Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Impatiens parviflora
(small balsam)



Impatiens parviflora (small balsam)


  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Impatiens parviflora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • small balsam
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • I. parviflora is an exceptionally successful invader of many European countries. Its spread has been rapid, it is abundant in many parts of its exotic range and is one of few plants to successfully invade undis...

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I. parviflora (Small Balsam): invasive habit.
CaptionI. parviflora (Small Balsam): invasive habit.
CopyrightUwe Starfinger
I. parviflora (Small Balsam): invasive habit.
HabitI. parviflora (Small Balsam): invasive habit.Uwe Starfinger
Impatiens parviflora (Small Balsam): flower and unripe fruit detail. The seed capsule dehisces with considerable force and can throw the seeds up to 1 m.
TitleFlowers and fruits
CaptionImpatiens parviflora (Small Balsam): flower and unripe fruit detail. The seed capsule dehisces with considerable force and can throw the seeds up to 1 m.
CopyrightUwe Starfinger
Impatiens parviflora (Small Balsam): flower and unripe fruit detail. The seed capsule dehisces with considerable force and can throw the seeds up to 1 m.
Flowers and fruitsImpatiens parviflora (Small Balsam): flower and unripe fruit detail. The seed capsule dehisces with considerable force and can throw the seeds up to 1 m.Uwe Starfinger


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Impatiens parviflora DC.

Preferred Common Name

  • small balsam

Other Scientific Names

  • Impatiens nevskii Pobed.

International Common Names

  • English: small-flower touch-me-not
  • French: balsamine à petites fleurs

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: småblomstret balsamin
  • Finland: rikkapalsami
  • Germany: Kleines Springkraut
  • Netherlands: springzaad, klein
  • Norway: mongolspringfrø
  • Poland: niecierpek drobnokwiatowy

EPPO code

  • IPAPA (Impatiens parviflora)

Summary of Invasiveness

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I. parviflora is an exceptionally successful invader of many European countries. Its spread has been rapid, it is abundant in many parts of its exotic range and is one of few plants to successfully invade undisturbed forest vegetation. It is consequently regarded as undesirable by some, though there is little evidence of negative economic, social or environmental impacts. Further spread in central Europe is not likely as the species is already very abundant. In North America, on the other hand, it is still very localized. Even without clear evidence for impacts, a further spread there should not be encouraged by deliberate or careless transport of the species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Balsaminales
  •                         Family: Balsaminaceae
  •                             Genus: Impatiens
  •                                 Species: Impatiens parviflora

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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I. parviflora belongs to the family Balsaminaceae, order Ericales. Before the recent advances in molecular phylogenetics Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) was treated as a distinctly separate order, the Balsaminales (Dahlgren, 1989) and more traditionally as a member of the order Geraniales under Rosidae (Cronquist, 1988; Thorne, 2000). Anderberg et al. (2002) and Geuten et al. (2004) disputed such classifications which were based mainly on morphological characteristics. As a result of their molecular phylogenetic studies, the Balsaminaceae was reclassified as a family in the Ericales (an order of 26 families) sitting as a sister group to all other Ericales in the Balsaminoid Ericales. The Balsaminoid Ericales consist of the families Balsaminaceae, Marcgraviaceae, Pellicieraceae and Tetrameristaceae. Together this group comprises approximately 1130 species.


Top of page I. parviflora is a glabrous, erect annual herb, usually 20-60 cm tall, rarely reaching 150 cm. It is single stemmed or branched from the lower nodes, with third-order branches in well-developed plants. The leaves are simple, alternate, ovate, 5-12 cm long and 2.5-5 cm wide, sharply serrated at the edges with 20-35 teeth on each side. Petioles carry stalked glands which may serve as extrafloral nectaries. Flowers in axillary racemes of (1-) 4-10 (-15). Racemes as long as the upper leaves or longer. Flowers 10-15 mm long including their spur, upright (as opposed to hanging flowers in other Impatiens species). Flowers pale yellow with red spots on the inside. A variety with white flowers and yellow spots has been described. Petals 5, the anterior large and single, the others united in pairs. Capsule linear to club-shaped, 15-20 mm long, glabrous and green. Seeds 1-5 per capsule, oblong, 4-5 mm long with fine longitudinal striations. The root system is shallow, the primary root usually short-lived and replaced by laterals and adventitious roots from the lower node (Hegi, 1912; Coombe, 1956; Sebald et al., 1998).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Seed propagated


