Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Icerya seychellarum
(Seychelles scale)

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Datasheet

Icerya seychellarum (Seychelles scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Icerya seychellarum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Seychelles scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Icerya seychellarum (Westwood, 1855)

Preferred Common Name

  • Seychelles scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Dorthesia seychellarum
  • Icerya okadae

International Common Names

  • English: Okada cottony-cushion scale; silvery cushion scale

EPPO code

  • ICERSE (Icerya seychellarum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Monophlebidae
  •                                     Genus: Icerya
  •                                         Species: Icerya seychellarum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BotswanaPresent
ComorosPresent
EgyptPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
-RodriguesPresent
MozambiquePresent
RéunionPresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresent
-Aldabra IslandsPresent
South AfricaPresent
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
UgandaPresent

Asia

British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresent
BruneiPresent
ChinaPresent, Localized
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-AssamPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresentOriginal citation: Srivastava, 1973
-MaharashtraPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SumatraPresent
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
-ShikokuPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresent, Localized
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SarawakPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
OmanPresentAl-Jabel Al Akhdher.
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
YemenPresent

Europe

CyprusPresent
FrancePresent
-CorsicaPresent
GermanyAbsent, Intercepted only
ItalyAbsent, Eradicated
PortugalPresent, Localized
-MadeiraPresent
SpainPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent

North America

DominicaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
MartiniquePresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresentOriginal citation: Australian National Insect Collection, 1900
-Northern TerritoryPresentOriginal citation: Australian National Insect Collection, 1990
-QueenslandPresentOriginal citation: Australian National Insect Collection, 1994
Cook IslandsPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
KiribatiPresent
NauruPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandAbsent, Intercepted only
NiuePresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent
TuvaluPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

ColombiaPresent
French GuianaPresent

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cryptochetum grandicorne Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs
Cryptochetum monophlebi Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Mauritius; South Africa Castanospermum australe; ornamental plants
Euryischia indica Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Rodolia cardinalis Predator Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Nymphs Mauritius; New Caledonia; Seychelles; Vanuatu fruit trees; ornamental plants
Rodolia chermisinia Predator Eggs
Rodolia limbatus Predator Eggs

References

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Anon, 2015. Scale insect scare in La Plaine. The Sun, July 2. http://sundominica.com/articles/scale-insect-scare-in-la-plaine-2490/

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)

Beardsley JW, 1955. Fluted scales and their biological control in United States administered Micronesia. Proceedings of the Haiwaiian Entomological Society, 15:391-399

Beardsley JW, 1966. Insects of Micronesia, Homoptera: Coccoidea. Insects of Micronesia, 6:377-562

Bedford ECG, 1956. An attempt to control the Seychelles scale Icerya seychellarum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Coccidae) in South Africa by introducing Cryptochaetum monophlebi Skuse (Diptera: Cryptochaetidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 28:155-165

CABI/EPPO, 2008. Icerya seychellarum. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, June (1st revision). Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 52

CIE, 1955. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 52. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture

Dumbleton LJ, 1957. Parasites and predators introduced in the Pacific Islands for the biological control of insects and other pests. South Pacific Commission Technical Paper, No. 101, 40 pp

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database Paris, France: EPPO.

Hill MG, Blackmore PJM, 1980. Interactions between ants and the coccid Icerva seychellarum on Aldabra Atoll. Oecologia, 45(3):360-365

Jacobsen, B. J., Zidack, N. K., Larson, B. J., 2004. The role of Bacillus-based biological control agents in integrated pest management systems: plant diseases. Phytopathology, 94(11), 1272-1275. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO.2004.94.11.1272

Kuwana I, 1922. Studies on Japanese Monophelebinae. Contribution II. The genus Icerya. Department of Agriculture and Commerce, Imperial Plant Quarantine Station, Yokohama, Japan, No. 2, 43 pp

Lever RJAW, 1946. Insect pests in Fiji. Bulletin. Department of Agriculture, Fiji, 16:41-44

