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Hyphantria cunea
(mulberry moth)

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Datasheet

Hyphantria cunea (mulberry moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hyphantria cunea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mulberry moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Fall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); larvae on skeletonized leaf. Beijing, China. October 2013.
TitleLarvae
CaptionFall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); larvae on skeletonized leaf. Beijing, China. October 2013.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway-2013
Fall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); larvae on skeletonized leaf. Beijing, China. October 2013.
LarvaeFall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); larvae on skeletonized leaf. Beijing, China. October 2013.©A.R. Pittaway-2013
Larval web of fall webworm, H. cunea, on apple stem.
TitleLarval web
CaptionLarval web of fall webworm, H. cunea, on apple stem.
CopyrightNOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland
Larval web of fall webworm, H. cunea, on apple stem.
Larval webLarval web of fall webworm, H. cunea, on apple stem.NOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland
Fall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); larval damage, skeletonized leaf. Beijing, China. October 2013.
TitleLarval damage
CaptionFall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); larval damage, skeletonized leaf. Beijing, China. October 2013.
Copyright©A.R. Pittaway-2013
Fall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); larval damage, skeletonized leaf. Beijing, China. October 2013.
Larval damageFall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); larval damage, skeletonized leaf. Beijing, China. October 2013.©A.R. Pittaway-2013
Fall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); adult male. Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA.
TitleAdult male
CaptionFall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); adult male. Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA.
Copyright©Mark Dreiling/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Fall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); adult male. Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA.
Adult maleFall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); adult male. Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA.©Mark Dreiling/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Fall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); adult female. Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA.
TitleAdult female
CaptionFall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); adult female. Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA.
Copyright©Mark Dreiling/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Fall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); adult female. Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA.
Adult femaleFall webworm, Mulberry moth (Hyphantria cunea); adult female. Bartlesville, Oklahoma, USA.©Mark Dreiling/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hyphantria cunea Drury

Preferred Common Name

  • mulberry moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Hyphantria textor (Harris)

International Common Names

  • English: American white moth; blackheaded webworm; fall webworm; redheaded webworm
  • Spanish: gusano de bolsa
  • French: chenille à tente estivale; chenille blanche; écaille fileuse; noctuelle d'automne

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: hvid bjørnespinder
  • Germany: Amerikanischer Webebär; Amerikanischer weisser Bärenspinner; Spinner, Weisser Baeren-; Webebär, Amerikanischer; weiser Bärenspinner; weisser Bär
  • Italy: falena tessitrice
  • Japan: Amerika-siro-hitori
  • Norway: hvit bjøernespinner
  • Sweden: vid bjöernspinnare

EPPO code

  • HYPHCU (Hyphantria cunea)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Arctiidae
  •                             Genus: Hyphantria
  •                                 Species: Hyphantria cunea

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page In the USA, H. cunea has two races, the blackheaded webworm and the redheaded (previously separated as H. textor). They occur together, but differ in the markings of adults and larvae, and in food habits and biology (Johnson and Lyon, 1994).

Description

Top of page Larva

Brownish-grey, attains 40 mm when fully developed, and has 12 small warts surmounted by characteristic tufts of hair. There are two forms, those with red heads and those with black heads.

Pupa

The pupa has 12 characteristic appendages at the posterior end.

Adult

Moth with a wingspan of 25-30 mm; forewings are white or have black spots arranged in a number of rows; hindwings are also white with a small black spot on the leading part.

