Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Imperata cylindrica
(cogon grass)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Imperata cylindrica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cogon grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • I. cylindrica is a serious weed not only in crops but also in natural areas, causing serious economic and environmental damage. The ability of I. cylindrica to effectively compete for water an...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A perennial grass of variable height. Inflorescence a white, spike-like panicle.
TitleLeaves and inflorescence - colour illustration
CaptionA perennial grass of variable height. Inflorescence a white, spike-like panicle.
CopyrightNOVARTIS
A perennial grass of variable height. Inflorescence a white, spike-like panicle.
Leaves and inflorescence - colour illustrationA perennial grass of variable height. Inflorescence a white, spike-like panicle.NOVARTIS
Inflorescence terminal, fluffy, 5-20 cm long and up to 2.5 cm in diameter.
TitleInflorescence - line drawing
CaptionInflorescence terminal, fluffy, 5-20 cm long and up to 2.5 cm in diameter.
CopyrightNOVARTIS
Inflorescence terminal, fluffy, 5-20 cm long and up to 2.5 cm in diameter.
Inflorescence - line drawingInflorescence terminal, fluffy, 5-20 cm long and up to 2.5 cm in diameter.NOVARTIS
Spikelets numerous, 3.5-5.0 mm long, each surrounded by a basal ring of silky hairs 10 mm long.
TitleSpikelet - line drawing
CaptionSpikelets numerous, 3.5-5.0 mm long, each surrounded by a basal ring of silky hairs 10 mm long.
CopyrightNOVARTIS
Spikelets numerous, 3.5-5.0 mm long, each surrounded by a basal ring of silky hairs 10 mm long.
Spikelet - line drawingSpikelets numerous, 3.5-5.0 mm long, each surrounded by a basal ring of silky hairs 10 mm long.NOVARTIS
Leaves stiff, linear-lanceolate, up to 120 cm long and 4-18 mm wide, with a prominent white midrib. Ligule an inconspicuous membrane.
TitleLeaf and ligule - line drawing
CaptionLeaves stiff, linear-lanceolate, up to 120 cm long and 4-18 mm wide, with a prominent white midrib. Ligule an inconspicuous membrane.
CopyrightNOVARTIS
Leaves stiff, linear-lanceolate, up to 120 cm long and 4-18 mm wide, with a prominent white midrib. Ligule an inconspicuous membrane.
Leaf and ligule - line drawingLeaves stiff, linear-lanceolate, up to 120 cm long and 4-18 mm wide, with a prominent white midrib. Ligule an inconspicuous membrane.NOVARTIS
Roots fibrous, emerging from the base of the culm and the nodes on the rhizome.
TitleRoots - colour illustration
CaptionRoots fibrous, emerging from the base of the culm and the nodes on the rhizome.
CopyrightNOVARTIS
Roots fibrous, emerging from the base of the culm and the nodes on the rhizome.
Roots - colour illustrationRoots fibrous, emerging from the base of the culm and the nodes on the rhizome.NOVARTIS
I. cylindrica shoots held at soil level to show variable depth of origin.
TitleExposed shoots
CaptionI. cylindrica shoots held at soil level to show variable depth of origin.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
I. cylindrica shoots held at soil level to show variable depth of origin.
Exposed shootsI. cylindrica shoots held at soil level to show variable depth of origin.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
I. cylindrica rhizomes exposed at 20 cm depth, Nigeria.
TitleExposed rhizomes
CaptionI. cylindrica rhizomes exposed at 20 cm depth, Nigeria.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
I. cylindrica rhizomes exposed at 20 cm depth, Nigeria.
Exposed rhizomesI. cylindrica rhizomes exposed at 20 cm depth, Nigeria.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
a, Ligule, ventral view; b, spikelet; c, caryopsis, two views.
TitleWhole plant - line drawing
Captiona, Ligule, ventral view; b, spikelet; c, caryopsis, two views.
CopyrightSEAMEO-BIOTROP
a, Ligule, ventral view; b, spikelet; c, caryopsis, two views.
Whole plant - line drawinga, Ligule, ventral view; b, spikelet; c, caryopsis, two views.SEAMEO-BIOTROP

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Imperata cylindrica (Linnaeus) Raeuschel (1797)

Preferred Common Name

  • cogon grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Calamagrostis lagurus Koel. (1802)
  • Imperata allang Jungh. (1840)
  • Imperata angolensis Fritsch (1901)
  • Imperata arundinacea Cyr. (1792)
  • Imperata arundinacea var. africana Andersson (1855)
  • Imperata arundinacea var. europea Andersson (1855)
  • Imperata arundinacea var. genuine Hack (1889)
  • Imperata arundinacea var. glabrescens Büse (1854)
  • Imperata arundinacea var. indica Andersson (1855)
  • Imperata arundinacea var. koenigii (Retz.) Benth. (1861)
  • Imperata arundinacea var. latifolia Hook. F (1896)
  • Imperata arundinacea var. pedicellata (Steud.) Debeaux (1878)
  • Imperata arundinacea var. thunbergi (Retz.) Stapf (1898)
  • Imperata cylindrica forma pallida Honda (1930)
  • Imperata dinteri Pilg. (1912)
  • Imperata koenigii (Retz.) P. Beauv. (1812)
  • Imperata koenigii var. major (Retz.) P. Beauv. (1841)
  • Imperata pedicellata Steud. (1846)
  • Imperata sieberi Opiz (1825)
  • Imperata thunbergii (Retz.) Roem & Schult. (1817)
  • Lagurus cylindricus L. (1759)
  • Saccarum europaeum Pers. (1805)
  • Saccarum sisca Cav. (1795)
  • Saccharum cylindricum (L.) Lam. (1785)
  • Saccharum koenigii Retz.
  • Saccharum laguroides Pourr.
  • Saccharum thunbergii Retz. (1789)

International Common Names

  • English: bedding grass; blady grass; imperata; Japanese blood grass; satintail; silver spike; spear grass; sword grass; thatch grass
  • Spanish: carrizo; cisca; cogón; marciega
  • French: impérate; paille de dys; paillotte
  • Arabic: halfa
  • Chinese: manu-kan tso; mao-kan tso; mao-tsao

Local Common Names

  • Australia: bladygrass
  • Cambodia: sbauv
  • Cameroon: baya; ndongo limba; sosongo
  • Congo: binkba; moto-moto; nianga
  • Congo Democratic Republic: nianga
  • Côte d'Ivoire: nse
  • Cyprus: xiphara
  • Egypt: beni el sham; deil el qott; halfa; hishka; sill
  • Fiji: gi; ngi
  • Germany: Silberhaargras
  • India: chero; dabh; dharba; dhub; modewa gaddi; ooloo; siru; tharpai pullu
  • Indonesia: alang-alang; eurih
  • Iran: santintail
  • Iraq: cylindrical ha
  • Italy: falasco bianco
  • Japan: chi; chigaya; tsubana
  • Kenya: nyeki
  • Laos: yakha
  • Madagascar: manevika; tena
  • Malaysia: alang-alang; lalang
  • Mauritius: lalang
  • Myanmar: kyet-mei; thetke
  • New Zealand: imperata
  • Nigeria: ata; ekan; gasa kigere; ias; soyo; tibin; tofa; zarenshi
  • Palau: kasoring
  • Papua New Guinea: auturra; kawva; kunai grass; kuru-kuru
  • Philippines: buchid; bulum; gaon; ilib; kogon; parang
  • South Africa: mohlorumo; um tente
  • Sri Lanka: darbai-pul; iluk; inanka-pilu
  • Sudan: doiya; mayani
  • Syria: halfa; meshian; sill; sulel
  • Taiwan: bái-máu
  • Tanzania: chiambi; moto-moto; sanu
  • Thailand: yah-ka
  • Tunisia: dis
  • Vietnam: cb tranh; cò tranh; cogranh
  • West Africa: dole; gombi; hada; nounour; soyo
  • Zimbabwe: ibamba; luwamba; silenge; silverspike

EPPO code

  • IMPCY (Imperata cylindrica)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

I. cylindrica is a serious weed not only in crops but also in natural areas, causing serious economic and environmental damage. The ability of I. cylindrica to effectively compete for water and nutrients, spread and persist through the production of seeds and rhizomes that can survive a wide range of environmental conditions, and its allelopathic effects and pyrogenic nature, allow it to exclude native plant species and other desirable plants and dominate large areas of land.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Imperata
  •                                 Species: Imperata cylindrica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The genus Imperata Cyr. contains eight species which are found throughout the tropics, extending to warm temperate regions. Hackel (1889) divides the genus into two sections on the basis of the number of stamens in the flower: Imperatella has two stamens and contains a single species, I. cylindrica; Eriopogon has one stamen and contains the other seven species, namely I. converta, I. brasiliensis, I. brevifolia, I. minutiflora, I. tenuis, I. cheesemani and I. contracta (Eussen, 1980). Whilst I. cylindrica is an Old World species, with the exception of occurrences in Chile, Colombia and USA, I. brasiliensis Trin. and I. contracta (Kunth) Hitchc. are weeds of the New World, particularly Latin America.

