp.

Jørgensen P M, Nee M H, Beck S G, 2014. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 1741 pp.

MacKee H S, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. unpaginated.

Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Queensland Government, 2018. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. In: Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Australia: Queensland Government. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/search.html

Rojas-Sandoval J, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2015. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biological Invasions. 17 (1), 149-163. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3

Schneider A A, 2007. The naturalized flora of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: subspontaneous herbaceous plants. (Flora naturalizada no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: herbáceas subespontâneas.). Biociências. 15 (2), 257-268. http://revistaseletronicas.pucrs.br/ojs/index.php/fabio/article/viewFile/254/3005

Serra CA, Jorge PE, Abud-Antun AJ, Alvarez P, Perguero B, 2003. Invasive Alien Species in the Dominican Republic: Their Impact and Strategies to Manage Introduced Pests. [Caribbean Food Crops Society, 39th Annual Meeting, July 13-18, 2003], Grenada:

Smith A C, 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Volume 3: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, families 117-163. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. vi + 758 pp.

Thaman R R, Fosberg F R, Manner H I, Hassall D C, 1994. Atoll Research Bulletin. 392, 1-223. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.00775630.392.1

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Wu ShanHuah, Yang T Y A, Teng YungChing, Chang ChihYuan, Yang KuohCheng, Hsieh ChangFu, 2010. Insights of the latest naturalized flora of Taiwan: change in the past eight years. Taiwania. 55 (2), 139-159. http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/taiwania

Wu T L, 2002. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. China: Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. 384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Wunderlin R P, Hansen B F, Franck A R, Essig F B, 2018. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. In: Atlas of Florida vascular plants. Tampa, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Zenni R D, Ziller S R, 2011. An overview of invasive plants in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Botânica. 34 (3), 431-446. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-84042011000300016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en DOI:10.1590/S0100-84042011000300016

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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15/02/2018 Original text by:

Dr. Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH

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