Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Icerya seychellarum
(Seychelles scale)

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Datasheet

Icerya seychellarum (Seychelles scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Icerya seychellarum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Seychelles scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleIcerya seychellarum
Caption
Copyright©David Greathead/CABI BioScience
Icerya seychellarum©David Greathead/CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Icerya seychellarum (Westwood, 1855)

Preferred Common Name

  • Seychelles scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Dorthesia seychellarum
  • Icerya okadae

International Common Names

  • English: Okada cottony-cushion scale; silvery cushion scale

EPPO code

  • ICERSE (Icerya seychellarum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Monophlebidae
  •                                     Genus: Icerya
  •                                         Species: Icerya seychellarum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BotswanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
ComorosPresentEPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2008)
KenyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
MadagascarPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
MalawiPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2008)
MauritiusPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-RodriguesPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
MozambiquePresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2008)
RéunionPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2008)
SenegalPresentNHM (1966); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
SeychellesPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-Zanzibar IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1955)
UgandaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)

Asia

British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentHill and Blackmore (1980); CABI (Undated)
BruneiPresentWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-FujianPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-GuangdongPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
Hong KongPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-AssamPresentRao (1951); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-KarnatakaPresentRao (1951); NHM (1990); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-KeralaPresentRao (1951); CABI and EPPO (2008); Malini Nilamudeen and Nandakumar (2012); EPPO (2020)
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Srivastava, 1973
-MaharashtraPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-MeghalayaPresentNHM (1984); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-Tamil NaduPresentRao (1951); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-West BengalPresentRao (1951); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
IndonesiaPresentWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-Irian JayaPresentWilliams and Watson (1990); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-SumatraPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-KyushuPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-ShikokuPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresent, LocalizedWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-SarawakPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
MyanmarPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2008)
NepalPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
ThailandPresentWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
YemenPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)

Europe

FrancePresentEPPO (2020)
-CorsicaPresentEPPO (2020)
GermanyAbsent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2020)
ItalyAbsent, EradicatedEPPO (2020)
PortugalPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-MadeiraPresentEPPO (2020)
SpainPresentEPPO (2020)

North America

DominicaPresentAnon (2015); EPPO (2020)
GuadeloupePresentEPPO (2020)
MartiniquePresentEPPO (2020)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2008)
AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Australian National Insect Collection, 1900
-Northern TerritoryPresentCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Australian National Insect Collection, 1990
-QueenslandPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Australian National Insect Collection, 1994
Cook IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentWilliams (1985); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
FijiPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
French PolynesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
KiribatiPresentWilliams and Watson (1990); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
NauruPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
New CaledoniaPresentWilliams and Watson (1990); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
NiuePresentWilliams and Watson (1990); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
PalauPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresentWilliams and Watson (1990); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
SamoaPresentWilliams and Watson (1990); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
Solomon IslandsPresentAPPPC (1987); Williams and Watson (1990); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
TongaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
TuvaluPresentWilliams and Watson (1990); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
VanuatuPresentWilliams and Watson (1990); CABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)

South America

ColombiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)
French GuianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); EPPO (2020)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cryptochetum grandicorne Parasite Nymphs
Cryptochetum monophlebi Parasite Nymphs Mauritius; South Africa Castanospermum australe; ornamental plants
Euryischia indica Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Rodolia cardinalis Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs Mauritius; New Caledonia; Seychelles; Vanuatu fruit trees; ornamental plants
Rodolia chermisinia Predator Eggs
Rodolia limbatus Predator Eggs

References

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Anon, 2015. Scale insect scare in La Plaine. The Sun, July 2. http://sundominica.com/articles/scale-insect-scare-in-la-plaine-2490/

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)

Beardsley JW, 1955. Fluted scales and their biological control in United States administered Micronesia. Proceedings of the Haiwaiian Entomological Society, 15:391-399

Beardsley JW, 1966. Insects of Micronesia, Homoptera: Coccoidea. Insects of Micronesia, 6:377-562

Bedford ECG, 1956. An attempt to control the Seychelles scale Icerya seychellarum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Coccidae) in South Africa by introducing Cryptochaetum monophlebi Skuse (Diptera: Cryptochaetidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 28:155-165