Hubbard et al. (1944) recognize five varieties of I. cylindrica: var. major (Nees) C.E. Hubbard is found in tropical Asia; var. africana (Anderss.) C.E. Hubbard is from Africa; var. europaea (Anderss.) Aschers & Graebn. occurs mainly in the Mediterranean region; var. condensata (Steud.) Hack. ex Stuckert is a native of the coastal region of Chile and possibly Argentina; and var. latifolia (Hook. f.) C.E. Hubbard is found in India. Clayton and Renvoize (1982) claim that only three varieties are commonly recognized, var. africana, var. major and var. cylindrica, and the others are recorded as synonyms.

Description

Top of page

I. cylindrica is a perennial grass which varies in height (30-150 cm). The culms (above-ground stems) are short, erect and arise from rhizomes (underground stems). The rhizomes are tough, white, commonly 1 m long but can be considerably more, are extensively branched and covered with papery scale leaves at the nodes. Roots are fibrous, emerging from the base of the culm and the nodes on the rhizome. Leaves are stiff, linear-lanceolate, up to 120 cm long and 4-18 mm wide, with a prominent, off-centre, whitish midrib, scabrid margin and pointed tip. The ligule is an inconspicuous membrane. The inflorescence is a white, spike-like panicle, terminal, fluffy, 5-20 cm long and up to 2.5 cm in diameter. Spikelets are numerous, 3.5-5.0 mm long, each surrounded by a basal ring of silky hairs 10 mm long. The grain is oblong, pointed, brown and 1-1.5 mm long.

Plant Type

Top of page Grass / sedge
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

Top of page

I. cylindrica is ubiquitous in the humid tropics of west Africa and Asia. Weber (2003) suggests it is native only in southern Europe and Africa, but other sources indicate both East Africa and South-East Asia as sources, the latter assumed to be more correct. It is virtually certain that the weed can be found in all countries within these regions. It is widespread in southern China, but Wu et al. (2006) note that attempts to cultivate the weed deliberately as an ornamental in Beijing failed because of its susceptibility to the cold winter conditions.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
BahrainPresentNativeChaudhary et al., 1981
BangladeshRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1979; Garrity et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
BhutanPresentNoltie, 2000
Brunei DarussalamPresentNativeWaterhouse, 1993; McDonald and Chandler, 1994
CambodiaRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993; McDonald and Chandler, 1994; Garrity et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
ChinaRestricted distributionNativeZhirong, 1990; McDonald and Chandler, 1994; Garrity et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-FujianPresentNative
-GuangdongPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-GuangxiPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-GuizhouPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-HainanPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-HebeiPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-HeilongjiangPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-HenanPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-Hong KongPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-HubeiPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-HunanPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-JiangsuPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-JiangxiPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-LiaoningPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-MacauPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-Nei MengguPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-ShaanxiPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-ShandongPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-ShanxiPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-SichuanPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-TibetPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-XinjiangPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-YunnanPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
-ZhejiangPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentSwarbrick and Hart, 2001
IndiaWidespreadNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNair and Kumar, 2006
-Arunachal PradeshPresentNativeShukla, 1996
-AssamWidespreadNativeShukla, 1996; Vissoh et al., 2008
-BiharPresentNativeBor, 1979
-Himachal PradeshPresentNativeBimal and Sindhu, 2004
-KarnatakaPresentNativeShukla, 1996
-Madhya PradeshPresentNativeShukla, 1996
-MaharashtraPresentNativeBor, 1979
-ManipurPresentNativeShukla, 1996
-MeghalayaPresentNativeShukla, 1996
-MizoramPresentNativeShukla, 1996
-SikkimPresentNativeNoltie, 2000
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeShukla, 1996
-TripuraPresentNativeShukla, 1996
-Uttar PradeshPresentNativeShukla, 1996
-West BengalPresentNativeShukla, 1996
IndonesiaWidespreadNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993; McDonald and Chandler, 1994; Garrity et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
-Irian JayaWidespreadNativeKostermans et al., 1987
-JavaWidespreadNativeKostermans et al., 1987
-KalimantanWidespreadNativeKostermans et al., 1987
-MoluccasWidespreadNativeKostermans et al., 1987
-Nusa TenggaraWidespreadNative Invasive Kostermans et al., 1987
-SulawesiWidespreadNative Invasive Kostermans et al., 1987
-SumatraWidespreadNative Invasive Kostermans et al., 1987
IranRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
IraqRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
IsraelRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
JapanRestricted distributionNativeMcDonald and Chandler, 1994; PIER, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentNativeNumata et al., 1975
-KyushuPresentNativeNumata et al., 1975
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentNumata et al., 1975
-ShikokuPresentNativeNumata et al., 1975
JordanRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
Korea, DPRRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979
KyrgyzstanPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
LaosPresentNativeMoody, 1989; McDonald and Chandler, 1994; Garrity et al., 1996
MalaysiaWidespreadNativeGilliland, 1971; Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993; McDonald and Chandler, 1994; Garrity et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNativeItoh, 1991
-SarawakPresentItoh, 1991
MyanmarPresentNativeWaterhouse, 1993; McDonald and Chandler, 1994; Garrity et al., 1996
NepalRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
OmanPresentNativeChaudhary et al., 1981
PakistanRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993; McDonald and Chandler, 1994; Garrity et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentChaudhary and Akram, 1987
SingaporePresentNativeGilliland, 1971; Waterhouse, 1993
Sri LankaWidespreadNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanWidespread Invasive Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
ThailandWidespreadNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993; McDonald and Chandler, 1994; Garrity et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentNative
TurkmenistanPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
UzbekistanPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2008
VietnamPresentNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; Waterhouse, 1993; McDonald and Chandler, 1994; Garrity et al., 1996

Africa

BeninWidespreadNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979
BotswanaPresentWells et al., 1986; Bonyongo et al., 2000
Burkina FasoRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
CameroonPresentNativeHutchinson et al., 1972
Congo Democratic RepublicRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
Côte d'IvoireRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
EgyptRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1979; Atalla, 1999; EPPO, 2014
GambiaPresentNativeHutchinson et al., 1972
GhanaWidespreadNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
GuineaRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
KenyaRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
LesothoPresentNativeWells et al., 1986
LiberiaRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
MadagascarRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
MaliRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
MauritiusRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
MozambiqueRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
NamibiaPresentNativeWells et al., 1986
NigerPresentNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979
NigeriaRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
SenegalRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedScholz et al., 2006Fuerteventura
SwazilandPresentNativeWells et al., 1986
TanzaniaRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
TogoPresentNativeHutchinson et al., 1972
UgandaRestricted distributionNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresentNativeWells et al., 1986

North America

USAWidespreadIntroduced1911; 1921 Invasive Tabor, 1952; Dickens, 1974; Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
-AlabamaWidespreadIntroducedTabor, 1949; Tabor, 1952; Dickens, 1974; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-FloridaWidespreadIntroducedLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Langeland and Burks, 1998
-GeorgiaRestricted distributionIntroducedLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Byrd and Bryson, 1999
-HawaiiPresentEPPO, 2014
-LouisianaRestricted distributionIntroducedLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Allen et al., 1991; Bryson and Carter, 1993
-MississippiWidespreadIntroducedPatterson and McWhorter, 1983; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-OregonAbsent, formerly presentIntroducedHitchcock, 1971
-South CarolinaRestricted distributionIntroducedAllen et al., 1991; Bryson and Carter, 1993; Nelson, 1993
-TexasRestricted distributionIntroducedUSGS, 1999
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedByrd and Bryson, 1999

Central America and Caribbean

Puerto RicoRestricted distributionHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
United States Virgin IslandsRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014

South America

ChilePresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2008
ColombiaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2008

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2008
BulgariaPresentNative
FranceRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
-CorsicaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2008
GermanyPresent
GreecePresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CretePresentNative
ItalyPresentNative
-SardiniaPresentNative
-SicilyPresentNative
PortugalPresentNative
SpainRestricted distributionNativeHolm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
-Balearic IslandsPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2008
Yugoslavia (former)PresentNative

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2008
AustraliaWidespreadNative Invasive Holm et al., 1979; PIER, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentHolm et al., 1977
-QueenslandPresentHolm et al., 1977
FijiWidespread Invasive Holm et al., 1979; PIER, 2008; EPPO, 2014
GuamPresentFosberg et al., 1987
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresent Invasive Space and Falanruw, 1999; PIER, 2008
New CaledoniaPresentPIER, 2008
New ZealandRestricted distributionIntroduced1911 Invasive PIER, 2003a; Holm et al., 1979; EPPO, 2014
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Fosberg et al., 1987; PIER, 2008Rota, Saipan, Tinian
PalauPresentSpace et al., 2003; PIER, 2008
Papua New GuineaRestricted distributionNativeHenty and Pritchard, 1975; PIER, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SamoaPresentSauerborn and Sauerborn, 1984; PIER, 2008
Solomon IslandsPresentNativePIER, 2008Guadalcanal
TongaPresentPIER, 2008Kao, ‘Eua
VanuatuPresentPIER, 2008Aneityum

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

The accidental introduction of I. cylindrica into the south-eastern USA occurred in Mobile County, Alabama, in 1911 through a shipment of oranges from Japan (Tabor, 1952). I. cylindrica was then intentionally introduced from the Philippines into Florida and Mississippi between 1921 and the 1940s for forage and erosion control purposes (Tabor, 1949; Dickens and Buchanan, 1971; Dickens, 1974). I. cylindrica was reportedly introduced into Oregon through ballast in 1971 but there are no recent accounts of its establishment in the north-west USA. According to Dickens and Buchanan (1971), the eradication of I. cylindrica in the south-eastern USA was recommended as early as 1948. Collins et al. (2007) concluded that I. cylindrica was able to invade habitats in Southern USA regardless of the diversity of the flora, hence not obeying Elton’s Hypothesis which proposes that diversity reduces invasibility.