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The native range is the mountains of central Asia. According to Trepl (1984), many statements in the older floristic literature about the native range are imprecise or wrong and there is also some doubt about its occurrence in some areas. Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Mongolia have parts of the range, consisting of scattered areas with the species interspersed with areas without it (Trepl, 1984). USDA-ARS (2008) note a wider native range in central Asia, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan and Uzbekistan, also Xinjiang, China, and parts of Russia, west to Belarus. In areas with steppe or semi-desert vegetation, the species can only occur in more humid forest patches, e.g. in floodplains or on northern slopes. The invasive range covers most of central Europe, France and the UK, with scattered occurrences in Scandinavia, the Baltic states (Hulten and Fries, 1986) and in North America. It is recorded in Canada but not in the USA (USDA-NRCS, 2008), although some European flora note it as present in the USA.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanPresentNativeTrepl, 1984; USDA-ARS, 2008
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-XinjiangPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2008
KazakhstanPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2008
KyrgyzstanPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2008
MongoliaPresentNativeTrepl, 1984
TajikistanPresentNative Not invasive USDA-ARS, 2008
TurkmenistanPresentNativeTrepl, 1984
UzbekistanPresentNativeTrepl, 1984; USDA-ARS, 2008

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-New BrunswickPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2008
-Prince Edward IslandRestricted distributionIntroducedTrepl, 1984; Williamson, 1996; USDA-NRCS, 2008
-QuebecRestricted distributionIntroducedTrepl, 1984; Williamson, 1996; USDA-NRCS, 2008
USARestricted distributionIntroducedHulten and Fries, 1986; Sebald et al., 1998; USDA-NRCS, 2008


AustriaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Essl and Rabitsch, 2002
BelarusPresentIntroducedHulten and Fries, 1986; USDA-ARS, 2008
BelgiumPresentIntroduced1869Trepl, 1984; Hulten and Fries, 1986
CroatiaPresentCigic et al., 2003
Czech RepublicWidespreadIntroducedPysek et al., 2002
DenmarkWidespreadIntroduced Invasive EPPO, 2002
EstoniaPresentIntroducedEek, 2000
FinlandPresentIntroducedHulten and Fries, 1986
FranceWidespreadIntroduced1872Guinochet & de Vilmorin, 1975; Trepl, 1984
GermanyWidespreadIntroduced1837 Invasive Trepl, 1984; Rothmaler et al., 2002; Kowarik, 2003
HungaryPresentIntroducedSoo, 1966
LatviaPresentIntroducedHulten and Fries, 1986
LiechtensteinPresentIntroducedHulten and Fries, 1986
LithuaniaPresentIntroducedHulten and Fries, 1986
LuxembourgPresentIntroducedHulten and Fries, 1986
NetherlandsWidespreadIntroduced1885Trepl, 1984; Weeda et al., 1991
NorwayPresentIntroducedFremstad and Elven, 1997
PolandWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Hulten and Fries, 1986; Zajac and Zajac, 2001
RomaniaPresentIntroducedTrepl, 1984
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentIntroducedCzerenov, 1995; USDA-ARS, 2008
-Eastern SiberiaPresentIntroducedCzerenov, 1995
-Southern RussiaPresent Not invasive USDA-NRCS, 2008
-Western SiberiaPresentNativeCzerenov, 1995; USDA-ARS, 2008
SerbiaPresentIntroducedTrepl, 1984
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedBacigálová et al., 1998; Eliás, 2001
SloveniaWidespreadIntroducedTrepl, 1984
SpainPresentIntroduced Not invasive Dana et al., 2001
SwedenPresentIntroduced1870Hylander, 1971
SwitzerlandWidespreadIntroduced1830Trepl, 1984
UKWidespreadIntroducedClement and Foster, 1994
UkrainePresentIntroduced1868Trepl, 1984

History of Introduction and Spread

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The introduction and invasive spread of I. parviflora in central Europe have been analyzed in detail by Trepl (1984), with the motivation for the introduction identified as being botanical curiosity. The first record of the species in the wild in 1831 is from the botanical garden in Genf, Switzerland, but the actual date of first introduction to Europe is not known, likely to have been cultivated in 1830 or shortly before. The first record in Germany was in 1838 in Dresden, and in 1871 in Prague, Czech Republic. In the UK, it was first recorded in the wild in 1848 (Williamson, 1996). Most of the early records in the 1800s were related to botanical gardens or their close vicinity. The habitats invaded in the early phase of its spread were predominantly gardens, parks and other sites in settlements. From the late 1800s, it invaded forests and their edges, and whereas I. parviflora was mostly found in forests with strong human influence at the beginning, it proved capable of invading more or less undisturbed vegetation later in the 1900s (Trepl, 1984). At this time the invasive spread became much faster. As the autochorous dispersal mechanism only reaches distances of up to 3.4 m, the spread must have been aided by human transport of seeds. The maximum rate of spread in the UK was calculated as 24 km per year in 1915 (Williamson, 1996).

