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Datasheet

Mesosphaerum pectinatum
(comb bushmint)

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Datasheet

Mesosphaerum pectinatum (comb bushmint)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Mesosphaerum pectinatum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • comb bushmint
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • M. pectinatum is a shrubby herb native to Mexico, the Caribbean and northwest South America. It is introduced and widespread in sub-Saharan Africa (where erroneously considered native by some authors, at least...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Mesosphaerum pectinatum (L.) Poit.

Preferred Common Name

  • comb bushmint

Other Scientific Names

  • Bystropogon pectinatum (L.) L'Her. 1788
  • Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit. 1806
  • Nepeta pectinata L. 1759 (Basionym)

International Common Names

  • Spanish: chancua hedionda; poleo
  • French: fausse menthe
  • Portuguese: betonica; canudinho; hortela; hortela-brava; sambacaita

Local Common Names

  • Cook Islands: miri tita
  • Côte d'Ivoire: aoromagnina; ki-woblu; klinene
  • Fiji: damoli; tamole ni veikau; tamoli ni papalagi; tamoli ni vavalagi; tinoci ne vavalagi; wavuwavu
  • Ghana: baeba; kadoke; opea; opeaba; opeabaa; piaa
  • Guam: mumuntun lahe; mumutun ademelon; mumutun palaoan
  • India: ban tulsia
  • Madagascar: afolava
  • Mexico: alhucema del pais; hierba del burro; xoltexnuk
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: pathpath

EPPO code

  • HPYPE (Hyptis pectinata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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M. pectinatum is a shrubby herb native to Mexico, the Caribbean and northwest South America. It is introduced and widespread in sub-Saharan Africa (where erroneously considered native by some authors, at least formerly), and on many Pacific islands. It is also present in Florida (USA), Macronesian and Indian Ocean islands, Australia and south and southeast Asia. M. pectinatum is a common weed of disturbed and open ground, where it may form dense stands. It spreads readily by prolific production of tiny seeds, which are easily transported by water, animals, vehicles and in mud. Its main impacts are as an agricultural weed and as a weed of disturbed areas and wetland edges, where it may displace native vegetation. It is a designated noxious weed in Fiji (Mune and Parham, 1956) and Hawaii; an agricultural weed, environmental weed, naturalised and noxious weed by GCW (2013) and is a potential environmental weed in Australia (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998). PIER (2013) gave M. pectinatum a high risk assessment score of 11 for the Pacific Islands.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Mesosphaerum
  •                                 Species: Mesosphaerum pectinatum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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M. pectinatum was previously known as Hyptis pectinata and this name is still frequently used. The genus Hyptis Jacq. 1787 was recently shown to be polyphyletic (Harley and Pastore, 2012), and the section to which this species belongs was raised to generic level as Mesosphaerum. Genus Mesosphaerum P. Browne 1756 now includes about 25 species with a primarily Andean distribution, extending to Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean, with two species extending to Brazil and one species, M. gymnocaulon (Epling) Harley and J.F.B. Pastore, endemic to the Galapagos Islands.

Many of the common names used for M. pectinatum in the Pacific refer to its foreign origin, such as papalagi, vavalagi or palaoan (‘foreign’, ‘European’ and ‘Palauan’, respectively).

Description

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Slender, erect, shrubby, annual or short-lived perennial herb, commonly to 1.5 m tall, occasionally 4 m; aromatic if crushed. 4-angled stems. Leaves ovate to ovate-elliptic, cuneate to subcordate at base, acute or blunt at tip, puberulent or glabrescent dorsally, crenate-serrate, 2–9 cm long, 1–6 cm wide. Flowers subsessile, white to pale violet, in cymules axillary to reduced leaves, subtended by linear pubescent bracts 1–3 mm long. Calyx c. 2 mm, enlarging in fruit to 4 mm. Corolla 2.5 mm, lower lip darker; filaments somewhat pubescent. Nutlets oblong, 1 mm long, black. 

A more detailed descriptions is given by Chen and Wu (2005).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Biennial
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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M. pectinatum is native to northwest South America, from Peru and Bolivia, through Central America to Mexico, as well as many Caribbean islands.