Distribution

Top of page H. cunea is native to North America, where it is widespread. It was introduced into Europe (Hungary, then Austria and Yugoslavia) immediately after the Second World War and has since spread further. Also now present in eastern Asia. See also OEPP/EPPO (1974); OEPP/EPPO (1980); EPPO/CABI (1997); CABI/EPPO (1998 No. 79).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentIntroduced1984Gaziev et al., 1999
ChinaPresentEPPO, 2014; Yang et al., 2015
-BeijingPresentLiu et al., 2005
-HebeiPresentQiao XiuRong, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentIntroducedSchmutzenhofer et al., 1996
-LiaoningPresentSchmutzenhofer et al., 1996; Ji et al., 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Nei MengguPresentIntroducedSchmutzenhofer et al., 1996
-ShaanxiPresentEPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentWei et al., 2003; EPPO, 2014
-ShanghaiPresentEPPO, 2014
-TianjinWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)PresentLoladze et al., 2003
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ManipurPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IranPresentRezaei et al., 2003; EPPO, 2014
JapanWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentEPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentIsin et al., 2008
Korea, DPRWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofWidespreadEPPO, 2014
KyrgyzstanRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
TurkeyRestricted distributionSullivan et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-ManitobaPresentEPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentEPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentEPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentEPPO, 2014
-SaskatchewanPresentEPPO, 2014
MexicoRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-AlabamaPresentEPPO, 2014
-ArkansasPresentEPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentEPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentEPPO, 2014
-DelawarePresentEPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentEPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentEPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentEPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentEPPO, 2014
-KansasPresentEPPO, 2014
-KentuckyPresentEPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentEPPO, 2014
-MainePresentEPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentEPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentEPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentEPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentEPPO, 2014
-MississippiPresentEPPO, 2014
-MissouriPresentEPPO, 2014
-NebraskaPresentEPPO, 2014
-New HampshirePresentEPPO, 2014
-New JerseyPresentEPPO, 2014
-New MexicoPresentEPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentEPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-North DakotaPresentEPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentEPPO, 2014
-OklahomaPresentEPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentEPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Rhode IslandPresentEPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-South DakotaPresentEPPO, 2014
-TennesseePresentEPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentEPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentEPPO, 2014
-West VirginiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentEPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentEPPO, 2014
BulgariaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
CroatiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
DenmarkAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
FranceRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
GermanyAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014
HungaryWidespreadEPPO, 2014
ItalyRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
LithuaniaEradicatedEPPO, 2014
MoldovaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
PolandPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
RomaniaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentVajgand et al., 2005; EPPO, 2014
SlovakiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
SloveniaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SpainPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SwitzerlandPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014
UkraineWidespreadEPPO, 2014

Oceania

New ZealandPresentEl-Sayed et al., 2005

Risk of Introduction

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H. cunea is a classic quarantine pest, because of the great concern about its introduction into eastern Europe after the Second World War. It was one of the main preoccupations of EPPO in the early years of the Organization. Now, 40 years after its first introduction, it has probably reached the limits of its geographical range in Europe and phytosanitary measures are no longer considered necessary. Its status as an A2 quarantine pest is under reconsideration. In the more northerly countries of Europe, the temperature requirements of the species for overwintering are not available (Braasch, 1976); the insect could not reach the stage necessary for diapause, although a mass outbreak might occur in the year of introduction of larvae from outside.

For other parts of the world with a warm temperate climate (parts of South America, Australasia or Asia), H. cunea could be a quarantine pest. It is listed as a quarantine pest by IAPSC, probably in relation to North Africa.

Phytosanitary Measures

Plants, plant products, accompanying packing materials and vehicles from countries where H. cunea occurs should be thoroughly inspected for the presence of larvae and other stages, since all may be present at any time of year.

Fumigation with HCN will destroy adults, larvae or pupae, even if hidden in cracks. Vehicles may also be treated (OEPP/EPPO, 1990).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page H. cunea attacks a wide range of forest and fruit trees, but not conifers. The recorded host range is much wider in areas where the pest has been introduced than in its North American home (88 species in North America, 230 in Europe, 317 in Japan), but this may be in part an observational artefact.

Host Animals

Top of page
Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Homo sapiens

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Acer (maples)AceraceaeWild host
Acer negundo (box elder)AceraceaeWild host
Acer platanoides (Norway maple)AceraceaeWild host
Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)SimaroubaceaeOther
Alnus (alders)BetulaceaeWild host
Arbutus menziesii (Pacific madrone)EricaceaeWild host
Carya (hickories)JuglandaceaeOther
Carya illinoinensis (pecan)JuglandaceaeMain
Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)JuglandaceaeMain
Celtis australis (European nettle wood)UlmaceaeOther
Corylus avellana (hazel)BetulaceaeOther
Diospyros virginiana (persimmon (common))EbenaceaeMain
Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeOther
Fraxinus (ashes)OleaceaeWild host
Fraxinus excelsior (ash)OleaceaeWild host
HopsOther
Juglans nigra (black walnut)JuglandaceaeMain
Juglans regia (walnut)JuglandaceaeOther
Liquidambar styraciflua (Sweet gum)HamamelidaceaeMain
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
Morus (mulberrytree)MoraceaeOther
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeMain
Pinus densiflora (Japanese umbrella pine)PinaceaeOther
Platanus (planes)PlatanaceaeWild host
Platanus occidentalis (sycamore)PlatanaceaeWild host
Populus (poplars)SalicaceaeWild host
Prunus avium (sweet cherry)RosaceaeMain
Prunus cerasus (sour cherry)RosaceaeMain
Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeMain
Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeOther
Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeMain
Salix (willows)SalicaceaeWild host
Taxodium distichum (bald cypress)TaxodiaceaeWild host
Tilia cordata (small-leaf lime)TiliaceaeWild host
Ulmus americana (American elm)UlmaceaeOther
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Woven silk nests enclosing a number of leaves are conspicuous (Morris, 1976). Rapid defoliation of forest and fruit trees occurs. For additional information, see OEPP/EPPO (1957), Boguleanu et al. (1976).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / webbing
Whole plant / external feeding