Risk of Introduction

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In most of central Europe, the species is virtually everywhere, so further spread is likely to be restricted to areas with less abundance, such as in France or western Russia. The seeds are easily transported with the bark of timber. However, further spread may possibly occur in North America, where the species is currently localized and rare.


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I. parviflora occurs mainly in forests and forest edges. It mainly invades forests that are under strong human influence, such as managed forests and timber plantations, as well as near-natural forest types. It is more often found in moist to wet forests from floodplains to beech forests. In addition, the species occurs in ruderal vegetation in settlements.

Habitat List

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Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page I. parviflora is not an agricultural weed, but is invasive mostly in natural and managed forests and as an environmental weed in general.

Biology and Ecology

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There is little genetic variation in the invasive populations. Chromosome numbers recorded are 2n=20, 2n=24 and 2n=26. No hybrids are known in Europe (Coombe, 1956).

Physiology and Phenology

I. parviflora plants in Europe usually germinate in March or April. The time from germination to flowering is 8-9 weeks with seeds ripening 3-4 weeks later (Coombe, 1956). Flowering usually begins in May or June and lasts until September or October, with the oldest recorded plants being 7 months old.

Reproductive Biology

Propagation is exclusively by seed. The flowers are protandrous with a male phase of 2-4 hours and a female phase of 1-2 days. Flowers are visited mainly by Syrphidae, of which 19 species were found on I. parviflora (Schmitz, 1998b). Even in periods of low insect visitation, all flowers usually set seed. The plant is self-compatible, geitonogamous and allogamous pollination results in no differences in seed-set. Cleistogamy has been reported but the majority of the flowers are chasmogamous. The number of seeds produced per plant varies considerably depending on soil conditions and crowding up to a maximum estimate of 10,000 seeds per plant (Coombe, 1956), although 1000-2000 is more common (Trepl, 1984). Seeds require low temperatures to break dormancy, but not frost as was earlier thought. The shortest stratification period resulting in germination is 13 days, with the germination rate increasing with the duration of the stratification. Seeds stored dry at room temperature remain viable for less than 3 years, stored wet they still germinated after 4 years (Coombe, 1956).

Environmental Requirements

I. parviflora is a temperate species preferring shade and half-shade, mostly found at 5-40% relative daylight. It occurs on a wide range of mineral soils, moderately to highly rich in minerals but not necessarily calcareous, with soil pH ranging from 4.5 to 7.6. Most soils are brown soils or rendzinas (Coombe, 1956). The seedlings cannot survive waterlogged conditions.


In central Europe, I. parviflora occurs in seven phytosociological classes and 20 alliances. These are mostly deciduous forests consisting of Quercus spp., Fraxinusexcelsior, Alnus incana, Acer pseudoplatanus, Tilia spp., Salix spp., etc. It also occurs in coniferous plantations under Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, etc. In forests, it can grow in situations not suitable for other herbaceous plants due to low light levels, heavy competition by tree roots, or thick litter layers. In nitrophilous forest edges and eutrophicated forests, it is associated with Geranium robertianum, Geum urbanum, Chaerophyllum temulum, Alliaria petiolata, etc. (Trepl, 1984; Schmitz, 1998b; Kowarik, 2003). In the UK, I. parviflora is most frequently associated with Acer pseudoplatanus, Fraxinus excelsior, Sambucus nigra, and the herbaceous plants Urtica dioica, Glechoma hederacea and Mercurialis perennis (Coombe, 1956). No mycorrhiza was found on I. parviflora. It is hardly browsed by mammals, deer in central Europe avoid the species (Schmitz, 1998b) and rabbits do not attack it (Coombe, 1956).