I. cylindrica was introduced into New Zealand in 1911 and is listed as one of the potential problem weeds in New Zealand as of 1996 (PIER, 2008). According to PIER (2008), I. cylindrica is also an invasive species in Micronesia and has been recommended for eradication.

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
New Zealand 1911 No No
USA Japan 1911 Food (pathway cause) Yes No Tabor (1952) With oranges

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

I. cylindrica is on the Federal Noxious Weed List of the US Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ). It is included in the 1993 Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (EPPC) List of Most Invasive Plant Species and is considered as a noxious weed designated for eradication or control in Hawaii and a noxious weed in North Carolina. It scored very highly in a pest risk analysis for the Pacific, and I. cylindrica is an invasive species in Micronesia where it has been recommended for eradication (PIER, 2008).

It remains a consistent seed contaminant. For example, over a one year period (2005-06) in the Port of Puget Sound, Washington, USA, 44 (5.5%) of 799 botanical interceptions processed were Federal noxious weeds of which  the most frequently intercepted seeds were I. cylindrica (Smither-Kopperl, 2007).

Habitat

Top of page

The habitats of I. cylindrica vary from dry sand dunes of shores and deserts to swamps and river margins. This weed is found at altitudes from sea level to 2700 m and rainfalls of 500-5000 mm/year (Holm et al., 1977). It occupies a wide range of habitats including grassland, cultivated annual crops, plantations, abandoned farm land, road and railway embankments, reclaimed mined areas, pine and hardwood forests, recreational areas and deforested areas. It is commonly associated with slash-and-burn agriculture in West Africa and South-East Asia. I. cylindrica grasslands are widely believed to indicate poor soil fertility but Imperata occurs on a broad range of soil types and is not confined to the poorest soils (Santoso et al., 1996).

In Benin, Cameroon, Ghana and Nigeria, I. cylindrica is most frequently found in transition forest, mountain forest and wet savannah, and is least common in the rain forest and dry savannah (Chikoye et al., 1999). In Taiwan, I. cylindrica occurs in various habitats including estuary mangrove forests (highly saline), coastal saline areas (beaches), inland areas with a drought season in the winter or with drought conditions during most seasons, and sites with mild weather (Cheng and Chou, 1997). I. cylindrica is widely distributed in the warmer regions of the USA (south-eastern states) and is found in pastures, golf courses, roads, railways, mine reclamation areas, forests, pine plantations and natural areas (Bryson and Carter, 1993; Dozier et al., 1998; Willard et al., 1990). In Australia, I. cylindrica is commonly found in riparian zones (Wetland Care Australia, 2003). I. cylindrica also occurs on bars in the Monobe River in Shikoku, Japan (Ishikawa and Nishiyama, 1998). It has also been found in the seasonal floodplains located in the Nxaraga Lagoon area of Okavango Delta in Botswana (Bonyongo et al., 2000).

 

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Inland saline areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details
Wetlands Present, no further details
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Natural
Mangroves Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Mangroves Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

I. cylindrica is a weed of 35 crops worldwide (Holm et al., 1977) and 21 crops in West Africa (Chikoye et al., 2000). Some examples are cited in the list of hosts but most crops of the high rainfall tropics are likely to be affected by this weed.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

Chromosome numbers vary according to the variety of I. cylindrica: 2n = 20 for var. major, 2n = 40 for var. europa and 2n = 60 for var. africana (Santiago, 1980). Genetic variation has also been observed to occur within I. cylindrica. In a study by Cheng and Chou (1997) based on six populations of I. cylindrica collected from various habitats around Taiwan, a high level of genetic heterogeneity was found among populations of I. cylindrica. Genetic differences among the populations were correlated with morphological features. Among the populations studied, only those collected from mangrove areas possessed a hollow structure in the midrib of the leaf and villous trichomes on the abaxial leaf surface, features that are considered to be adaptive mechanisms to saline environments. Chou and Tsai (1999) also found that there is variation in IGS (intergenic spacer) length and sequence of rDNA among intra- and inter-specific populations of I. cylindrica based on PCR-amplified RFLP.

I. cylindrica is also known to hybridize with other species, with Gabel (1982) providing evidence of hybridization between I. cylindrica and I. brasiliensis. Intergeneric hybrids have been obtained with Saccharum (Watson and Dallwitz, 1992).

Reproductive Biology

I. cylindrica is a prolific producer of seeds which are dispersed by wind over long distances to colonize cleared or previously un-infested land. It can produce as many as 3000 seeds per plant (Holm et al., 1977), and 95% of I. cylindrica seeds can germinate within one week of being harvested but can also retain viability for at least one year (Santiago, 1965). I. cylindrica is not capable of self-pollination (Gabel, 1982) and produces viable seeds only through cross-pollination (McDonald et al., 1996). Flowering is variable between individual plants and can occur in response to stress from slashing, grazing, burning, mowing, or the addition of nitrogen (Holm et al., 1977; Willard, 1988).

Physiology and Phenology

Suspected allelopathic properties (Eussen et al., 1976) and a vigorous growth habit have made I. cylindrica one of the most competitive weeds. The aggressive and invasive nature of I. cylindrica is largely attributed to its extensive rhizome system which is concentrated in the upper 20 cm of soil. The lateral buds can remain dormant for long periods and give I. cylindrica its perennating habit. The bud from a single rhizome node can give rise to 350 shoots in 6 weeks, which can cover up to 4 m² in 11 weeks (Eussen, 1980). Other reports of I. cylindrica's productivity are that 2.73 m of rhizome can be produced in 109 days (Wilcutt et al., 1983) and that a 15 cm length of rhizome can produce 181 shoots per m² in 6.5 months (Lee, 1977).

The regenerative capacity of I. cylindrica rhizomes is affected by their age (Ayeni and Duke, 1985); older rhizomes regenerate better than those that are young and contain relatively few nutrients. There is a greater chance of sprouting in larger or longer rhizomes because of their higher nutrient status (Soerjani and Soemarwoto, 1969; Ivens, 1975). Mature buds closest to the apex are the first to sprout when the rhizome is fragmented from the parent plant. Rhizomes which develop during the rainy season do not regenerate as well as those formed in the dry season. Bud germination of rhizomes is favoured by exposure to light (Soerjani, 1970). Rhizome regeneration increases when oxygen is introduced into the rhizosphere (Wilcutt et al., 1983) but decreases with increased depth of burial (Ivens, 1980).

There is marked seasonal variation in the growth of I. cylindrica. During the dry season, the number of living shoots and the emergence of new shoots are relatively low compared with in the wet season. Any production of new shoots is balanced by the death of older shoots. Low shoot emergence is associated with low rainfall and soil moisture. During the dry season, the mass of dead shoots can exceed that of live shoots. It appears that I. cylindrica sacrifices its shoots in order to maintain healthy, nutrient-rich rhizomes.

I. cylindrica assimilates carbon dioxide by the C4 photosynthetic pathway (Paul and Elmore, 1984) giving it a competitive advantage over C3 plants (such as rice) in tropical conditions. However, in common with many C4 plants, I. cylindrica is relatively intolerant of shade. Light is inevitably important in the growth of I. cylindrica although contradictory results exist on the production of shoots versus rhizomes under a range of light intensities. In one investigation (Eussen, 1981) it was shown that after 6 months’ growth, I. cylindrica had more rhizomes than shoots at all light intensities (20-100% intensity) but, in another (Soerjani, 1970), I. cylindrica tended to have more shoots (11.5 t/ha) than rhizomes (7.0 t/ha). However, there is evidence that I. cylindrica produces more shoots than rhizomes under low light conditions.

I. cylindrica is capable of capturing material flowing from higher areas in the landscape through erosion, hence, it is possible that it can cause the build-up of vesicular arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal inoculum. The spore density and species richness of VA fungi is found to be high in Imperata grasslands, except at the most degraded sites (Hairiah et al., 2003).

Associations

There is extensive occurrence of endomycorrhizas on I. cylindrica collected from around Indonesia (Tjitrosemito et al., 1994). The existence of a mycorrhizal relationship is usually associated with the host plant being able to utilize available phosphorus. This gives I. cylindrica an advantage over plants without mycorrhizas in situations where phosphate is limiting.

In Nepal, grasslands dominated by I. cylindrica support a number of vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered species such as swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli) (Ghimire, 1996), hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus), pygmy hog (Sus salvanis) (Oliver, 1985) and Bengal florican (Eupodotis bengalensis) (Inskipp and Inskipp, 1983). I. cylindrica grasslands also support a dense population of chital (Axis axis) in Nepal. I. cylindrica constitutes the major portion of the diet of hog deer (Axis porcinus) which live in protected areas of sub-Himalayan West Bengal (Bhowmik et al., 1999).

Environmental Requirements

This weed is found at altitudes from sea level to 2700 m and rainfalls of 500-5000 mm/year (Holm et al., 1977).