It is introduced and widespread in sub-Saharan Africa (Hyde et al., 2013) and many Pacific islands (PIER 2013). It is also present in Florida (USA), Australia, Indian Ocean islands and south and southeast Asia. It is also reportedly introduced and invasive in Brazil.

M. pectinatum is present in Macronesia, but precise distribution records are not available (Borgen 1975).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentIntroducedHutchinson et al. (1963)
BotswanaPresentIntroducedCJB (2013)
Cabo VerdePresentIntroducedCJB (2013)
CameroonPresentIntroducedTchoumbougnang et al. (2005)
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedHutchinson et al. (1963)
GhanaPresentIntroducedHutchinson et al. (1963)
GuineaPresentIntroducedHutchinson et al. (1963)
KenyaPresentIntroducedKloos et al. (1987)
MadagascarPresentIntroducedCJB (2013)
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasiveUICN (2013)
NigeriaPresentIntroducedHutchinson et al. (1963)
RwandaPresentIntroducedAuquier and Renard (1975)
South AfricaPresentIntroducedCJB (2013)
TogoPresentIntroducedHutchinson et al. (1963)
ZimbabwePresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedInvasiveHyde et al. (2013)

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedPietschmann et al. (1998)
-Madhya PradeshPresentIntroducedKshipra Nag and Zia-ul-Hasan (2013)
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
-JavaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Backer and (1973)
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveChen ShihHuei and Wu MingJou (2005)
VietnamPresentIntroducedInvasiveKoo et al. (2000)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
BahamasPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
BarbadosPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
BelizePresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
Costa RicaPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
CubaPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013); Salgado (1978)
DominicaPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
Dominican RepublicPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
El SalvadorPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
GrenadaPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedInvasiveFournet (1993)
GuatemalaPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
HaitiPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
HondurasPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
JamaicaPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
MexicoPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
MontserratPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
Netherlands AntillesPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013); Boldingh (1909)
NicaraguaPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
PanamaPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
Puerto RicoPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentUSDA-NRCS (2013); Boldingh (1909)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGann and Bradley (2000)
-HawaiiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveWagner et al. (1999); Hawaii (Big) Island

Oceania

American SamoaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2000)Ta'u & Tutuila Islands
AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGroves and Hosking (1997)
-QueenslandPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveCsurhes and Edwards (1998)Spreading
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveRandall et al. (1999)
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Aitutaki Atoll, 'Atiu Island, Mangaia Island, Miti'aro Island, Rarotonga Island; Original citation: Space et al. (2000)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedMerlin et al. (1996)Yap
FijiPresentIntroducedInvasiveNicholson (1981); Smith (1991)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWelsh (1998); Florence et al. (2013)Tahiti Island
GuamPresentIntroducedInvasiveStone (1970); Fosberg et al. (1979)
New CaledoniaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveMacKee (1994); Gargominy et al. (1996)Grand Terre Island
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveFosberg et al. (1975); Fosberg et al. (1979); Raulerson (2006); PIER (2014); CABI (Undated)Present on Arigan, Alamagan, Maug, Pagan, Rota, Saipan, Sarigan and Tinian Islands
PalauPresentIntroducedFosberg et al. (1979); Space et al. (2003)
Papua New GuineaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHenty and Pritchard (1975)
SamoaPresentInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2002); PIER (2014)Present on Savai'i Island and 'Upolu Island
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasiveSpace and Flynn (2001)Ha'ano Island, Lifuka and Foa Islands, 'Uiha Island, 'Eua Island, Tongatapu Island, Vava'u Island
VanuatuPresentIntroducedSwarbrick (1997)

South America

BoliviaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
BrazilPresentIntroducedInvasiveLorenzi (2000)
-SergipePresentIntroducedAndrade et al. (2006)
ColombiaPresent, WidespreadNativeMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
EcuadorPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveRentería and Buddenhagen (2006); Charles Darwin Foundation (2013); Santa Cruz Island
French GuianaPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
GuyanaPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
PeruPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)
SurinamePresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2013)
VenezuelaPresent, WidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS (2013)

History of Introduction and Spread

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M. pectinatum appears to have been introduced to many places unintentionally and, partly for this reason, few details of its introduction history are known. However, as it is also a medicinal plant, it may have been spread to some places deliberately, both internationally and locally.

