Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Icerya seychellarum
(Seychelles scale)



Icerya seychellarum (Seychelles scale)


  • Last modified
  • 15 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Icerya seychellarum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Seychelles scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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TitleIcerya seychellarum
Copyright©David Greathead/CABI BioScience
Icerya seychellarum©David Greathead/CABI BioScience


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Icerya seychellarum (Westwood, 1855)

Preferred Common Name

  • Seychelles scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Dorthesia seychellarum
  • Icerya okadae

International Common Names

  • English: Okada cottony-cushion scale; silvery cushion scale

EPPO code

  • ICERSE (Icerya seychellarum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Monophlebidae
  •                                     Genus: Icerya
  •                                         Species: Icerya seychellarum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentNewberry, 1980; Hill and Blackmore, 1980
Brunei DarussalamPresentWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ChinaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Hong KongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
IndiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-AssamPresentRao, 1951; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentNHM, 1990; Rao, 1951; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-KeralaPresentRao, 1951; CABI/EPPO, 2008; Malini and Nandakumar, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-Madhya PradeshPresentSrivastava, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-MeghalayaPresentNHM, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentRao, 1951; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-West BengalPresentRao, 1951; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaPresentWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Irian JayaPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-JavaPresentCIE, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-SumatraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-ShikokuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaRestricted distributionWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-SarawakPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MyanmarPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentWaterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
YemenPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014


BotswanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
ComorosPresentEPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MadagascarPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MalawiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MauritiusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
RéunionPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Rodriguez IslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
SenegalPresentNHM, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SeychellesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TanzaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-ZanzibarPresentCIE, 1955
UgandaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

DominicaPresentAnon, 2015
GuadeloupePresentEPPO, 2014
MartiniquePresentEPPO, 2014

South America

ColombiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
French GuianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014


FrancePresentEPPO, 2014
-CorsicaPresentEPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentEPPO, 2014
-MadeiraPresentEPPO, 2014


American SamoaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentAustralian National Insect Collection, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentAustralian National Insect Collection, 1900
-QueenslandPresentAustralian National Insect Collection, 1994
Cook IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
FijiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
French PolynesiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
KiribatiPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentWilliams, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
NauruPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
New CaledoniaPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
NiuePresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
PalauPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Papua New GuineaPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
SamoaPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
Solomon IslandsPresentAPPPC, 1987; Williams and Watson, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TongaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
TuvaluPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014
VanuatuPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008; EPPO, 2014

Habitat List

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Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cryptochetum grandicorne Parasite Nymphs
Cryptochetum monophlebi Parasite Nymphs Mauritius; South Africa Castanospermum australe; ornamental plants
Euryischia indica Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Rodolia cardinalis Predator Adults/Eggs/Nymphs Mauritius; New Caledonia; Seychelles; Vanuatu fruit trees; ornamental plants
Rodolia chermisinia Predator Eggs
Rodolia limbatus Predator Eggs


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Anon, 2015. Scale insect scare in La Plaine. The Sun, July 2.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Beardsley JW, 1955. Fluted scales and their biological control in United States administered Micronesia. Proceedings of the Haiwaiian Entomological Society, 15:391-399.

Beardsley JW, 1966. Insects of Micronesia, Homoptera: Coccoidea. Insects of Micronesia, 6:377-562.

Bedford ECG, 1956. An attempt to control the Seychelles scale Icerya seychellarum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Coccidae) in South Africa by introducing Cryptochaetum monophlebi Skuse (Diptera: Cryptochaetidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 28:155-165.

CABI/EPPO, 2008. Icerya seychellarum. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, June (1st revision). Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 52.

CIE, 1955. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 52. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

Dumbleton LJ, 1957. Parasites and predators introduced in the Pacific Islands for the biological control of insects and other pests. South Pacific Commission Technical Paper, No. 101, 40 pp.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Hill MG; Blackmore PJM, 1980. Interactions between ants and the coccid Icerva seychellarum on Aldabra Atoll. Oecologia, 45(3):360-365

Kuwana I, 1922. Studies on Japanese Monophelebinae. Contribution II. The genus Icerya. Department of Agriculture and Commerce, Imperial Plant Quarantine Station, Yokohama, Japan, No. 2, 43 pp.

Lever RJAW, 1946. Insect pests in Fiji. Bulletin. Department of Agriculture, Fiji, 16:41-44.

Malini Nilamudeen; Nandakumar C, 2012. First records of Icerya aegypticum (Dgl.) and Icerya seychellarum (Westw.) on Ocimum tenuiflorum L. in Kerala. Insect Environment, 18(1/2):3.

Morales CF, 1991. Margarodidae (Insecta: Hemiptera). Fauna of New Zealand, No. 21:123 pp.

Newbery DMcC, 1980. Interactions between the coccid, Icerya seychellarum (Westw.), and its host tree species on Aldabra Atoll. 1. Euphorbia pyrifolia Lam. Oecologia, 46(2):171-179

Rao VP, 1951. Iceryine scale insects recorded from the Orient. Indian Journal of Entomology, 12:39-66, 127-158.

Reboul JL, 1976. Principaux parasites et maladies des plantes cultivees en Polynesie Francaise. Service de l'Economie Rurale, Recherche Agronomique. No. 129/ER/RA. Pirae, 58 pp.

Roberts P; Seabrook WA, 1989. A relationship between black rats (Rattus rattus), Seychelles fruit bats (Pteropus seychellensis aldabrensis) and the coccoid (Icerya seychellarum) (Insects, Homoptera) on Aldabra Atoll, Seychelles. Journal of Zoology, 218(2):332-334

Srivastava OS, 1973. First record of Icerya seychellarum Westwood (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) infesting crotons from Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Entomology, 35(4):348

Swaine G, 1971. Agricultural Zoology in Fiji. Overseas Research Publication No. 18. London, UK: Overseas Development Administration.

Thorpe WH, 1934. The biology and development of Cryptochaetum grandicorne (Diptera), an internal parasite of Guerinia serratulae (Coccidae). Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science (N.S.), 77:273-304.

Vesey-Fitzgerald D, 1953. Review of the biological control of coccids on coconut palms in the Seychelles. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 44:405-413.

Walker AK; Deitz LL, 1977. A survey of parasitic and predatory insects in the Cook Islands with a historical review. DSIR (Report), 42 pp.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Waterhouse DF; Norris KR, 1987. Biological control: Pacific prospects. viii + 454pp

Williams DJ, 1985. Australian mealybugs. London, UK; British Museum (Natural History), 431 pp.

Williams DJ; Watson GW, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 267 pp.

Distribution Maps

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