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Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -20 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 5 15
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 10 25
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -5 5


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration05number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall4002000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Slugs, snails and a total of 14 taxa of insects were found to feed on I. parviflora in Europe, including 9 polyphagous species, 4 oligophagous species formerly restricted to the native I. noli-tangere, and the oligophagous Impatientinum asiaticum imported from the native range of I. parviflora and limited to Impatiens species (Schmitz, 1998b). Slugs and the latter aphid were believed to have the greatest antagonistic effect on I. parviflora. Several phytopathogenic fungi are found on I. parviflora in central Europe, among them two species of Sphaeropsidales (Ascochyta impatientis, Phyllosticta impatientis), two Uredinales (Puccinia argentata, P. komarovii) and one Erysiphales (Shaerotheca balsaminae). P. komarovii is specific to I. parviflora, the other species is also found on I. noil-tangere (Schmitz, 1998b). P. komarovii is from the native range of I. parviflora and its westward spread has been observed since 1921 when it was first found in Ukraine, in Germany in 1935, Switzerland in 1938, Slovakia in 1942 and ever westward. Even though it is mostly of little apparent impact, it has repeatedly been observed to kill whole populations of I. parviflora (Eliás, 1995; Bacigálová et al., 1998).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

The seed are expelled by an explosive mechanism. The maximum distance recorded was 3.4 m (Trepl, 1984). Transport of floating seeds with water is possible but probably of limited importance, although the transport in river sediments with fast-moving water in winter floods may contribute to long-distance dispersal.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

No reports exist on endozoochorous dispersal, but epizoochorous dispersal in the fur of mammals and in dirt on their feet is an important mode of long-distance dispersal (Trepl, 1984). Singular observations of I. parviflora growing on trees show that birds transport seeds.

Agricultural practices

Seeds of I. parviflora can be transported accidentally in various ways. The dirt on vehicles used in forests may contain seeds, with 22 seeds per litre of soil trapped in the tyres and other parts of a vehicle found in one study (Trepl, 1984). Transport with timber is a likely cause for rapid spread in some areas and the frequent occurrence on railway sidings and beside tracks is attributed to seeds transported with timber on trains (Trepl, 1984).

Accidental Introduction

Seeds may be transported with different parts of plants. Early reports from the UK (Coombe, 1956) indicate the possible dispersal of seeds with buckwheat for pheasants, with soil or in roots of garden plants, with flower seeds, etc. (Trepl, 1984).

Intentional Introduction

Not only was the first introduction to Europe and to several countries intentional, but so too was the further spread in its early phase. Plants were brought to gardens out of botanical curiosity and also sown into near-natural vegetation with the aim to 'enrich' the flora (Trepl, 1984); however, this way of propagation is probably no longer of relevance.

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Bulk freight or cargoOn dirt on logs transported by trains Yes Trepl, 1984
Land vehiclesSeed in attached dirt; forestry vehicles Yes Trepl, 1984
Machinery and equipmentSeed in attached dirt on forestry equipment Yes Trepl, 1984
Soil, sand and gravel Yes Coombe, 1956
WaterSeed Yes Trepl, 1984

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark seeds
Growing medium accompanying plants seeds
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches seeds
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants

Impact Summary

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Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production None
Cultural/amenity Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna Positive
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Economic Impact

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I. parviflora is an alternative host for crop pests such as the aphid Aphis fabae (Schmitz, 1998a) or cucumber mosaic virus (Brcak, 1979) but no estimates are available regarding the economic consequences.

Environmental Impact

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The invasion of I. parviflora into forests can result in the addition of a herbaceous layer in the vegetation where this layer was formerly absent. This may affect tree regeneration and consequently alter the course of ecological succession. The environmental impact, however, has not been studied in detail.

Impact on Biodiversity

The biodiversity impact of I. parviflora varies with site conditions and vegetation affected. The species has obviously been able to fill empty niches in some forest communities, where prior to the invasion of I. parviflora, the forest floor was void of higher plants due to low light availability. In other cases, I. parviflora competes with other plants and can lead to a shift in dominance. As no competitive exclusion even from smaller areas was reported, the overall biodiversity impact of I. parviflora seems to be limited (Trepl, 1984). As a host for the Asian aphid Impatientinum asiaticum, I. parviflora supports a rich fauna of aphidophagous insects (Schmitz, 1998b). It is sometimes noted in the floristic literature that I. parviflora crowds out the native I. noli-tangere or other plant species, but only under conditions that are suboptimal for the native species, such as being too dry. Complete competitive displacement of native species by I. parviflora, however, has not been demonstrated (Schmitz, 1998b; Kowarik, 2003).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant


Top of page Few uses are reported in the literature. Apart from possibly botanical gardens, it is no longer used as a garden plant. One source reports the use of dried stems for human food in times of food scarcity (Düll and Kutzelnigg, 1988).