Biology and Ecology

Top of page In Krasnodar territory in southern Russia, just north of the Caucasus Mountains (Yaroshenko, 1975), emergence from overwintered pupae begins in late April or early May, and is completed in 4-6 weeks. Mass flight lasts for 7-10 days at average temperatures above 18°C, and activity is greatest at 20-28°C. Flight ceases at temperatures of 15°C and below. The most favourable conditions are 70-80% RH and temperatures not exceeding 22-25°C. The sex ratio is usually 1:1, females living for 4-8 days and males for 1-2 days less. Adults emerge in the evening and rest initially on branches, twigs and leaves before flying to preferred food plants. They are able to fly several kilometres. Females each lay 293-1892 eggs, mostly during 1-2 days, on the lower surface of the leaves on the upper and outer parts of trees; even heavy rain does not dislodge the eggs. There are two generations annually and occasionally a partial third. Mulberry is the most favourable host for female fecundity and larval development; however, most larval nests of the first generation are found on Acer negundo, and those of the second generation on fruit trees. In Romania, it was demonstrated that, although H. cunea is polyphagous, normal development occurs only on the preferred food plants, i.e. mulberries, apples, cherries and plums (rather than grapes, strawberries, roses or Tilia).

In Hungary, there are two generations per year and the larvae pass through seven instars. Optimum sunshine hours are 1950-2050 annually, with an average temperature of 17°C during the vegetative period and RH 65-70%, with 300-350 mm precipitation; 9°C is considered the threshold for development. Once accumulated temperatures above this level exceed 280 degree days, larvae hatch (and accurate forecasts can be made to within 1-2 days). In Russia, hatching of eggs occurs mainly during the morning (between the hours 07:00-11:00) and evening (17:00-01:00) (Fedosov, 1989). Pupae are cold resistant if well hidden in bark, where 82-84% of them hibernate. Others overwinter in the soil to a depth of 10 cm.

In Korea, adults generally emerge between the hours of 15:00 and 24:00, the peak being 19:00-20:00. Copulation occurs only once a day, for a few minutes, before sunrise. Eggs are laid in groups of about ten. Larvae can withstand up to 15 days starvation, although the resultant reproductive capacity of the adult will be adversely affected.

In Nova Scotia (Canada), females lay about 500 eggs, all in one mass, on leaves of deciduous trees and shrubs. Larvae construct a colonial web and feed together within it. Diapause is facultative and depends on climate. On average, males live for about 8 days. In Alabama (USA), there are two generations per year, one generation in spring and one in the late summer, and the species passes through 11 larval instars (Williams et al., 1987). For more information, see Chalcote and Gentry (1973), Yaroshenko (1975), Boehm (1976).

Means of Movement/Dispersal

H. cunea can spread by natural adult flight and this has certainly been the main mode of spread within countries where the pest was introduced. International trade can facilitate movement to new areas. H. cunea is liable to be carried on vegetative host-plant material as well as on packing materials and in vehicles. The facility of the larvae to withstand starvation for up to 2 weeks means that they can easily be transported on vehicles to different areas and survive to initiate new infestations. Mass migrations due to exhausted food plants or the search for new sites often end in urban areas where the pest invades wood piles, houses, roads and vehicles (which can transport it to new and uninfested areas) (Giovanni et al., 1986). Transportation of H. cunea also occurs relatively often in wood logs where it inhabits cracks or holes in the bark (Shu and Yu, 1984). There is a certain risk of entry as eggs and larvae imported by amateur entomologists.

