Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ilex aquifolium
(holly)

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Datasheet

Ilex aquifolium (holly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ilex aquifolium
  • Preferred Common Name
  • holly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Uses List
  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tree habit of Ilex aquifolium var. 'Angustifolia' Aureomaculata.
TitleTree habit
CaptionTree habit of Ilex aquifolium var. 'Angustifolia' Aureomaculata.
CopyrightPaolo Pallicca
Tree habit of Ilex aquifolium var. 'Angustifolia' Aureomaculata.
Tree habitTree habit of Ilex aquifolium var. 'Angustifolia' Aureomaculata.Paolo Pallicca
Leaves of Ilex aquifolium; the coriaceous dark green leaves are glossy above and paler and duller beneath, ovate or spinose-acuminate, often with strongly spinose, undulate margins.
TitleLeaves
CaptionLeaves of Ilex aquifolium; the coriaceous dark green leaves are glossy above and paler and duller beneath, ovate or spinose-acuminate, often with strongly spinose, undulate margins.
CopyrightPaolo Pallicca
Leaves of Ilex aquifolium; the coriaceous dark green leaves are glossy above and paler and duller beneath, ovate or spinose-acuminate, often with strongly spinose, undulate margins.
LeavesLeaves of Ilex aquifolium; the coriaceous dark green leaves are glossy above and paler and duller beneath, ovate or spinose-acuminate, often with strongly spinose, undulate margins.Paolo Pallicca
Leaves of Ilex aquifolium with an entire margin; leaves in some cultivars and high in the crown of older trees are flat and entire.
TitleLeaves - entire margin
CaptionLeaves of Ilex aquifolium with an entire margin; leaves in some cultivars and high in the crown of older trees are flat and entire.
CopyrightPaolo Pallicca
Leaves of Ilex aquifolium with an entire margin; leaves in some cultivars and high in the crown of older trees are flat and entire.
Leaves - entire marginLeaves of Ilex aquifolium with an entire margin; leaves in some cultivars and high in the crown of older trees are flat and entire.Paolo Pallicca
Leaves of Ilex aquifolium var. 'Angustifolia' Aureomaculata.
TitleLeaves
CaptionLeaves of Ilex aquifolium var. 'Angustifolia' Aureomaculata.
CopyrightPaolo Pallicca
Leaves of Ilex aquifolium var. 'Angustifolia' Aureomaculata.
LeavesLeaves of Ilex aquifolium var. 'Angustifolia' Aureomaculata.Paolo Pallicca
Fruits (berries) of Ilex aquifolium.
TitleFruits
CaptionFruits (berries) of Ilex aquifolium.
CopyrightPaolo Pallicca
Fruits (berries) of Ilex aquifolium.
FruitsFruits (berries) of Ilex aquifolium.Paolo Pallicca

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ilex aquifolium L.

Preferred Common Name

  • holly

Other Scientific Names

  • Aquifolium spinosum Gaertn.
  • Ilex aquifolium f. bacciflava (Weston) Rehder
  • Ilex aquifolium f. ferox (Aiton) C. K. Schneid.
  • Ilex aquifolium f. heterophylla (Aiton) Loes.
  • Ilex aquifolium f. integrifolia Nolte ex Loes.
  • Ilex aquifolium f. pendula (Loudon) Schelle
  • Ilex aquifolium var. australis Lacaita
  • Ilex aquifolium var. balearica (Desf.) Loes.
  • Ilex perado auct. iber., non Aiton

International Common Names

  • English: Christmas holly; common holly; English holly; European holly; prickly-leaved holly; variagated holly
  • Spanish: acebo; cardon boixgrevol; grèvol
  • French: agrifous; agriou; bois franc; grand pardon; gréou; grifeuil; housson; houx; houx à feuilles epineuses; houx commun; meslier épineux

Local Common Names

  • Germany: gemeine Stechpalme; gemeiner Hülst; gewoehnliche Stechpalme; Hülsdorn; Hülsstrauch; Stechholder; Stechpalme
  • Italy: agrifoglio; agrifolio
  • Japan: seiyou hiiragi
  • Netherlands: Europese hulst; hulst
  • Sweden: järnek; kristtorn
  • UK: holm; hulver bush
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): bodika; bozikovina; bozjiles

EPPO code

  • ILEAQ (Ilex aquifolium)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cornales
  •                         Family: Aquifoliaceae
  •                             Genus: Ilex
  •                                 Species: Ilex aquifolium

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Poisonous to mammals
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Roundwood

  • Stakes

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Marquetry
  • Tool handles
  • Turnery
  • Wood carvings