Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Hypera postica
(lucerne weevil)

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Datasheet

Hypera postica (lucerne weevil)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hypera postica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lucerne weevil
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813)

Preferred Common Name

  • lucerne weevil

Other Scientific Names

  • Curcuilio brunnipennis Boheman, 1834
  • Hypera brunnipennis (Boheman, 1834)
  • Hypera variabilis (Herbst, 1795)
  • Phytonomus posticus Gyllenhal
  • Phytonomus transsylvanicus Petri, 1901
  • Phytonomus variabilis (Herbst, 1795 nec Fabricius, 1777)
  • Rhynchaenus posticus Gyllenhal, 1813

International Common Names

  • English: alfalfa weevil; weevil, alfalfa; weevil, lucerne
  • Spanish: gorgojo de la alfalfa; gusano verde de la alfalfa; picudo de la alfalfa
  • French: babotte grise; charançon postiche de la luzerne; phytonome variable

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: lucernegnaver
  • Finland: mailaskärsäkäs
  • Germany: Nager, Luzernblatt-
  • Israel: chidkonit haaspeset
  • Italy: punteruolo della medica
  • Netherlands: Lucernekever, gewone
  • Norway: lusernegnager
  • Sweden: vickerbladvivel
  • Turkey: yonca hortumlu bocegi

EPPO code

  • HYPRPO (Hypera postica)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Curculionidae
  •                             Genus: Hypera
  •                                 Species: Hypera postica

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
EgyptPresent
LibyaPresent
TunisiaPresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
ArmeniaPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BruneiPresent, Localized
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-XinjiangPresent
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HaryanaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Localized
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
KyrgyzstanPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresent, Localized
MongoliaPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent, Localized
Saudi ArabiaPresent
TajikistanPresent
TurkeyPresent
TurkmenistanPresent
UzbekistanPresent

Europe

AlbaniaPresent
AustriaPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresent
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
EstoniaPresent
FrancePresent
-CorsicaPresent
GermanyPresent
GibraltarPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent
LatviaPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MaltaPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-SiberiaPresent
SpainPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
MexicoPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-DelawarePresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MainePresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-NevadaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresentOriginal citation: Metcalf and Metcalf (1993)
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent
-VermontPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-West VirginiaPresent
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent, Localized
AustraliaPresent, Localized
Papua New GuineaPresent, Localized
SamoaPresent, Localized

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / internal feeding; boring
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Stems / external feeding
Stems / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Adalia bipunctata Predator
Aeolothrips fasciatus Predator
Amara farcta Predator
Anaphes fuscipennis Parasite USA Medicago sativa
Anaphes luna Parasite USA Medicago sativa
Aspergillus ochraceus Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis san-diego Pathogen
Bathyplectes anurus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Bathyplectes contracta Parasite USA Medicago sativa
Bathyplectes curculionis Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Bathyplectes exiguus Parasite
Bathyplectes stenostigmus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults
Carabidae Predator Adults; Arthropods|Larvae
Coccinella septempunctata Predator
Coccinella transversoguttata Predator
Coleomegilla maculata Predator
Collops bipunctata Predator
Conidiobolus osmodes Pathogen France Medicago sativa
Cycloneda munda Predator
Diadegma fenestrale Parasite
Dibrachoides druso Parasite Eggs
Dibrachoides dynastes Parasite France Medicago sativa
Erynia phytonomi Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae France Medicago sativa
Eupelminus excavatus Parasite Eggs
Fidiobia rugosifrons Parasite
Frankliniella tritici Predator
Geocoris pallens Predator
Harpalus amputatus Predator
Harpalus pensylvanicus Predator
Hexamermis albicans Parasite
Hexamermis parastepposis Parasite Uzbekistan Medicago sativa
Hippodamia convergens Predator
Hippodamia parenthesis Predator
Hippodamia sinuata Predator
Hippodamia tredecimpunctata Predator
Hippodamia variegata Predator
Medina multispina Parasite
Meigenia mutabilis Parasite
Mermis gigantea Parasite
Merostenus excavatus Parasite USA Medicago sativa
Microctonus aethiopoides Parasite Adults
Microctonus aethiops Parasite Adults
Microctonus colesi Parasite Adults
Microctonus stelleri Parasite Adults
Microsoma exigua Parasite
Nabis alternatus Predator
Nabis americoferus Predator
Octomermis lisicovae Parasite
Odynerus dilectus Predator
Oomyzus incertus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Orius tristicolor Predator
Peridesmia discus Parasite Eggs
Perilitus rutilus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Polistes chinensis antennalis Predator Japan Medicago sativa
Pterostichus melanarius Predator
Solenopsis invicta Predator
Stiretrus anchorago Predator
Strongygaster triangulifera Parasite
Wolbachia postica Parasite