Fire-based cultivation methods (slash and burn) have been known to transform forest areas to grasslands dominated by I. cylindrica. Aside from this practice, soil degradation resulting from cropping systems that do not supply enough organic inputs in the soil or provide a permanent cover on the soil (i.e. pastures that are routinely mowed, etc.) also allow for colonization by I. cylindrica (Hairiah et al., 2003). I. cylindrica can dominate vast tracts of degraded land because of its ability to survive under conditions of low soil fertility. It is also able to thrive in different types of soil and can tolerate a wide range of soil pH conditions. Once established, it will continue to persist even when there is environmental stress such as drought, flooding or fire. Seedhead formation is induced by slashing, mowing, grazing, burning and the application of fertilizers (Colvin et al., 1993). Burning also stimulates vegetative growth. Under conditions of high light intensity, high temperatures and limited moisture, the C4 pathway of I. cylindrica allows it to photosynthesize more efficiently and gives it a competitive edge over C3 species.

Due to its requirement for sunlight, I. cylindrica survives poorly in closed-canopy forest or plantations where shading occurs. According to Moosavi-nia and Dore (1979), increasing shade levels of >50% reduces shoot dry weight and both rhizome length and dry weight, causing an increase in the shoot/rhizome ratio. The ability of rhizomes to resprout after the above ground biomass has been removed reportedly declined when the mowed stand was subjected to 88% shade for more than 2 months (Hairiah et al., 2003). The light compensation point of I. cylindrica is 32 µmol/m²/s or 2% of ambient sunlight, and biomass reduction was observed when ambient light was 1% or 15 µmol/m²/s (Gaffney, 1996).

I. cylindrica grows poorly in heavily cultivated lands where it is kept in check mechanically (Van Loan et al., 2002). It is also sensitive to excessive soil moisture during early seedling development, hence, excessive moisture could restrict invasion of I. cylindrica by seed. However, once established, the tolerance of I. cylindrica to flooding increases (King and Grace, 2000). The spread of I. cylindrica in the USA has been limited to south-eastern parts and this is attributed to temperature. I. cylindrica survived the 1984 winter season in Alabama, USA, where the coldest air temperature recorded was -14°C; however, it did not survive the -28.9°C winter temperature in Texas in 1984 (Wilcut et al., 1988). Cold temperatures may be a limiting factor to the spread of I. cylindrica beyond the south-eastern regions of the USA. However, a red-tipped ornamental cultivar of I. cylindrica, also known as Rubra, Japanese Bloodgrass or Red Baron, is very cold tolerant and has persisted for several years in an ornamental garden in Michigan, USA. Shilling et al. (1997) expressed concern that its introduction and possible hybridization with I. cylindrica will result in hybrids that may exhibit both invasiveness and cold tolerance allowing range extension to northern and western regions of the USA. I. cylindrica thrives at altitudes from sea level to 2000 m in the Himalayas (Holm et al., 1977).
 

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
45 45 0 2700

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -15
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 30
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 40

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration06number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall5005000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • shallow
  • sodic

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cochliobolus heterostrophus Pathogen
Colletotrichum caudatum Pathogen
Colletotrichum graminicola Pathogen
Gibberella imperatae Pathogen
Orseoliella javanica
Puccinia fragosoana Pathogen
Puccinia imperata Pathogen
Puccinia rufipes Pathogen
Sphacelotheca schweinfurthiana Pathogen

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Numerous pathogens have been found in association with I. cylindrica. Fungi occurring on this grass include Bipolaris sacchari, B. setariae, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, Colletotrichum caudatum, Glomerella graminicola [Colletotrichum graminicola], Gibberella imperatae, Myriellina imperatae, Puccinia fragosoana, P. imperatae, P. rufipes, Sphacelotheca schweinfurthiana and Tilletiopsis flava. The bacterium Xanthomonas albineans has also been reported on I. cylindrica.

Nematodes found in association with this grass include Heterodera sinensis, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Discocriconenella spermata, Actus baqrus and Meloidogyne fujianensis. Other plant parasitic nematodes recorded on I. cylindrica include Aglenchus sp., Aphelenchoides sp., Criconemella obtusicaudata, Criconemoides sp., C. citri, C. curvatus, C. xenoplax, Helicotylenchus dihystera, H. pseudorobustus, Hemicriconemoides wessoni, Longidorus sp., Meloidodera floridensis, Meloidogyne sp., Paratrichodorus christei, Trophotylenchulus sp., T. floridensis, Xiphinema americanum, X. denoudeni and X. radicicola (DOACS, 2003)

Insects reported to feed on I. cylindrica include Atalopedes campestris, Hylephila phyleus, Pelopidas mathias, Orseolia javanica, Dicranoctetes brachyelytrifoliella, Dicladispa armigera, Melanitis leda ismene and Mythimna separata.
 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

I. cylindrica is a prolific producer of seeds, which are dispersed by wind over long distances to colonize cleared or previously uninfested land.

Accidental Introduction

Fragmentation of the rhizomes of I. cylindrica by agricultural equipment (e.g. ploughs, harrows and hoes) breaks dormancy, promoting the growth of new shoots. Rhizome fragments are dispersed when they become temporarily attached to tillage equipment and other farm machinery, and can also be transported in soil attached to the roots of transplanted material such as tree nursery stock, or in fill dirt during road construction (Willard, 1988; Patterson and McWhorter, 1993).

Intentional Introduction

I. cylindrica variety 'Rubra', also known as Japanese Bloodgrass or Red Baron, is sold as an ornamental plant and can be procured through the mail from suppliers (MSUCARES, 2002).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal production Yes Yes
Botanical gardens and zoos Yes Yes
Forage Yes Yes
Habitat restoration and improvement Yes Yes
Nursery trade Yes Yes
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes
Self-propelled Yes

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aircraft Yes
Land vehicles Yes
Machinery and equipment Yes
MailI. cylindrica var Rubra (Japanese Bloodgrass) is sold as ornamental grass by nurseries Yes
Soil, sand and gravelSoil attached to the roots of transplanted material, e.g. tree nursery stock Yes
Wind Yes

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production Negative
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna Negative
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species Negative
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Economic Impact

Top of page

I. cylindrica is reported as a weed in 73 countries, and in 35 crops (Holm et al., 1977). It is considered to be the worst perennial grass weed of southern and eastern Asia and is a serious problem in all crops grown in the lowland moist savannahs of West and Central Africa, and also at forest fringes where human population pressure on land has prevented the re-establishment of forest vegetation. Brook (1989), citing other authors, reports up to 64.5 million hectares of grassland in Indonesia, 5 million hectares in Papua New Guinea, and 0.3 million hectares in Fiji as being dominated by I. cylindrica. Over 40% of rubber plantations in Java and 1.5-2.0 million hectares of rubber plantations in Malaysia are affected. In a wide-ranging review, MacDonald (2004) notes that ‘Cogongrass is a major impediment to reforestation efforts in southeast Asia, the number one weed in agronomic and vegetable production in many parts of Africa, and is responsible for thousands of hectares of lost native habitat in the southeastern US’.

The combined area infested by I. cylindrica in Alabama, Florida and Mississippi, USA is estimated to be at least 100,000 hectares (Dickens, 1974; Schmitz and Brown, 1994), and according to Kaczor (2003), citing other authors, it is estimated that between 200,000 and 400,000 hectares in Florida alone are infested by I. cylindrica. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection has spent $350,000 within a 6-year period, battling cogongrass as part of a programme to control invasive species on public conservation lands. It is estimated that the removal of I. cylindrica from forest land through the application of herbicides can cost as much as $400 per hectare (Van Loan at al., 2002).

Where infestations occur, farmers allocate most of their time and labour to weeding speargrass (Vissoh et al., 2008). I. cylindrica is a strong competitor with plantation and food crops not only because it effectively competes for water and nutrients but also because it has allelopathic effects on crops such as maize and cucumber (Eussen, 1978). Crop yield losses due to I. cylindrica vary according to crop type, cultural practices and environmental conditions (Chikoye et al., 2001). Plantation crops such as coconut and oil palm are particularly susceptible to I. cylindrica at the early stages of development because they do not develop sufficient canopy to adequately shade the weed. The negative effects of I. cylindrica on coconuts also include delayed flowering and reduction in the number of nuts (Hairiah et al., 2003).

Trees are vulnerable to competition from I. cylindrica during the establishment of plantations (Otsama et al., 1997), e.g. tapping of rubber trees can be delayed for up to 3 years if I. cylindrica is present, and I. cylindrica has been shown to retard the growth of rubber by 96% within a period of 5 years (Soedarsan, 1980). Coconut is also affected as indicated by a 54% yield increase following the use of glyphosate for I. cylindrica control (Samarajeewa et al., 2004). Field crops such as upland rice, maize, grain legumes and vegetable crops are very susceptible to competition from this weed. In root and tuber crops, such as cassava and yams, loss is not only from yield reduction (direct competition), but also from secondary fungal infections which occur when rhizomes of I. cylindrica pierce the roots and tubers. In West Africa, I. cylindrica reportedly caused 62-80% yield reduction in maize and cassava (Koch et al., 1990; Udensi et al., 1999).