Risk of Introduction

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M. pectinatum spreads by tiny ‘seeds’ (actually nutlets) which can be transported in animal fur or in mud (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998). It is primarily a weed of disturbed places, including agricultural areas and roadsides, so its seeds are easily spread unintentionally by human activities, including on vehicles, domestic animals, and the transport of produce.

It is regarded as a medicinal and culinary plant in Mexico (Rojas et al., 1992), Brazil (Andrade et al., 2006; Raymundo et al., 2011), India (Nag and Hasan, 2013) and West Africa (Malan et al., 1986; 1988; Burkill, 1994), so it may also be spread intentionally. Given that the plant readily seeds within 9 months of planting (Andrade et al., 2006), and that the tiny seeds are easily spread, it is almost inevitable that M. pectinatum will become naturalized wherever it is grown as a crop, and would then spread into disturbed sites and other preferred habitats, such as wetlands.

Habitat

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M. pectinatum grows mainly in tropical and subtropical areas, in both its native and introduced range. It is often regarded as a plant of lowlands or coastal areas, but can occur at altitudes up to 1500 m in Africa. It is often found in open and waste habitats and in disturbed sites associated with human activity. It is a fast-growing colonizer of disturbed sites, where it is often found in almost monospecific stands.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Principal habitat Natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Riverbanks Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Principal habitat Natural
Wetlands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Principal habitat Natural
Scrub / shrublands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome number = 32 (Auquier and Renard, 1975; Borgen, 1975).

Reproductive biology

M. pectinatum reproduces by prolific production of seed. It can complete reproductive cycle within 9 months (Andrade et al., 2009). Germination is stimulated by light and warmth (Neto et al., 2008).

Associations

It is a host of the common spiral nematode Helicotylenchus dihystera (CABI, 2014).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural dispersal (non-biotic)

The species spreads by prolific production of tiny (≤ 1 mm) ‘seeds’ (actually nutlets), but does not have obvious adaptations for long-distance seed transport.

Vector transmission (biotic)

Seeds can stick in animal fur.

Accidental introduction

Seeds can be transported by vehicles or in mud (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998). M. pectinatum is primarily a weed of disturbed places, including agricultural areas and roadsides, so its seeds are easily spread unintentionally by vehicles, domestic animals and transport of produce.

Intentional introduction

M. pectinatum is regarded as a medicinal and culinary plant in Mexico (Rojas et al., 1992), Brazil (Andrade et al., 2006; Raymundo et al., 2011), India (Nag and Hasan, 2013) and West Africa (Malan et al., 1986; 1988; Burkill, 1994), so may be spread intentionally within these countries.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceAccidental, frequent Yes Yes
Flooding and other natural disastersAccidental Yes Yes
HitchhikerAccidental, frequent Yes Yes
Medicinal useDeliberate Yes Yes
Military movementsAccidental Yes

Pathway Vectors

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Economic Impact

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M. pectinatum can be a weed of agricultural land, so may negatively impact crop yields. In Fiji, Mune and Parham (1967) described it as ‘a weed of agricultural, pastoral and plantation lands which reduces production in terms of crop yields, meat, milk and and butterfat, and is a potential breeding palce for plant diseases and insect pests.’ It is unpalatable to stock and tends to increase under heavy grazing. In Cuba, it is a major weed of tobacco seedbeds (Salgado, 1978).

Environmental Impact

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M. pectinatum primarily invades open and disturbed habitats and wetlands, but also wet tropical highlands (Rentería and Buddenhagen, 2006). It can displace native species.