References

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Adlung KG, 1964. Beobachtungen uber das Auftreten von Luzerneschadlingen undihrer Parasiten. (Observations on the occurrence of lucerne pests and their parasites.) Gesunde Pflanzen 16(7):136-140.

Al-Ayedh HY, Kondratieff BC, Blodgett SL, Peairs FB, 1996. Evaluation of hymenopterous biological control agents of the alfalfa weevil larvae Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in northcentral Colorado. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 69(4):326-336; 32 ref.

Aldryhim YN, 1994. Seasonal abundance and biology of Hypera postica (Gyllenhal) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under irrigation from two different water sources. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, 12(3):479-488

Alfaro A, 1946. Experiments in the control of some pests of lucerne with organic insecticides. Boletin de Patologia Vegetal y Entomologia Agricole, 14:335-342.

Alfieri A, 1976. The Coleoptera of Egypt. Memoires de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 5.

Ali MA, 1983. Studies on food consumption, host selection and oviposition preference of the Egyptian alfalfa weevil, Hypera brunneipennis Boh. (Col., Curculionidae). Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 95(2):175-180

Alverson DR, Stringer WC, Vybiral AJ, 1991. Effect of fall cutting and alfalfa weevil on alfalfa yields and forage quality. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 8(2):137-146

Anderson DM, 1991. Curculionidae (broad sense)(Curculionoidea). In: Stehr FW, ed. Immature Insects. Volume 2. Dubuque, USA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.

Anderson WH, 1948. A key to the larvae of some species of Hypera Germar, 1817 (=Phytonomus Schoenherr, 1823). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 50(2):25-34.

Arion G, 1958. Agricultural Entomology. Bucharest, Romania: Minist. Agric. Silvic.

Baba K, Okamoto T, Hashimoto T, Ide T, Tokuda Y, Tashiro K, 1985. Field screening of insecticides for control of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyll.). Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 21:61-63

Bai WH, Liu AP, Song YF, Xu ST, 1990. Investigation of destructive insects on major forage plants in north China. Grassland of China, 5:58-60

Balachowsky AS, 1963. Entomologie Appliquée a L'Agriculture. Tome 1. ColéoptFres (Second volume). Paris, France: Masson et Cie., 982-984.

Baloch UK, 1970. Biology of alfalfa weevil in Lebanon. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 2(2):245-246

Bass MH, 1967. Notes on the biology of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica, in Alabama. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 60(2):295-298.

Ben-Ze'ev I, Kenneth RG, 1980. Zoophthora phytonomi and Conidiobolus osmodes (Zygomycetes: Entomophthoraceae), two pathogens of Hypera species (Col.: Curculionidae) coincidental in time and place. Entomophaga, 25(2):171-186

Ben-Ze'ev IS, Jaques RP, 1990. Entomopathogenic fungi in insects in alfalfa fields in southwestern Ontario. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 121:71-78

Berberet RC, Senst KM, Nuss KE, Gibson WP, 1980. Alfalfa weevil in Oklahoma: the first ten years. Bulletin, Agricultural Experiment Station, Oklahoma State University, No. B-751:25 pp.

BERRY PA, PARKER HL, 1950. Notes on Parasites of Sitona in Europe with especial Reference to Campogaster exigua (Meig.) (Diptera, Larvaevoridae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 52(5):251-258 pp.

Bezrukova TI, 1937. Evaluation of the comparative toxicity of preparations of fluorine and arsenic. Trudy Sredne-Aziatskogo Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii, 2:72-85.