Malini Nilamudeen, Nandakumar C, 2012. First records of Icerya aegypticum (Dgl.) and Icerya seychellarum (Westw.) on Ocimum tenuiflorum L. in Kerala. Insect Environment, 18(1/2):3

Mangoud, A. A. H., Salem, M. A., El-Aziz, M. A. A., 2012. Effect of different compounds on Icerya seychellarum (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) and Rodalia cardinalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on mango leaves under laboratory conditions. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences: Entomology, 5(3), 113-119. http://entomology.eajbs.eg.net/pdf/vol5-num3/13.pdf

Morales CF, 1991. Margarodidae (Insecta: Hemiptera). Fauna of New Zealand, No. 21:123 pp

Newbery DMcC, 1980. Interactions between the coccid, Icerya seychellarum (Westw.), and its host tree species on Aldabra Atoll. 1. Euphorbia pyrifolia Lam. Oecologia, 46(2):171-179

Rao VP, 1951. Iceryine scale insects recorded from the Orient. Indian Journal of Entomology, 12:39-66, 127-158

Reboul JL, 1976. Principaux parasites et maladies des plantes cultivees en Polynesie Francaise. Service de l'Economie Rurale, Recherche Agronomique. No. 129/ER/RA. Pirae, 58 pp

Roberts P, Seabrook WA, 1989. A relationship between black rats (Rattus rattus), Seychelles fruit bats (Pteropus seychellensis aldabrensis) and the coccoid (Icerya seychellarum) (Insects, Homoptera) on Aldabra Atoll, Seychelles. Journal of Zoology, 218(2):332-334

Srivastava OS, 1973. First record of Icerya seychellarum Westwood (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) infesting crotons from Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Entomology, 35(4):348

Swaine G, 1971. Agricultural Zoology in Fiji. Overseas Research Publication No. 18. London, UK: Overseas Development Administration

Thorpe WH, 1934. The biology and development of Cryptochaetum grandicorne (Diptera), an internal parasite of Guerinia serratulae (Coccidae). Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science (N.S.), 77:273-304

Unruh, C. M., Gullan, P. J., 2008. Molecular data reveal convergent reproductive strategies in iceryine scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Monophlebidae), allowing the re-interpretation of morphology and a revised generic classification. Systematic Entomology, 33(1), 8-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2007.00404.x

Vesey-Fitzgerald D, 1953. Review of the biological control of coccids on coconut palms in the Seychelles. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 44:405-413

Walker AK, Deitz LL, 1977. A survey of parasitic and predatory insects in the Cook Islands with a historical review. DSIR (Report), 42 pp

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

Waterhouse DF, Norris KR, 1987. Biological control: Pacific prospects. viii + 454pp

Wen HungChich, Lu FengMing, Hao HsiouHwa, Liou TsungDao, 2002. Insects pests and their injuries and control on longan in Southern Taiwan. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 51(3), 56-64.

Williams DJ, 1985. Australian mealybugs. London, UK; British Museum (Natural History), 431 pp

Williams DJ, Watson GW, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 267 pp

Distribution References

Adly D, Fadl H A A A, Mousa S F M, 2016. Survey and seasonal abundance of mealybug species, their parasitoids and associated predators on guava trees in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control. 26 (3), 657-664. http://www.ejbpc.com/

Al-Jahdhami A A, Al-Rashdi S, Al-Jahdhami M, 2020. Two new records of the genus Icerya signoret, 1875 (Hemiptera, coccomorpha, monophlebidae) from Oman. Journal of Insect Biodiversity and Systematics. 7 (1), 59-65. https://jibs.modares.ac.ir/article-36-46412-en.pdf

Anon, 2015. Scale insect scare in La Plaine. In: The Sun, July 2, http://sundominica.com/articles/scale-insect-scare-in-la-plaine-2490/