Social Impact

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M. pectinatum is a scrubby weed and regarded as unsightly in gardens and public places.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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M. pectinatum is regarded as a medicinal and culinary plant in Mexico (Rojas et al., 1992), Brazil (Andrade et al., 2006; Raymundo et al., 2011), India (Nag and Hasan, 2013) and West Africa (Malan et al., 1986; 1988; Burkill, 1994),

It is used more as a medicinal plant, including as an antiseptic, although other medicinal effects have been suggested, as well as activity as an insecticide and nematicide (Pietschmann et al., 1998).

Aside from these largely traditional medicinal uses, extracts of the plant have been tested for various kinds of medicinal activity, showing promise as an antiseptic (e.g. Rojas et al., 1992; Nascimento et al., 2008), an anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive (Bispo et al., 2001; Arrigoni-Blank et al., 2008; Raymundo et al., 2011) and as an antidepressive (Bueno et al., 2006).

Uses List

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General

  • Ritual uses

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Essential oils

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore
  • Veterinary

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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M. pectinatum may be confused with other Lamiaceae, especially those in the subtribe Hyptidinae; however, Mesosphaerum spp. differ from Hyptis spp. in having an elongated rather than globose or hemispherical inflorescence.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Where it is grown as a medicinal or culinary plant, growers should be made aware of the invasive potential of the plant, although it is unlikely that this would lead to effective containment.

Alternatively, M. pectinatum can readily be controlled by foliar application of broad-spectrum herbicides including 2,4-D and MCPA (Mune and Parham, 1954; 1956; Cates, 1969; Reynolds, 1978). This may often be possible with minimal environmental side-effects owing to the tendencies of M. pectniatum to grow in disturbed areas and to form dense stands that are almost monospecific.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Detailed information on distribution is not available for much of the probable introduced range, particularly in south Asia, parts of Africa and Indian Ocean islands.

References

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Andrade TA; Azevedo VG; Matos CG; Santos HOdos; Blank MFA; Blank AF; Silva-Mann R, 2006. [English title unavailable] (Fenologia em Sambacaitá (Hyptis pectinata L. Poit)). http://www.abhorticultura.com.br/biblioteca/arquivos/Download/Biblioteca/46_0666.pdf

Arrigoni-Blank MF; Antoniolli AR; Caetano LC; Campos DA; Blank AF; Alves PB, 2008. Antinociceptive activity of the volatile oils of Hyptis pectinata L. Poit. (Lamiaceae) genotypes. Phytomedicine, 15(5):334-339. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09447113

Auquier P; Renard R, 1975. Chromosome numbers of some Angiosperms of Rwanda, Burundi and Kivu (Zaire). 1. (Nombres chromosomiques de quelques Angiospermes du Rwanda, Burundi et Kivu (Zaire). 1.) Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, 45(3/4):421-445.

Backer CA, 1973. Atlas of 220 weeds of sugar-cane fields in Java. In: van Steenis CGGJ, ed. Handbook for the cultivation of sugar-cane and manufacturing of cane sugar in Java. Vol. 7: Atlas (final instalment). Pasuruan, Indonesia: Indonesian Sugar Experiment Station.

Bispo MD; Mourão RHV; Franzotti EM; Bomfim KBR; Arrigoni-Blank Mde F; Moreno MPN; Marchioro M; Antoniolli AR, 2001. Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of the aqueous extract of Hyptis pectinata leaves in experimental animals. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 76(1):81-86.

Boldingh I, 1909. The Flora of the Dutch West Indian Islands St. Eustatius, Saba and St. Martin. Leiden, Netherlands: Late E.J. Brill Ltd, 594 pp.

Borgen L, 1975. Chromosome numbers of vascular plants from Macaronesia. Norwegian Journal of Botany, 22:71-76.

Bruegmann M; Zablan MA; Newman J, 2008. Short Form Summary. Species Reviewed: Munroidendron racemosum (no common name). 5-year review. https://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3330.pdf

Bueno AX; Moreira ATS; Silva FT; Estevam CS; Marchioro M, 2006. Effects of the aqueous extract from Hyptis pectinata leaves on rodent central nervous system. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 16(3):317-323. http://www.sbfgnosia.org.br/admin/pages/revista/artigo/arquivos/167-arquivo-Artigo%206.pdf

Burkill HM, 1994. The useful plants of west tropical Africa. Volume 2. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, 636.