Bienko MD, 1981. Problems of protecting seed lucerne from insect pests in the Ukraine steppe. In: Sem'yanov VP, ed. Noveishie dostizheniya sel'skokhozyaistvennoi entomologii (po materialam USh s"ezda VEO, Vil'nyus, 9-13 oktyabrya 1979 g.) Vsesoyuznoe Entomologicheskoe Obshchestvo Vilnius USSR, 23-25

Bland RG, 1984. Mouthpart sensilla and mandibles of the adult alfalfa weevil Hypera postica and the Egyptian alfalfa weevil H. brunneipennis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 77(6):720-724

Bonnemaison L, 1961-62. The Animal Pests of Cultivated Plants and Forests. I-III. Paris, France: Soc. Edit. Publ. Agric.

Boulanger LW, 1969. A new record for a parasite of the alfalfa weevil in eastern United States, Eriplanus micator (Gravenhorst)(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 71(2):149-150.

Bousquet Y, 1991. Checklist of beetles of Canada and Alaska. Ottawa, Canada: Research Branch Agriculture Canada Publication.

Brindley WA, 1975. Insecticide bioassays with field populations of alfalfa weevils, a simplified approach. Journal of Economic Entomology, 68(2):227-230

Buntin GD, Bouton JH, 1996. Alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) management in alfalfa by spring grazing with cattle. Journal of Economic Entomology, 89(6):1631-1637; 14 ref.

Burbutis PP, Bray DK, Mason AH, 1967. Overwintering eggs of the alfalfa weevil in Delaware. Journal of Economic Entomology, 60(4):1007-1010.

Cairaschi EA, 1973. Some recommendations for the protection of seed crops of lucerne. Phytoma, 25(244):9-12

Campbell WV, Dudley JW, 1965. Differences among Medicago species in resistance to oviposition by the alfalfa weevil. Journal of Economic Entomology, 58(2):245-248.

Carpenter GP, 1970. Alfalfa weevil control in Idaho by early treatment of the first crop. Journal of Economic Entomology, 63(5):1602-1604.

Casagrande RA, Stehr FW, 1973. Evaluating the effects of harvesting alfalfa on alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and parasite populations in Michigan. Canadian Entomologist, 105(8):1119-1128

CIE, 1983. Hypera postica (Gyll.). Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A No. 456. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cmoluch Z, Minda A, 1977. On the weevils (Curculionidae, Coleoptera) found on Medicago sativa in Bezek (Voidvodship of Chelm) and Feliksowie (Voidvodship of Zamosc). Annales Universitatis Marip Curie-Sklodowska, 32:243-254

Core RJ, Henning JA, Gardea-Torresday J, Mostafavi R, 1996. Quantitative comparison of volatile compounds among seven Medicago spp. accessions. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 22(9):1621-1627; 25 ref.

Cothran WR, 1972. A bibliography of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal)which has recently spread to Florida and Minnesota, and the Egyptian alfalfa weevil, H. brunneipennis (Boheman)which is spreading in California and also occurs in Arizona, supplement II. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 18(2):102-108.

Cothran WR, Summers CG, Gonzáles D, 1971. Egyptian alfalfa weevil-population and ecology research. California Agriculture, 25:5.

Csiki E, 1934. Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Subfamily Hyperinae. In: Schenkling S, ed. Coleopterorum Catalogus. Part 137. Berlin, Germany: Dr W. Junk.

Danielson SD, Maglitz GR, Sorensen EL, 1987. Resistance of perennial glandular-haired Medicago species to oviposition by alfalfa weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environmental Entomology, 16(1):195-197

Davis DW, 1967. How different are the eastern and western forms of the alfalfa weevil? Proceedings of the Utah Academy of Sciences, 44:353-357.

Day WH, 1981. Biological control of the alfalfa weevil in the northeastern United States. In: Papavizas GC, ed. Biological Control in Crop Protection. Beltsville Symposia of Agricultural Research 5. London, UK: Allanheld, Osmun & Co., 361-374.

DeGooyer TA, Pedigo LP, Giles KL, 1995. Population dynamics of the alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in central and southern Iowa. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 68(3):268-278

DeGooyer TA, Pedigo LP, Giles KL, Rice ME, 1996. Phenology of the alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Iowa. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 13(1):41-53; 26 ref.

Della Beffa G, 1961. Insects Harmful to Agriculture and Modern Methods and Means of Control. 3rd edition. Gli insetti dannosi allnagricoltura ed i moderni metodi e mezzi di lotta. Milan, Italy: V. Hoepli.

DePew LJ, 1969. Field evaluation of insectides to control alfalfa weevil in Kansas. Journal of Economic Entomology, 62(6):1500-1501.