I. cylindrica is an inferior forage crop for domesticated animals. The silica bodies and the sharp edges of the leaves render it undesirable and unpalatable to grazing animals (Coile and Shilling, 1993). Herbage yields of I. cylindrica are relatively low even under heavy fertilization. I. cylindrica crude protein, which is estimated to be about 4%, is far below the required 7% crude protein to initiate voluntary intake by cattle. The liveweight gain of cattle that feed on I. cylindrica ranges only from 21.6 to 77.5 kg/ha (Lanting, 2004, personal communication).

I. cylindrica is an alternative host of the following insect pests of rice: Pelopidas mathias (Mazusawa et al., 1983), Melanitis leda ismene and Mythimna separata (IRRI, 2003). It is also as an alternative host for Rotylenchulus reniformis and Rice tungro virus and associated viruses (IRRI, 1988). It is reported as a host for the breeding of several species of Papuana (Sar et al., 1997). 

Environmental Impact

Top of page

I. cylindrica occupies natural areas that are habitats of federally listed endangered species and threatened native plant species (Langeland and Burks, 1998). It has been reported as a poor habitat of wildlife in the USA, particularly in Florida. According to anecdotal information, gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) in Florida abandon areas infested with I. cylindrica, which then results in the disappearance of numerous species that depend on their burrows, including gopher frogs (Rana capito aesopus), eastern indigo snakes (Drymarchon corais) and scarab beetles. I. cylindrica may also affect the nesting and foraging of the endangered red-cockaded woodpeceker (Picoides borealis) because the trees in which woodpeckers nest, such as long-leaf pine, are vulnerable to intense fires that can result from the presence of I. cylindrica (Myers, 1990).

I. cylindrica can hinder the establishment of desirable perennial species because it can extract soil moisture from the shallow layers of the soil and exude allelopathic substances that inhibit the growth of other plant species. It is highly pyrogenic and its vegetative growth is stimulated by fire. According to Lippincott (1997), the presence of I. cylindrica in a sandhill ecosystem can predispose it to intense, widespread and frequent fires that can seriously damage or kill most fire-intolerant species. As it can alter the fire regime, I. cylindrica has the potential to form grasslands that are devoid of trees and prone to fires. I. cylindrica has been blamed for two major forest fires in Ocala, Florida, USA, in 1996 and 2000 (Kaczor, 2003).

The spread of I. cylindrica is often linked to loss of soil fertility which leads to reduced crop vigour and greater chances for the grass to dominate because it competes more effectively at lower fertility levels. I. cylindrica is capable of capturing material flowing from higher areas in the landscape through erosion, hence, it is possible that it can cause the build-up of vesicular arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal inoculum. It has been found that spore density and species richness of VA fungi are high in Imperata grasslands, except at the most degraded sites (Hairiah et al., 2003).
 

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Eriogonum longifolium var. gnaphalifolium (scrub buckwheat)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesFloridaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999
Peromyscus polionotus ammobates (Alabama beach mouse)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesAlabamaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009
Warea carteri (Carter's mustard)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesFloridaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008

Social Impact

Top of page

Millions of hectares of good farmland are being abandoned to I. cylindrica each year in West and Central Africa and this is an increasing source of concern in affected regions. Farmers abandon infested fields, not only because of the competitiveness of the weed, but also because the sharp points of emerging plants can pierce the feet of humans and livestock (Terry et al., 1997). Severe infestations of I. cylindrica can cause total crop loss in cereals such as upland rice and maize. The burning of Imperata grasslands is a major threat to adjacent forests and tree crops (Wibowo et al., 1996). Poor smallholder farmers, large estates and forest plantations are all afflicted by I. cylindrica which causes incalculable losses in productivity and profits.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Soil accretion
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page

Townson (1991) reviewed methods of utilizing I. cylindrica which include grazing, paper-making, soil and moisture conservation, packing materials, brush-making, rope-making, fuel, sugar and alcohol production and a range of medicinal purposes. Few uses are of economic importance, with the exception of thatching for which I. cylindrica is highly valued in parts of Asia. The flowers and roots of I. cylindrica have antibacterial, diuretic, emollient, febrifuge, sialagogue, styptic and tonic properties. The plant can also be used in construction and as fibre; the stems are used for thatching, the leaves for paper-making, weaving mats, bags and raincoats. It is also planted and sold as an ornamental; I. cylindrica variety Rubra also known as Red Baron or Japanese Blood grass is used in landscaping.

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Soil conservation

General

  • Ornamental

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Cut flower

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

The combination of erect habit, fluffy white inflorescence and extensive rhizome system makes I. cylindrica quite distinct from most other weeds.

I. cylindrica may be confused with I. brasiliensis (Brazilian satintail) because of their very similar morphology, but I. brasiliensis differs from I. cylindrica in having one stamen whereas I. cylindrica has two.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Brook (1989) and Townson (1991) summarized control methods in their reviews of I. cylindrica. IRRI/NRI (1996) produced a practical guide to the management of I. cylindrica by smallholder farmers in South-East Asia and a companion volume on grassland rehabilitation using agroforestry and assisted natural regeneration has been produced by ICRAF (1999). Mechanical and/or chemical control are the principal components of any strategy to manage I. cylindrica. At present, there is no scope for biological control with pathogens or predators.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Successful mechanical control of I. cylindrica necessitates destruction of the capacity to regrow after treatment, usually by physical damage, burial or complete removal, or to inhibit growth of the weed so severely that it ceases to be a problem. In bad infestations, this requires the management of a large biomass. The rhizomes alone can have fresh weights of 40 t/ha reaching depths of 1 metre or more in the soil, and have millions of viable buds with the potential to re-infest land if control is less than complete. In practice, such complete control is virtually impossible but mechanical control has been, and remains, one of the most widely used methods of managing I. cylindrica, either as a stand-alone treatment or as an integrated technique with other methods.

The main method of control practised by smallholder farmers is to slash or hand weed. Bush burning is a common feature of fields in the moist savannah of West and Central Africa but it enhances seed production. Clearing land of I. cylindrica with a hand hoe can require 85 man-days/ha. In West Africa, farmers generally weed maize fields infested with I. cylindrica five times to minimize yield reduction by this weed. For larger areas of land, soil cultivation by tractors is more appropriate, best done during the dry season when most of the plant’s biomass is in the rhizomes and when desiccation is most effective. Timing of cultivation is critical, as if done in the wet season, not only is it difficult but there is insufficient sunshine to kill the exposed rhizomes, and regrowth soon occurs. A typical sequence of operations is to burn off the Imperata, disc plough the field to a depth of 30-40 cm, leave for at least 2 weeks, then plough again at right angles to the previous direction. The field is then harrowed twice at an interval of about 2 weeks. ‘The integration of deep ridging, deep hoe weeding and shading suppressed speargrass more effectively than farmers' practices’ (Vissoh et al., 2008).

Grass pressing (i.e. lodging, rolling) is a simple, low-cost technique that is used to control the growth of I. cylindrica. It can be used to clear areas for planting and as part of an integrated approach to enable the establishment of legume ground covers (IRRI/NRI, 1996; ICRAF, 1999). When pressing, it is important that grass shoots are only pressed down, i.e. bent or crimped, like folding a plastic water hose. If shoots are broken, as in cutting or burning, then rapid shoot development results. With pressing, dense stands of I. cylindrica can have regrowth decreased by 40-80%. As much as 90% of pressed I. cylindrica decomposes or dries up within 1 month and it can take more than 6 months for the regrowth to reach its previous population density (Anon, 1989). The best growth stage to press I. cylindrica is when it is about 1 metre high, because stems usually remain permanently bent after being pressed. Appropriate equipment to use includes logs which are rolled over the Imperata and planks held by rope or wooden handles which the operator stands on, lifts, moves and repeats the process over the area to be pressed.

Biological Control

Ivens (1980) was sceptical about the potential for biological control of I. cylindrica due to its worldwide distribution and its regenerative capacity. However, there has been a search for organisms which can be used for classical or augmented control. A selection of these is given in the list of natural enemies, but no fully effective means of biological control are yet available. Yandoc et al. (2005) tested the fungi Bipolaris sacchari and Drechslera gigantean in greenhouse and field and concluded ‘the level of injury caused by these fungi is sufficient to support their use as components for integrated management of cogongrass.’

Chemical Control

Many herbicides have been evaluated and used for the control of I. cylindrica (Brook, 1989; Townson, 1991). Of the four main products (dalapon, glyphosate, glufosinate and imazapyr) used in recent years, glyphosate has become the market leader. A typical high-volume application involves spraying glyphosate in 250-800 l/ha of water using knapsack or tractor-mounted equipment. There is scope for using low volume applications of <50 l/ha with very-low-volume and spinning-disc sprayers and also for the use of weed wipers. Nielsen et al. (2005) found little difference between knapsack and spinning-disc sprayers in effectiveness, but the knapsack was more economical on areas over 2 ha. Rope-wick applications was slightly less effective, but was the least expensive and most suitable for farmers without access to protective clothing.

Much effort has been given to improving the activity of glyphosate with formulation adjuvants (Townson, 1991). Proprietary additives, such as those based on tallow amines, are available for making tank mixtures with the herbicide, though reliable improvement in the performance of glyphosate in all situations cannot be guaranteed. The optimum time for applying glyphosate is when I. cylindrica is actively growing, with a large, green, leaf surface area. Cutting or burning the weed to encourage vigorous regrowth produces a good sward for spraying. A study by Lum et al. (2005) concluded that 150-200 g/ha of nicosulfuron applied at 1 or 2 weeks after planting maize gave effective control of I. cylindrica while significantly increasing crop yield.