Uses List

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  • Botanical garden/zoo

Human food and beverage

  • Emergency (famine) food

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Other Impatiens species are somewhat similar but differ in conspicuous features from I. parviflora with its pale yellow flowers with spots. The European I. noli-tangere has hanging yellow flowers and the American I. capensis has hanging orange flowers. The much larger Asian I. glandulifera, widespread as an exotic in Europe, has pink to purple flowers, and the garden ornamental I. balsamina that occasionally escapes to waste ground in North America and in Europe has pubescent stems and capsules and usually single flowers.

Prevention and Control

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Experiences with the control of I. parviflora have not been published. There is no indication that this annual would withstand cutting or mowing. As most of the seeds germinate in the first spring, cutting and pulling of the plants in their flowering phase before seed-set may be an effective control measure (Coombe, 1956). However, it may be assumed that control methods successful with the related I. glandulifera may prove useful with I. parviflora.


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Anderberg AA; Rydin C; Källersjö M, 2002. Phylogenetic relationships in the order Ericales s.l.: analyses of molecular data from five genes from the plastid and mitochondrial genomes. American Journal of Botany, 89(4):677-687.

Bacigalova K; Elias P; Srobarova A, 1998. Puccinia komarovii - a rust fungus on Impatiens parviflora in Slovakia. Biologia (Bratislava), 53(1):7-13; 14 ref.

Brcak J, 1979. Isolates of cucumber mosaic virus from spontaneously infected plants of Chelidonium majus and Impatiens parviflora. Biologia Plantarum, 21(3):220-223

Cigic P; Nikolic T; Plazibat M; Hr?ak V; Jelaska SD, 2003. The distribution of the genus Impatiens L. (Balsaminaceae) in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia. Natura Croatica, 12(1):19-29.

Clement EJ; Foster MC, 1994. Alien plants of the British Isles: a provisional catalogue of vascular plants (excluding grasses). Oundle, UK; Botanical Society of the British Isles, 590 pp.

Coombe DE, 1956. Biological Flora of the British Isles, Impatiens parviflora DC. Journal of Ecology, 44:701-713.

Cronquist A, 1988. An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Gardens.

Czerenov SK, 1995. Vascular Plants of Russia and adjacent States (the former USSR). Cambridge, New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.

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Dana E; Cerrillo MI; Sanz Elorza M; Sobrino E; Mota JF, 2001. Contribution to the knowledge about xenophytes in Spain: provisional check-list of alien flora in Almeria. Acta Botanica Malacitana, 26:264-276; 38 ref.

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Eek L, 2000. National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Tallinn, Estonia: Ministry of the Environment.

Eliás P, 1995. Stem fungi disease (Puccinia komarovii) on Impatiens parviflora in Slovakia: effects on population dynamics and its role in regulation of plant populations. Carinthia II, 53:14-16.

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Fremstad E; Elven R, 1997. Alien plants in Norway and dynamics in the flora: a review. Norsk geogr. Tidsskr. 51:199-218.

Geuten K; Smets E; Schols P; Yuan Y-M; Janssens S; Küpfer P; Pyck N, 2004. Conflicting phylogenies of Balsaminoid families and the polytomy in Ericales: combining data in a Bayesian framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 31:711-729.

Guinochet M; de Vilmorin R, 1975. Flore de France. Paris, France: Centre National De La Recerche Scientifique.

Hegi G, 1912. Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa. Munich, Germany.

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Hylander N, 1971. Prima loca plantarum vascularium Sueciae. Första litteraturuppgift för Sveriges vildväxande kärlväxter jämte uppgifter om första svenska fynd. Förvildade eller i senare tid inkomna växter. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 64:1-332.

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Pysek P; Sádlo J; Mandák B, 2002. Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic. Preslia, 74(2):97-186.

Rothmaler W; Jäger EJ; Werner K, 2002. Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, 9. Aufl. edn. Spektrum Akad. Verlag, Heidelberg.

Schmitz G, 1998. Alien plant-herbivore systems and their importance for predatory and parasitic arthropods: the example of Impatiens parviflora DC. (Balsaminaceae) and Impatientinum asiaticum Nevsky (Hom: Aphididae). In: Starfinger U, Edwards K, Kowarik I, Williamson M, eds. Plant Invasions: Ecological Mechanisms and Human Responses. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys, 335-345.

Schmitz G, 1998. Impatiens parviflora D.C. (Balsaminaceae) as a neophyte in Central European forests and woodland-a biozonal analysis. Zeitschrift für Ökologie und Naturschutz, 7(4):193-206; 2 pp. of ref.

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Rob Tanner, CAB Europe - UK, Bakeham Lane, Egham, Surrey TW20 9TY, UK

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