CABI, 2014. Plantwise Knowledge Bank. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. http://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Home.aspx

Cates AH, 1969. Common weeds of Fiji and suggested methods of control. In: Weed control basic to agriculture development.: Proceedings 1st Asian-Pacific Weed Control Interchange, Hawaii 1967. 14-15.

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2013. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation. http://checklists.datazone.darwinfoundation.org/

Chen SH; Wu MJ, 2005. Notes on three newly naturalized plants in Taiwan. Taiwania, 50(1):29-39.

CJB, 2013. African Plant Database. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques Ville de Geneve. http://www.ville-ge.ch/musinfo/bd/cjb/africa/details.php?langue=anandid=116816

Csurhes S; Edwards R, 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: candidate species for preventive control. Canberra, Australia: Biodiversity Group, Environmental Australia, 202 pp. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/publications/books/pubs/potential.pdf

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Database of the Nadeaud Botanical Herbarium of French Polynesia (PAP) (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP)). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Fosberg FR; Falanruw MVC; Sachet M-H, 1975. Vascular flora of the Northern Marianas Islands [: an annotated list in systematic order]. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, No. 22. iii, 45 pp.

Fosberg FR; Sachet MH; Oliver R, 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica, 15:1-295.

Fournet J, 1993. Phytoecological characteristics of weed populations in sugar cane and banana plantations in Basse Terre (Guadeloupe). (Caractérisation phytoécologique des peuplements de mauvaises herbes des champs de canne à sucre et des bananeraies de la Basse Terre (Guadeloupe).) Weed Research (Oxford), 33(5):383-395.

Gann GD; Bradley KA, 2000. The Exotic Plants of Southern Florida. Exotic Specifics. Miami, Florida, USA: The Institute for Regional Conservation.

Gargominy O; Bouchet P; Pascal M; Jaffre T; Tourneu JC, 1996. [English title not available]. (Consequences des introductions d'especes animals et vegetales sur la biodiversite en Nouvelle-Caledonie.) Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie), 51:375-401.

GCW, 2013. Global Compendium of Weeds. http://www.hear.org/gcw/

Groves RH; Hosking JR, 1997. Recent incursions of weeds to Australia 1971-1995. Technical Series No. 38. Adelaide, Australia: CRC for Weed Management Systems.

Harley RM; Pastore JFB, 2012. A generic revision and new combinations in the Hyptidinae (Lamiaceae), based on molecular and morphological evidence. Phytotaxa, 58:1-55.

Henty EE; Pritchard GH, 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their Control. Lp, Papua New Guinea: Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bulletin No.7.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Hutchinson J; Dalziel JM, 1963. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Volume II. 2nd ed. (rev.). Revised by Hepper FN. pp. xi + 544. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London.

Hyde MA; Wursten BT; Ballings P; Coates Palgrave M, 2013. Flora of Zimbabwe. http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw

Kloos H; Thiongo FW; Ouma JH; Butterworth AE, 1987. Preliminary evaluation of some wild and cultivated plants for snail control in Machakos District, Kenya. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 90(4):197-204.

Koo SK; Chin YW; Kwon YW; Cung HA, 2000. Common Weeds in Vietnam., Vietnam: Agriculture Publishing House.

Lorenzi H, 2000. Plantas daninhas do Brasil. Terrestres, Aquaticus, Parasitas e Toxicas, edition 2. Instituto Plantarum De Estudos Da Flora Ltda.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

Malan K; Dusart G; Marion C; Loukou Y; Siméon de Buochberg M; Attisso M; Pelissier Y, 1986. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit. (Activité antibactérienne de l'huile essentielle d'Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit.) Plantes Médicinales et Phytothérapie, 20(4):323-329.

Malan K; Pelissier Y; Marion C; Blaise A; Bessière JM, 1988. The essential oil of Hyptis pectinata. Planta Medica, 54(6):531-532.

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Space JC; Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 50 pp.