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Biosecurity Australia, 2002. Citrus Imports from the Arab Republic of Egypt: A Review Under Existing Import Conditions for Citrus from Israel., 1-138. https://www.agriculture.gov.au/sites/default/files/sitecollectiondocuments/ba/plant/ungroupeddocs/fin_egyptian_citrus.pdf

Biosecurity Australia, 2002a. Quarantine Requirements for Import of Fijian Papaya to Australia., 1-14. https://docplayer.net/90153969-Quarantine-requirements-for-import-of-fijian-papaya-to-australia.html

Biosecurity Australia, 2002b. Technical Issues Paper: Import Risk Analysis for the Importation of Unshu Mandarin Fruit from Japan., Australia: Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment. 1-131. https://www.agriculture.gov.au/sites/default/files/sitecollectiondocuments/ba/plant/ungroupeddocs/unshu_tip.pdf

Biosecurity Australia, 2003. Technical Issues Paper: Import Risk Analysis (IRA) for the Importation of Fresh Mangosteen Fruit from Thailand., Australia: Commonwealth of Australia. 1-83. https://www.agriculture.gov.au/sites/default/files/sitecollectiondocuments/ba/memos/2003/plant/tip_fin_mangosteen.pdf

Biosecurity New Zealand, 2008. Import Risk Analysis: Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fresh fruit from Australia., New Zealand: Biosecurity New Zealand. 1-121. https://www.teururakau.govt.nz/dmsdocument/2876/direct

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, EPPO, 2008. Icerya seychellarum. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 52. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20083133647

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Hill M G, Blackmore P J M, 1980. Interactions between ants and the coccid Icerva seychellarum on Aldabra Atoll. Oecologia. 45 (3), 360-365. DOI:10.1007/BF00540206

Jacobsen B J, Zidack N K, Larson B J, 2004. The role of Bacillus-based biological control agents in integrated pest management systems: plant diseases. Phytopathology. 94 (11), 1272-1275. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2004.94.11.1272

Malini Nilamudeen, Nandakumar C, 2012. First records of Icerya aegypticum (Dgl.) and Icerya seychellarum (Westw.) on Ocimum tenuiflorum L. in Kerala. Insect Environment. 18 (1/2), 3.

Newberry D McC, Undated. Infestation of the coccid, Icerya seychellarum (Westw.), on the mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. on Aldabra Atoll, with special reference to tree age. Oecologia. 45 (3), 325-330. DOI:10.1007/BF00540200

Newbery D McC, 1980. Interactions between the coccid, Icerya seychellarum (Westw.), and its host tree species on Aldabra Atoll. 1. Euphorbia pyrifolia Lam. Oecologia. 46 (2), 171-179. DOI:10.1007/BF00540123

NHM, 1966. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1984. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1990. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Rao V P, 1951. Iceryine scale insects recorded from the Orient. Indian Journal of Entomology. 39-66, 127-158.

Srivastava O S, 1973. First record of Icerya seychellarum Westwood (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) infesting crotons from Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Entomology. 35 (4), 348.

Suh SooJung, Bombay K, 2015. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) found on dracaena and ficus plants (Asparagales: Asparagaceae, Rosales: Moraceae) from southeastern Asia. Insecta Mundi. 1-10. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2015

UK, CAB International, 1955. Icerya seychellarum. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 52. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20056600052

Unruh C M, Gullan P J, 2008. Molecular data reveal convergent reproductive strategies in iceryine scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Monophlebidae), allowing the re-interpretation of morphology and a revised generic classification. Systematic Entomology. 33 (1), 8-50. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/sen DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2007.00404.x

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Wen HungChich, Lu FengMing, Hao HsiouHwa, Liou TsungDao, 2002. Insects pests and their injuries and control on longan in Southern Taiwan. Journal of Agricultural Research of China. 51 (3), 56-64.

Williams D J, 1985. Australian mealybugs. London, United Kingdom: British Museum (Natural History). viii + 431 pp.

Williams D J, Watson G W, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. In: The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 267 pp.

Yunus A, Ho T H, 1980. Bulletin Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia, 538 pp.

Distribution Maps

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