Derwesh AI, 1965. A preliminary list of identified insects and some arachnids including mites of Iraq. Bulletin of the Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq, 121:1-123.

Dhaliwal JS, 1988. The survival of lucerne weevil during summer. Indian Journal of Ecology, 15(1):87-91

Dieckmann L, 1984. Results of the 1961 expedition to Albania of the German Entomological Institute. 98th Contribution. Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Beitrage zur Entomologie, 34(2):427-440

Dorsey CK, Stephens LP, Weaver JE, 1969. Experiments to control the alfalfa weevil with hydraulic spray and granular applications. Bulletin, West Virginia University Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 578T:26 pp.

Dowdy AK, Berberet RC, Stritzke JF, Caddel JL, McNew RW, 1992. Late fall harvest, winter grazing, and weed control for reduction of alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(5):1946-1953

Drea JJ, Dysart RJ, Coles LW, 1972. Microctonus stelleri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Euphorinae), a new parasite of the alfalfa weevil introduced into the United States. Canadian Entomologist, 104(9):1445-1456

Dysart RJ, 1988. Establishment in the United States of Peridesmia discus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), an egg predator of the alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environmental Entomology, 17(2):409-411

Dysart RJ, 1989. New distribution records for the alfalfa weevil egg predator Peridesmia discus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in the eastern United States. Journal of Entomological Science, 24(1):92-95

Ellsbury MM, Pederson GA, Fairbrother TE, 1992. Resistance to foliar-feeding hypergine weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in cyanogenic white clover. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(6):2467-2472

El-Sufty R, Borpi HA, 1986. Occurrence of a coccidian in the larval population of the Egyptian alfalfa weevil, Hypera brunneipennis (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, No. 66:261-266

England S, 1995. Diel emergence patterns of the parasitoid Bathyplectes curculionis (Thomson) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) at two photoperiods. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 68(4):470-473; 11 ref.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Erney SJ, Pruess KP, Danielson SD, Powers TO, 1996. Molecular differentiation of alfalfa weevil strains (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 89(6):804-811; 22 ref.

Esmaili M, Daftari A, 1974. Screening insecticides for alfalfa weevil control in Iran. International Pest Control, 16(2):12-15

Essig EO, Michelbacher AE, 1933. The alfalfa weevil. Bulletin of the Californian Agricultural Experiment Station, 567:1-99.

Evans EW, England S, 1996. Indirect interactions in biological control of insects: pests and natural enemies in alfalfa. Ecological Applications, 6(3):920-930; 85 ref.

Faizyar A, 1971. List of plant pests [including insects and mites] and diseases of economic importance in Afghanistan. Cairo, Egypt: FAO, Near East Plant Protection Commission and Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Kabul, Afghanistan.

Farahbakhsh G, 1961. A Checklist of Economically Important Insects and other Enemies of Plants and Agricultural Products in Iran. Tehran, Iran: Department of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture.

Ferdinandsen C, Rostrup S, 1921. Report on insect pests and fungous diseases of the field and orchard in 1920. Tidsskrift for Planteaul, Copenhagen, 27:697-759.

Fjelddalen J, Ramsfjell T, 1969. Diseases and pests of agricultural plants. Second edtion. Oslo, Norway: Landbrucks for laget.

Flanders KL, Radcliffe EB, Krueger CA, 1994. Natural enemies of alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Minnesota. Great Lakes Entomologist, 27(1):7-18

Flanders SE, 1935. An apparent correlation between the feeding habits of certain pteromalids and the condition of their ovarian follicles (Pteromalidae, Hymenoptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 28(4):438-444.

Flanders SE, 1972. The duality of imaginal diapause inception in pteromalids parasitic on Hypera postica. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 65(1):105-108.

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Fortass M, Diallo S, 1993. Broad bean mottle virus in Morocco; curculionid vectors, and natural occurrence in food legumes other than faba bean (Vicia faba). Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 99(4):219-226

Fowles AP, 1994. A provisional key to weevils of the genus Hypera (Germar)(Curculionidae) recorded from Britain. Coleopterist 3(1):15-20.

Franz H, 1949. Zur Kenntnis der Rassenbildung bei Kafern der Ostalpen Fauna. Zentralblatt für das Gesamtgebiet der Entomologie, 3:3-23.