CABI/EPPO, 2008. Icerya seychellarum. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, June (1st revision). Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 52

CIE, 1955. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 52. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture

Dumbleton LJ, 1957. Parasites and predators introduced in the Pacific Islands for the biological control of insects and other pests. South Pacific Commission Technical Paper, No. 101, 40 pp

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Hill MG, Blackmore PJM, 1980. Interactions between ants and the coccid Icerva seychellarum on Aldabra Atoll. Oecologia, 45(3):360-365

Kuwana I, 1922. Studies on Japanese Monophelebinae. Contribution II. The genus Icerya. Department of Agriculture and Commerce, Imperial Plant Quarantine Station, Yokohama, Japan, No. 2, 43 pp

Lever RJAW, 1946. Insect pests in Fiji. Bulletin. Department of Agriculture, Fiji, 16:41-44

Malini Nilamudeen, Nandakumar C, 2012. First records of Icerya aegypticum (Dgl.) and Icerya seychellarum (Westw.) on Ocimum tenuiflorum L. in Kerala. Insect Environment, 18(1/2):3

Morales CF, 1991. Margarodidae (Insecta: Hemiptera). Fauna of New Zealand, No. 21:123 pp

Newbery DMcC, 1980. Interactions between the coccid, Icerya seychellarum (Westw.), and its host tree species on Aldabra Atoll. 1. Euphorbia pyrifolia Lam. Oecologia, 46(2):171-179

Rao VP, 1951. Iceryine scale insects recorded from the Orient. Indian Journal of Entomology, 12:39-66, 127-158

Reboul JL, 1976. Principaux parasites et maladies des plantes cultivees en Polynesie Francaise. Service de l'Economie Rurale, Recherche Agronomique. No. 129/ER/RA. Pirae, 58 pp

Roberts P, Seabrook WA, 1989. A relationship between black rats (Rattus rattus), Seychelles fruit bats (Pteropus seychellensis aldabrensis) and the coccoid (Icerya seychellarum) (Insects, Homoptera) on Aldabra Atoll, Seychelles. Journal of Zoology, 218(2):332-334

Srivastava OS, 1973. First record of Icerya seychellarum Westwood (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) infesting crotons from Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Entomology, 35(4):348

Swaine G, 1971. Agricultural Zoology in Fiji. Overseas Research Publication No. 18. London, UK: Overseas Development Administration

Thorpe WH, 1934. The biology and development of Cryptochaetum grandicorne (Diptera), an internal parasite of Guerinia serratulae (Coccidae). Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science (N.S.), 77:273-304

Vesey-Fitzgerald D, 1953. Review of the biological control of coccids on coconut palms in the Seychelles. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 44:405-413

Walker AK, Deitz LL, 1977. A survey of parasitic and predatory insects in the Cook Islands with a historical review. DSIR (Report), 42 pp

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

Waterhouse DF, Norris KR, 1987. Biological control: Pacific prospects. viii + 454pp

Williams DJ, 1985. Australian mealybugs. London, UK; British Museum (Natural History), 431 pp

Williams DJ, Watson GW, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 267 pp

Distribution References

Anon, 2015. Scale insect scare in La Plaine. In: The Sun, July 2, http://sundominica.com/articles/scale-insect-scare-in-la-plaine-2490/

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

CABI, EPPO, 2008. Icerya seychellarum. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 52.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Hill M G, Blackmore P J M, 1980. Interactions between ants and the coccid Icerva seychellarum on Aldabra Atoll. Oecologia. 45 (3), 360-365. DOI:10.1007/BF00540206

Malini Nilamudeen, Nandakumar C, 2012. First records of Icerya aegypticum (Dgl.) and Icerya seychellarum (Westw.) on Ocimum tenuiflorum L. in Kerala. Insect Environment. 18 (1/2), 3.

NHM, 1966. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1984. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1990. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Rao V P, 1951. Iceryine scale insects recorded from the Orient. Indian Journal of Entomology. 39-66, 127-158.

UK, CAB International, 1955. Icerya seychellarum. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 52.

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Williams D J, 1985. Australian mealybugs. London, United Kingdom: British Museum (Natural History). viii + 431 pp.

Williams D J, Watson G W, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. In: The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 267 pp.

Distribution Maps

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