IPM

After eradication of I. cylindrica, it is necessary to establish useful species which suppress regrowth of weeds and conserve soil fertility (Anwar and Bacon, 1986). Legume cover crops are widely advocated because of their smothering effect on weeds, stabilization of soil, fixing of nitrogen and ease of removal when the land is to be cropped. Calopogonium caeruleum, C. mucunoides, Desmodium intortum, Centrosema pubescens, Mucuna spp., Pueraria phaseoloides, P. triloba and Stylosanthes guianensis are examples of legumes that are used to rehabilitate I. cylindrica grassland or provide ground cover in plantation crops. For the small-scale farmer who is less inclined to use legume ground covers, intensive agricultural land use will prevent re-establishment of I. cylindrica.

References

Top of page

Alessi P, 1996. Native grasses (01/27/2004). http://www2.tpg.com.au/users/palessi/grass.htm.

Allen CM, Thomas RD, Lelong MG, 1991. Bracharia plantaginea, Imperata Cylindrica, and Panicum maximum, three grasses (Poacea) new to Lousiana, and a range extension for Rottboellia cochinchinensis. Sida, 14:613-615.

Amit C, Indira D, Sharma PK, Kaul BK, Choudhary A, Dogra I, 2002. Record of some new alternate host of rice hispa, Dicladispa armigera Olivier from Himachal Pradesh (India). Journal of Entomological Research, 26:183-184.

Anon, 1978. Survey, identification and host-parasite relationships of plant parasitic nematodes associated with major economic crops in the Philippines. Technical Report NSDB Project No. 7314 Ag (2-275-53), unpublished.

Anon., 1989. Agroforestry Technology Information Kit. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, International Institute of Rural Reconstruction and Ford Foundation, Silang, Cavite, Philippines.

Anwar C, Bacon P, 1986. Comparison of Imperata control by manual, chemical, and mechanical methods for smallholder rubber farming systems. Biotrop Special Publication, No.24:307-316

Atalla SI, 1999. Weed flora distribution in sugar cane Saccharum officinarum L. fields at Esna, Quena. Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo, 50:33-40.

Ayeni AO, Duke WB, 1985. The influence of rhizome features on subsequent regenerative capacity in speargrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 13(3/4):309-317

Bhowmik MK, Chakraborty T, Raha AK, 1999. The habitat and food habits of hog deer (Axis porcinus) in protected areas of sub-Himalayan West Bengal. Tigerpaper, 26(2):25-27; 2 ref.

Bimal Misri, Sindhu Sareen, 2004. Regeneration potential of mid-hill Himalayan grasslands of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Forester, 130(11):1299-1302.

Bonyongo MC, Bredenkamp GJ, Veenendaal E, 2000. Floodplain vegetation in the Nxaraga Lagoon area, Okavango Delta, Botswana. South African Journal of Botany, 66:15-21.

Bor NL, 1979. The Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (excluding Bambuseae). Dehra Dun, India: R. P. S. Galot, International Book Distributors.

Brook RM, 1989. Review of literature on Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel with particular reference to South East Asia. Tropical Pest Management, 35(1):12-25

Bryson CT, Carter R, 1993. Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, in the United States. Weed Technology, 7:1005-1009.

Bryson CT, Sudbrink DL, 2000. Investigations for the biological control of cogongrass. In: Spencer, NR, ed. Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA: 241-242.

Burkard G, 2005. Sawah first! The cultural ecology of alang-alang in a rain forest margin community. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 106(1):1-14.

Byrd JD Jr, Bryson CT, 1999. Biology, ecology, and control of Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica(L.) Beauv.]. Fact Sheet 1999-01. Mississippi, USA: Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce, Bureau of Plant Industry, Mississippi State.

Chang HC, Tsai CC, 1999. Genetic variation in the intergenic spacer of ribosomal DNA of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Var major (Cogongrass) populations in Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of Academy Sinica, 40:319-327.

Chase CA, Shilling DG, Bewick TA, Charudattan R, 1996. Fungal isolates with potential for the biological control of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica [L.]Beauv.). Weed Science Society Abstract 160.

Chaudhary SA, Akram M, 1987. Weeds of Saudi Arabia and the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia: National Herbarium, Regional Agriculture and Water Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture and Water.

Chaudhary SA, Parker C, Kasasian L, 1981. Weeds of Central, Southern and Eastern Arabian Peninsula. Tropical Pest Management, 27(2):181-190.

Chen P, Zheng J, Peng D, 1996. A new species of the genus Heterodera from China (Nematoda: Tylenchida: Heteroderidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 2:23-24.

Cheng, KT, Chou, CH, 1997. Ecotypic variation of Imperata cylindrica populations in Taiwan: I. Morphological and molecular evidences. Botanical Bulletin of Academy Sinica, 38:215-223.

Chikoye D, Ekeleme F, Ambe JT, 1999. Survey of distribution and farmers’ perceptions of speargrass (Imperata cylindrica [L.] Raeuschel) in cassava-based systems in West Africa. International Journal of Pest Management, 45:305-311.

Chikoye D, Ekeleme F, Udensi UE, 2001. Cogongrass suppression by intercropping cover crops in corn/cassava systems. Weed Science, 49:658-667.

Chikoye D, Manyong VM, Ekeleme F, 2000. Characteristics of speargrass (Imperata cylindrica) dominated fields in West Africa: crops, soil properties, farmer perceptions and management strategies. Crop Protection, 19(7):481-487; 28 ref.

Chou ChangHung, Tsai ChiChu, 1999. Genetic variation in the intergenic spacer of ribosomal DNA of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. var. major (Cogongrass) populations in Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 40(4):319-327; 51 ref.

Clayton WD, Renvoize SA, 1982. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Graminea (Part 3). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: A.A. Balkema, 448 pp.

Coile NC, Shilling DG, 1993. Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.: a good grass gone bad! Botany Circular 28. Gainesville, Florida, USA: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.

Collins AR, Jose S, Daneshgar P, Ramsey CL, 2007. Elton's hypothesis revisited: an experimental test using cogongrass. Biological Invasions, 9(4):433-443. http://www.springerlink.com/content/n265037600113682/?p=8b0427c7a5184d71872cb2dd53622be3&pi=6

Colvin Dl, Gaffney J, Shilling DG, 1993. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica [L.] Beauv.) biology, ecology and control in Florida-1994. Circular SS-AGR-52. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

Dickens R, 1974. Cogongrass in Alabama after sixty years. Weed Science, 22:177-179.

Dickens R, Buchanan GA, 1971. Old weed in a new home-that’s cogongrass. High. Agricultural Research, 18:2.

Dickens R, Buchanan GA, 1975. Control of cogongrass with herbicides. Weed Science, 23:194-197.

DOACS, 1999. Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Botany section. TRI-OLOGY, 38(1). http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/99-jan-feb.htm.

DOACS, 2003. Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. www.doacs.state.fl.us.

Dozier H, Gaffney JF, McDonald SK, Johnson ERRL, Shilling DG, 1998. Cogongrass in the United States: History, ecology, impacts, and management. Weed Technology, 12:737-743.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Eussen JHH, 1978. Studies on the tropical weed Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. var. major. Report of Research Project WOTRO W86-34. Studies on the tropical weed Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. var. major. Report of Research Project WOTRO W86-34., 36 pp.

Eussen JHH, 1979. Some pot competition experiments with alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) in replacement sites. Oecologia, 40(3):351-356

Eussen JHH, 1980. Biological and ecological aspects of alang-alang [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.]. Proceedings of a BIOTROP Workshop on Alang-alang. BIOTROP Special Publication No. 5. Bogor, Indonesia: BIOTROP, 15-22.

Eussen JHH, 1981. Studies on the growth characteristics of alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. var. Major). Biotrop Bulletin, No. 18:23 pp.

Eussen JHH, Slamet S, Soeroto D, 1976. Competition between alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv) and some crop plants. BIOTROP Bulletin, No. 10:26 pp.

Evans HC, 1987. Fungal pathogens of some subtropical and tropical weeds and the possibilities for biological control. Biocontrol News and Information, 8(1):7-30

Feuillette B, Marnotte P, Bourgeois Tle, 1997. Imperata cylindrica. Agriculture et De^acute~veloppement, May (special issue):66-67.

Fosberg FR, Sachet M-H, Oliver RL, 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesia, 20:1026.

Gabel ML, 1982. A Biosystematic Study of the Genus Imperata (Graminae: Andropogonae). PhD Dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA, 90 pp.

Gaffney JF, 1996. Ecophyisological and technological factors influencing the management of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). PhD Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Garrity DP, Soekardi M, Noordwijk Mvan, Cruz Rde la, Pathak PS, Gunasena HPM, So Nvan, Huijun G, Majid NM, 1996. The Imperata grasslands of tropical Asia: area, distribution, and typology. Agroforestry Systems, 36(1/3):3-29; 30 ref.

Ghimire JN, 1996. Status and distribution of the barasingha (Cervus duvauceli duvauceli) population in Royal Bardia National Park, Nepal. MSc Thesis, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Gilliland HB, 1971. A revised Flora of Malaya. Vol. III, Grasses of Malaya. Singapore: Botanic Gardens.