Gentry JW, 1965. Crop Insects of northeast Africa-southwest Asia. Agriculture Handbook No. 273. USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

Georghiou GP, 1977. The insects and mites of Cyprus. With emphasis on species of economic importance to agriculture, forestry, man and domestic animals. Benaki Phytopathological Institute. Athens, Greece: Kiphissia, 347 pp.

Getzin LW, 1970. Persistence of methidathion in soils. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 5(2):104-110.

Giles KL, Obrycki JJ, Degooyer TA, 1994. Prevalence of predators associated with Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera: Aphididae) and Hypera postica Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) during growth of the first crop of alfalfa. Biological Control, 4(2):170-177

Giles KL, Obrycki JJ, DeGooyer TA, Orr CJ, 1994. Seasonal occurrence and impact of natural enemies of Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae in Iowa. Environmental Entomology, 23(1):167-176

Gimeno F, Perdiguer A, 1993. Study on evolution in Aragon of phytophagous insects on lucerne. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 19(3):379-387

Goh KS, Berberet RC, Young LJ, Conway KE, 1989. Mortality of Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Oklahoma caused by Erynia phytonomi (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales). Environmental Entomology, 18(6):964-969

Gorbunov NN, Sobakar' TA, Timokhina AF, 1979. Inaccuracy of the method of sweeping with a net. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 6:42

Gould WP, 1986. The biology and phenology of Anaphes luna and Anaphes fuscipennis, egg parasites of Hypera spp., and the phenology of the alfalfa weevil [Hypera postica] in northern and southern Wisconsin. Dissertation Abstracts International, B (Sciences and Engineering) Thesis, University of Wisconsin, USA, 47(6):2288

Grigorov S, 1976. Population dynamics of the most important useful and destructive insects on alfalfa in the Sofia area. Rastitelnozashchitna Nauka, No.3:50-63

Gruber F, Dysart RJ, 1974. Peridesmia discus, an egg predator of Hypera postica in Europe. Environmental Entomology, 3(5):789-792

Guppy JC, Harcourt DG, 1977. Population assessment during the adult stage of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Canadian Entomologist, 109(4):497-501

Guppy, J. C., Mukerji, M. K., 1974. Effects of temperature on developmental rate of the immature stages of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Canadian Entomologist, 106(1), 93-100.

Gupta MP, Ram S, 1989. Effect of dates of sowing and varieties on the incidence of insect pests of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) in India. Tropical Pest Management, 35(4):399-402

Gupta MP, Shinde CB, Ram S, 1989. Ovipositional preference of lucerne weevil (Hypera variabilis Herbst.) in different varieties of lucerne. Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhana Patrika, 4(2):103-106

Habibi J, 1977. The bioecology of alfalfa weevil and its control in Karaj. Journal of the Entomological Society of Iran, 44:6-7.

Hajek AE, Hodge KT, Liebherr JK, Day WH, Vandenberg JD, 1996. Use of RAPD analysis to trace the origin of the weevil pathogen Zoophthora phytonomi in North America. Mycological Research, 100(3):349-355; 40 ref.

Hamlin JC, McDuffie WC, Lieberman FV, Bunn RW, 1943. Prevention and control of alfalfa weevil damage. Farmers' Bulletin, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, 1930:1-13.

Hammad SM, El-Sherif S, Hosny MM, El-Deeb AL, 1968. Field survey of Hypera brunneipennis (Coleoptera:Curculionidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 52:277-281

Hannothiaux M, 1965. Observations on the pests of forage crops in Tunesia. Bull. Ec. sup. Agric. Tunis, 8-9:231-245.

Harcourt DG, Guppy JC, Binns MR, 1984. Analysis of numerical change in subeconomic populations of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in eastern Ontario. Environmental Entomology, 13(6):1627-1633

Harcourt DG, Guppy JC, MacLeod DM, Tyrrell D, 1974. The fungus Entomophthora phytonomi pathogenic to the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica. Canadian Entomologist, 106(12):1295-1300

Harcourt DG, Guppy JC, MacLeod DM, Tyrrell D, 1981. Two Entomophthora species associated with disease epizootics of the alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Ontario. Great Lakes Entomologist, 14(1):55

Harcourt DG, Guppy JC, Tyrrell D, 1990. Phenology of the fungal pathogen Zoophthora phytonomi in southern Ontario populations of the alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environmental Entomology, 19(3):612-617

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