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UICN, 2013. Invasive Species Overseas (Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer). Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France. http://www.especes-envahissantes-outremer.fr/autoComplete/index.php

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Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Welsh SL, 1998. A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. Orem, Utah, USA: EPS Inc., 420 pp.

Wysong M; Hughes G; Wood KR, 2007. New Hawaiian plant records for the island of Moloka'i. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2006, Part 2: Notes:1-8. [Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 96.] http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/publications/op96.pdf

Distribution References

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Kshipra Nag, Zia-ul-Hasan, 2013. Study of some rare medicinal wild herbs from gardens of Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh (India). International Journal of Pharmacy and Life Sciences (IJPLS). 4 (3), 2437-2439. http://www.ijplsjournal.com/issues%20PDF%20files/march-2013/3.pdf

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Merlin M, Kigfas A, Keene T, Juvik J, 1996. Giddi nge gakiiy nu Wa'ab: Plants, people and ecology in Yap State., Honolulu, USA: Program on Environment, East-West Center.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013. Tropicos database., St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Nicholson S A, 1981. Community and population level shifts in a young 'raw earth' succession in Fiji. Tropical Ecology. 22 (1), 115-126.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pietschmann M, Vostrowsky O, Bestmann H J, Pant A K, Mathela C S, 1998. Volatile constituents of Hyptis pectinata Poit. (Lamiaceae). Journal of Essential Oil Research. 10 (5), 550-552.

Randall RP, Mitchell AA, Waterhouse BM, 1999. Tropical Weeds Report. Internal Report to Manager of Plant Industry Protection., Australia: Department of Agriculture.

Raulerson L, 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. In: University of Guam Herbarium Contribution, 37 1-69.

Rentería JL, Buddenhagen C, 2006. Invasive plants in the Scalesia pedunculata forest at Los Gemelos, Santa Cruz, Galapagos. In: Galapagos Research, 64 31-35.

Salgado F C, 1978. Composition and competitive power of the flora in tobacco seedbeds of Havana province. (Composicion y agresividad de la flora existente en semilleros de tabaco en la provincia de la Habana.). In: Resumenes, Reunion de Trabajo sobre Proteccion de Plantas, Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical "Alejandro de Humboldt", Cuba. [Resumenes, Reunion de Trabajo sobre Proteccion de Plantas, Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical "Alejandro de Humboldt", Cuba.], 3.

Smith A C, 1991. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Volume 5: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, families 170-186, Moncotyledones, Family 32, addenda et corrigenda, index. In: Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Volume 5: Angiospermae: Dicotyledones, families 170-186, Moncotyledones, Family 32, addenda et corrigenda, index. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. iii + 626 pp.

Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. 50 pp.

Space JC, Flynn T, 2001. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. 78 pp.

Space JC, Flynn T, 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service. 146 pp.

Space JC, Waterhouse B, Miles JE, Tiobech J, Rengulbai K, 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service. 174 pp.

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Swarbrick J T, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. In: Technical Paper - South Pacific Commission, Nouméa, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission (Commission du Pacifique Sud). viii + 124 pp.

Tchoumbougnang F, Zollo P H A, Boyom F F, Nyegue M A, Bessière J M, Menut C, 2005. Aromatic plants of tropical Central Africa. XLVIII. Comparative study of the essential oils of four Hyptis species from Cameroon: H. lanceolata Poit., H. pectinata (L.) Poit., H. spicigera Lam. and H. suaveolens Poit. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 20 (3), 340-343. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/ DOI:10.1002/ffj.1441

UICN, 2013. Invasive Species Overseas (Les espéces envahissantes en outre-mer). In: Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France, http://www.especes-envahissantes-outremer.fr/autoComplete/index.php

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2013. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Wagner W L, Herbst D R, Sohmer S H, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 & 2. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i Press/Bishop Museum Press. 1918 + [1] pp.

Welsh SL, 1998. A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands., Orem, Utah, USA: EPS Inc. 420 pp.

Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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27/06/13 original text by:

Alan Tye, BirdLife Cyprus, Cyprus

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