Hackel E, 1889. Andropogonae. A. et C. de Candolle. Monographie Phanerogamarum 6:91-101.

Hairiah K, van Noordwijk M, Purnomosidhi P, 2003. Reclamation of Imperata Grasslands Using Agroforestry. World Agroforestry Center. http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/sea/Products/Training/modules-Ind.asp.

HEAR, 2004. Alien species in Hawaii. Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA. http://www.hear.org/AlienSpeciesInHawaii/index.html.

Henderson L, 2001. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 12. Cape Town, South Africa: Paarl Printers.

Henty EE, Pritchard GH, 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their Control. Lp, Papua New Guinea: Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bulletin No.7.

Heppner JB, 2000. Dicranoctetes brachyelytrifoliella, a leafminer on cogongrass in Florida (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae). Lepidoptera News, No.2:23; 9 ref.

Hitchcock AS, 1971. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. New York, USA: Dover Publications.

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Holm LG, Plucknett DL, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1977. The World's Worst Weeds. Distribution and Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University Press of Hawaii.

Hubbard CE, Whyte RO, Brown D, Gray AP, 1944. Imperata cylindrica. Taxonomy, distribution, economic significance and control. Imperial Agricultural Bureaux Joint Publication No. 7. Aberystwyth, UK: Imperial Agricultural Bureaux.

Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN, 1972. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Vol. III. London, UK: Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.

ICRAF, 1999. Imperata Grassland Rehabilitation using Agroforestry and Assisted Natural Regeneration. Bogor, Indonesia: International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, 167 pp.

Inskipp C, Inskipp T, 1983. Results of preliminary survey of Bengal floricans Houbaropsis bengalensis in Nepal, 1982. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.

IRRI, 1988. International Rice Research Newsletter, 13(4):30-33, 37.7314 Ag (2-275-53), unpublished.

IRRI, 2003. Rice Doctor (1/27/2004). World Wide Web page at http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/riceDoctor_MX/default.htm#Fact_Sheets/Pests/Greenhorned_Caterpillar.htm.

IRRI/NRI, 1996. Imperata Management for Smallholders. Polembang, Indonesia: Indonesian Rubber Research Institute, and Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute.

Ishikawa S, Nishiyama Y, 1998. Development of Imperata cylindrica community on bars in a gravelly bed river. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science. Kochi University. Series D, Biology, 19:15-20.

Itoh K ed, 1991. Life Cycles of Rice Field Weeds and their Management in Malaysia. Tsukuba, Japan: Tropical Agriculture Research Center.

Ivens GW, 1975. Studies on Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. and Eupatorium odoratum L. Weed Research Project R 2552, 1971-1973. Technical Report, Agricultural Research Council Weed Research Organization, No. 37:26 pp.

Ivens GW, 1980. Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. in West African agriculture. Proceedings of a BIOTROP Workshop on Alang-alang. BIOTROP Special Publication No. 5.Bogor, Indonesia: BIOTROP, 149-156.

Kaczor B, 2003. Grass may beat kudzu as scourge of South. http://www.onlineathens.com/cgi-bin/printme.pl.

Kew-Ta Cheng, Chang-Hung Chou, 1997. Ecotypic variation of Imperata cylindrica populations in Taiwan. 1. Morphological and molecular evidences. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 38:215-223.

King SE, Grace JB, 2000. The effects of soil flooding on the establishment of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica), a nonindegenouse invader of the southeastern United States. Wetlands, 20:300-306.

Koch W, Grobmann F, Weber A, Lutzeyer HJ, Akobundo IO, 1990. Weeds as Components of Maize/Cassava Cropping Systems. Universitaet Hohenheim: Standortgemaesse Landwirtschaft.

Kohler F, 1985. Pathogens and physiological diseases of cultivated plants in New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Noumea, New Caledonia; ORSTOM, 46 pp.

Kostermans AJGH, Wirjahardja S, Dekker RJ, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. Weeds of rice in Indonesia [edited by Soerjani, M.; Kostermans, A.J.G.H.; Tjitrosoepomo, G.] Jakarta, Indonesia; Balai Pustaka, 24-565

Kranz J, Schmutterer H, Koch W, eds. , 1977. Diseases, pests and weeds in tropical crops. Berlin, German Federal Republic: Verlag Paul Parey, 666 pp.

Langeland KA, Burks KC, 1998. Identification and Biology of Non-native Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida, 165 pp.

Lee SA, 1978. Germination, rhizome survival and control of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. on peat. MARDI Research Bulletin, 5(2):1-9

Lippincott CL, 1997. Ecological consequences of Imperata cylindrica (cogongrass) invasion in Florida sandhill. PhD Dissertation. University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Lorenzi HJ, Jeffery LS(Editors), 1987. Weeds of the United States and their control. New York, USA; Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd., 355 pp.

Lum AF, Chikoye D, Adesiyan SO, 2005. Effect of nicosulfuron dosages and timing on the postemergence control of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) in corn. Weed Technology, 19(1):122-127.

MacDonald G, 2004. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) - biology, ecology, and management. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 23(5):367-380.

Masuzawa T, Suwa H, Nakasuji F, 1983. Differences of oviposition preference and survival rate of two skipper butterflies Parnara guttata and Pelopidas mathias (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) on rice plant and cogongrass. New Entomologist, 32:1-10.

McDonald SK, 1996. Factors Influencing the Dissemination, Establishment and Persistence of Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica [L.] Raeuschel). PhD Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

McDonald SK, Chandler IE, 1994. Element stewardship abstract for Imperata cylindrica cf var. major. Arlington, VA, USA: Nature Conservancy.

McDonald SK, Shilling DG, Okoli CAN, Bewick TA, Gordon D, Hall D, Smith R, 1996. Population dynamics of cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica. Proceedings of the Southern Weed Science Society, 49:156.

McKenzie EHC, Jackson GVH, 1986. The fungi, baceria, and pathogenic alga of Solomon Islands. Strengthening Plant Protection and Root Crops Development in the South Pacific. RAS/83/001, Field Document 11. Suva, Fiji: FAO, 282 pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2008. Flora of China Checklist. USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/foc.html

Mohila N, Dhanachand CH, 1997. Three new species of mononchs (Nematoda:Mononchida). Indian Journal of Nematology, 27:179-186.

Mohila N, Dhanachand CH, 1998. Three new species of the family Criconemoidae (Taylor, 1936) Thorne, 1949 from Manipur. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology, 18:127-133.

Moody K, 1989. Weeds reported in Rice in South and Southeast Asia. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

Moosavi-nia H, Dore J, 1979. Factors affecting glyphosate activity in Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. and Cyperys rotundus L. II: effect of shade. Weed Research, 19:321-327.

MSUCARES, 2002. Mississippi's 10 Worst Invasive Weeds. Mississippi State University Extension Service. http://msucares.com/pubs/misc/m1194.html.

Myers RL, 1990. Problems, prospects, and strategies for conservation. In: Myers, RL and Ewel, JJ, eds. Ecosystems in Florida. Orlando, Florida, USA: University of Central Florida Press.

Nair NV, Kumar RS, 2006. Saccharum germplasm collection in the Andaman-Nicobar Islands, India. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, No.146:28-32.

Nelson JB, 1993. Noteworthy collections-South Carolina. Castanea, 58:59-63.

Nielsen OK, Chikoye D, Streibig JC, 2005. Efficacy and costs of handheld sprayers in the subhumid savanna for cogongrass control. Weed Technology, 19(3):568-574.

Noltie HJ, 2000. Flora of Bhutan including a record of plants from Sikkim and Darjeeling. Volume 3 Part 2. The Grasses of Bhutan. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Royal Government of Bhutan.

Numata M, Yoshizawa N, 1975. Weed flora of Japan. Japan Association for the Advancement of Phyto-Regulators. Tokyo, Japan: Zenkoku Noson Kyoiku Kyokai.

Oliver WLR, 1985. The distribution and status of the hispid hare Caprolagus hispidus-with some additional notes on the pygmy hog Sus salvanicus: a report on the 1984 field survey in northern Bangladesh, southern Nepal and northern India. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust.

Otsama A, Adjers G, Had TS, Kuusipalo J, Vuoko R, 1997. Evaluation of reforestation potential of 83 tree species planted on Imperata cylindrica dominated grassland - a case study from South Kalimantan, Indonesia. New Forests, 14:127-143.

Pan CS, Lin J, 1998. A new record of host plants of Meloidogyne fujianensis and their observation by scanning electron microscope. Acta Parasitologica et Medica Entomologica Sinica, 5:125-126.

Patterson DT, McWhorter CG, 1983. Distribution and control of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) in Mississippi. Stoneville, Mississippi:US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Weed Science Laboratory.

Paul R, Elmore CD, 1984. Weeds and the C syndrome. Weeds Today, 15(1):3-4

PIER, 2003. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html.

PIER, 2003. Report on invasive plant species on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (01/27/2004). http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/rreport.htm#invasive.

PIER, 2003. Report on Invasive Species in Micronesia (12/24/2004). World Wide Web page at http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/mreport.htm.

PIER, 2008. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Plants for a Future, 2004. Species Database: Imperata cylindrica (1/14/2004). http://www.pfaf.org/#.

Renvoize SA, 1984. The Grasses of Bahia. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Rice PM, 2003. INVADERS Database System. Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, USA. http://invader.dbs.umt.edu.

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2008. Flora Europaea, Database of European Plants (ESFEDS). Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html

Rukshana Bajwa, Saima Riaz, Khan SM, 2002. Antifungal activity of allelopathic plant extracts II: In vitro control of Fusarium moniliforme and F. oxysporum by aqueous extracts of four allelopathic grasses. In Khan, SM, Javed, N, eds: Integrated plant disease management. Proceedings of the 3rd National Conference of Plant Pathology, NARC, Islamabad. Faisalabad, Pakistan: Pakistan Phytopathology Society, 59-69.

Samarajeewa AD, Senaratna RPBSHS, Perera KCP, 2004. Effect of different control methods of Imperata cylindrica on coconut (Cocos nucifera) yield in low country dry zone of Sri Lanka. COCOS, 16:37-42.

Santiago A, 1965. Studies on the autecology of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Proceedings of 9th International Grassland Congress, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1965, 409-502.

Santiago A, 1980. Genecological aspects of the Imperata weeds and its practical implications. Proceedings of the BIOTROP Workshop on Alang-alang, Bogor, Indonesia, 23-34.

Santoso D, Adiningsih S, Mutert E, Fairhurst T, Van Noordwijk M, 1996. Soil fertility management for reclamation of Imperata grasslands by smallholder agroforestry. Agroforestry Systems, 36:181-202.

Sar SA, Wavi BM, Ghodake RD, 1997. Towards the development of sustainable production of taro Colocasia esculenta in Papua New Guinea. Paper presented at the 11th Symposium of the International Society of Tropical Root Crops (ISTRC), Port of Spain, Trinidad, 1997.

Sauerborn E, Sauerborn J, 1984. Plants of Cropland in Western Samoa with Special Reference to Taro. PLITS 2(4). Universitat Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany: Institut fur Pflanzenproduktion in den Tropen und Subtropen.

Schmitz DC, Brown TC, 1994. An assessment of invasive non-indegenous species in Florida’s public lands. Technical Report No. TSS-94-100. Tallahassee, Florida, USA: Florida Department of Environmental Protection.

Scholz S, Reyes-Betancort JA, Wildpret de la Torre W, 2006. Additions to the vascular flora of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) II. (Adiciones a la flora vascular de Fuerteventura (Islas Canarias) II.) Botanica Macaronesica, No.26:65-76.

Shilling DG, Bewick TA, Gaffney JF, McDonald SK, Chase CA, Johnson ERRL, 1997. Ecology, physiology, and management of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). Final Report. Bartow, Florida: Florida Institute of Phosphate Research.

Shukla U, 1996. The Grasses of North-Eastern India. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers, 325 pp.

Smither-Kopperl M, 2007. The first line of defense: interceptions of federal noxious weed seeds in Washington. General Technical Report - Pacific Northwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service [Meeting the challenge: invasive plants in Pacific Northwest ecosystems, Seattle, Washington, USA, 19-20 September 2006.], No.PNW-GTR-694:19-22.

Soedarsan A, 1980. The effects of alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) and control techniques on plantation crops. Proceedings of a BIOTROP Workshop on Alang-alang, Bogor, 1976., 71-77

Soerjani M, 1970. Alang-alang [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.] (1812) pattern of growth as related to its problem of control. BIOTROP Bulletin No. 1. Bogor, Indonesia: BIOTROP.

Soerjani M, Soemarwoto O, 1969. The study of alang-alang [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.] rhizome buds. PANS, 15(3):407-415.

Space JC, Falanruw M, 1999. Observations on invasive plant species in Micronesia. Honolulu, Hawaii: USDA Forest Service, 32 pp.

Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Miles JE, Tiobech J, Rengulbai K, 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service.

Swarbrick JT, Hart R, 2001. Environmental weeds of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) and their management. Plant Protection Quarterly, 16:54-57.

Tabor P, 1949. Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv., in the southeastern United States. Agronomy Journal, 41:270.

Tabor P, 1952. Cogongrass in Mobile County, Alabama. Agronomy Journal, 44:50.

Takashima M, Nakase T, 2001. Tilletiopsis derxii, Tilletiopsis oryzicola and Tilletiopsis penniseti, three new species of the Ustilagionomycetous anamorphic genus Tilletiopsis isolated from leaves in Thailand. Antoinevan Leeuwenhoek, 80:43-56.

Terry PJ, Adjers G, Akobundo IO, Anoka AU, Drilling E, Tjitrosemito S, Utomo M, 1997. Herbicides and mechanical control of Imperata cylindrica as a frist step in grassland rehabilitation. Agroforestry Systems, 36:151-179.

Tjitrosemito S, Supriyanto, Rafiuddin R, Mawardi I, 1994. Management of land dominated by Imperata cylindrica. Poster at 4th International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics, March 28-31, 1994. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Townson JK, 1991. Imperata cylindrica and its control. Weed Abstracts, 40(11):457-468

Udensi EU, Akobundu IO, Ayeni AO, Chikoye D, 1999. Management of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) with velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) and herbicides. Weed Technology,13:201-208.

Ulack R, 2002. Malaysia country information. http://www.geocities.com/asfsquash/infomalaysia.htm.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1999. In: Scrub Buckwheat. Eriogonum longifolium Nutt. gnaphalifolium Gandog. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 12 pp.. http://www.fws.gov/verobeach/msrppdfs/scrubbuck.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. In: Carter's mustard (Warea carteri). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 19 pp..

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: Alabama Beach Mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates, Bowen 1968). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 34 pp.. https://www.fws.gov/southeast/pdf/five-year-reviews/alabama-beach-mouse.pdf

USDA-ARS, 2004. Forest and Turf Grass Research. Fungal Diseases of Pearl Millet (1/27/2004). World Wide Web page at http://www.cpes.peachnet.edu/fat/fungaldiseasesPM.htm.

USGS, 1999. Weekly USGS science for the week of May 31, 1999 (12/27/99). World Wide Web page at http://in.water.usgs.gov/.

Van Dyke CG, Ravenell DI, 1985. Weed-Pathogen Index: Biological Control of Weeds with Plant Pathogens. S-136 Regional Research Project, p.19.

Van Loan AN, Meeker JR, Minno MC, 2002. Cogongrass (12/10/2003). http://www.invasiveplants.net/biologicalcontrol/28CogonGrass.html.

Vissoh PV, Kuyper TW, Gbehounou G, Hounkonnou D, Ahanchede A, Röling NG, 2008. Improving local technologies to manage speargrass (Imperata cylindrica) in southern Benin. International Journal of Pest Management, 54(1):21-29.

Wang ZR, 1990. Farmland Weeds in China. Beijing, China: Agricultural Publishing House.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Watson L, Dallwitz MJ, 1992. Grass Genera of the World: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval; icluding Synonyms, Morphology, Anatomy, Physiology, Phytochemistry, Cytology, Classification, Pathogens, World and Local Distribution and References (12/24/2003). World Wide Web page at http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/.

Weber E, 2003. Invasive Plant Species of the World. A Reference Guide to Environmental Weeds. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.

Wells MJ, Balsinhas AA, Joffe H, Engelbrecht VM, Harding G, Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in southern Africa incorporating the national weed list of South Africa. Memoirs, Botanical Survey of South Africa, No. 53, v + 658pp.; 185 ref.

Wetland Care Australia, 2003. Ballina, New South Wales, Australia: Wetland Care Australia. www.wetland.com.au/.

Wibowo A, Suharti M, Sagala APS, Hibani H, Noordwijk Mvan, 1996. Fire management on Imperata grasslands as part of agroforestry development in Indonesia. Agroforestry Systems, 36(1/3):203-217; 19 ref.

Wilcut J, Truelove B, Davis DE, 1983. The propagation and growth of cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica L. Beauv.) and torpedo grass (Panicum repens L.). Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society, 36th annual meeting, 349-350

Wilcut JW, Dute RR, Truelove B, Davis DE, 1988. Factors limiting the spread of Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, and Torpedograss, Panicum repens. Weed Science, 36:577-582.

Willard TR, 1988. Biology, ecology, and management of cogongrass Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. PhD Disseration, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Willard TR, Hall DW, Shilling Dg, Lewis JA, Currey Wl, 1990. Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) distribution on Florida highway rights-of-way. Weed Technology, 4:658-660.

Wu JY, Teng WJ, Wang QH, Sun ZY, 2006. Evaluation of growth and ornamental value for introduced perennial ornamental grass in Beijing. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 33(5):1145-1148.

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2003. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Institute for Systematic Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, USA. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/.

Yamashita N, Ohta S, Hardjono A, 2008. Soil changes induced by Acacia mangium plantation establishment: comparison with secondary forest and Imperata cylindrica grassland soils in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management, 254(2):362-370. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781127

Yandoc CB, Charudattan R, Shilling DG, 2005. Evaluation of fungal pathogens as biological control agents for cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica). Weed Technology, 19(1):19-26.

Zaher MA, Abou-Awad BA, 1978. Three new species of the genera Eriophyes and Phytopus in Egypt (Eriophyoidea: Eriophydae). Acarologia, 20:556-562.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

Top of page

10/04/2008 Updated by:

Chris Parker, Consultant, UK

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map