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page H. cunea was first recorded in Europe in 1940 and was widespread in Eastern Europe by the time a biological control programme was initiated in 1952. Introductions of a number of the more important parasitoids from North America were attempted and continued into the 1960s. However, none of them are known to have become established (Greathead, 1976; Clausen, 1978), and subsequent biological control attemps have focused on the the use of Bacillus thuringiensis sprays.

Impact

Top of page In Europe, where H. cunea has been introduced, larvae are rapid defoliators of forest and fruit tree species. In eastern Europe, mulberry and the widely planted amenity tree Acer negundo are seen to be particularly attacked. Experiments showed that sixth-instar larvae of H. cunea can consume a daily average of 435 mm² of fresh foliage of Fraxinus while seventh-instar larvae brought it to an average of 814 mm² (Jarfas and Miklos, 1986). Their colonial habit (nests of silk enclosing the leaves) is particularly damaging to individual trees. H. cunea was the object of great concern in the 1950s and 1960s, but the species is now well established in Europe, no longer spreading, and only locally damaging. On its home territory in USA, it is conspicuous, mainly on wild trees, but seldom of economic importance (Johnson and Lyon, 1994).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page The sex pheromone obtained from female H. cunea is used in traps to monitor the organism (Uchakina and Kalyuzhnyi, 1985); light traps are also used due to the nocturnal activity of the moths (Jarfas and Viola, 1986).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page H. cunea is the only member of its genus, and is distinguished within its family (Arctiidae) by the colonial, nest-building habits of its larvae. It is not likely to be confused with other Lepidoptera.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Chemical Control

Both mechanical (destroying nests) and chemical means are used for control. In Russia, diflubenzuron gave adequate control of H. cunea (Sazonov et al., 1984) as well as fenvalerate, cypermethrin and permethrin which induced 100% larval mortality in laboratory experiments (Sikura et al., 1988). However, chemical control with insecticides is not without problems. In Italy, where mulberry is the preferred host of H. cunea (Montermini and Oliva, 1984), the application of insecticides as well as Bacillus thuringiensis to the trees killed Bombyx mori, the silkworm, which is fed with mulberry leaves (Ferrari and Trevisan, 1987).

Biological Control

There has been much research on biological control. The most used and researched antagonistic organisms are subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis. Preparations of B. thuringiensis kurstaki were reported to be most effective in Hungary and Korea (Jasinka, 1984; Choi et al., 1986). Other pathogenic organisms are the fungi Beauveria bassiana (Jasinka, 1984) and B. globulifera and the egg parasite Trichogramma dendrolimi (Shu and Yu, 1985).

Entomophagous nematodes (Steinernema feltiae) can be also used to reduce H. cunea populations (Yamanaka et al., 1986).

References

Top of page

===, 1980. Data sheets on quarantine organisms. Set 3. EPPO Bulletin, 10(1). unnumbered.

Boguleanu G; Nica F; Petrescu E; Beratlief C, 1973. Influence of the trophic factor on the development of hairy caterpillars of the fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea Drury). Analele Institutului de Cercetari pentru Protectia Plantelor, 11:167-175.

Bohm H, 1976. 25 Years of the fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea Drury) and the Mediterranean fruit-fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.) in Austria. W. Faber (Editor). Land- und Forstwirtschaftliche Forschung in Osterreich, Band VII. Osterreichischer Agrarverlag. Vienna Austria, 81-88

Braasch D, 1976. On the overwintering possibilities for the fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea Drury, Arctiidae, Lepidoptera) in the German Democratic Republic. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 30(11):223-225.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

Chalcote VR; Gentry CR, 1973. Mating behaviour of fall webworms and attraction of male moths to trap baited with virgin females. Journal of Economic Entomology, 66:1006-1007.

Choi YC; Lee SW; Shin YH; Lee KH, 1986. Studies on the mass production of Bacillus thuringiensis as a microbial insecticide. Research Reports of the Rural Development Administration, Plant Environment, Mycology & Farm Products Utilization, Korea Republic, 28(2):56-59; 10 ref.

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

El-Sayed AM; Gibb AR; Suckling DM, 2005. . http://www.hortnet.co.nz/publications/nzpps/proceedings/05/05nzpps.htm

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 1974. Plant health newsletter; survey on the following quarantine pests and diseases: Heterodera rostochiensis; Hyphantria cunea; Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus; Synchytrium endobioticum; Corynebacterium sepedonicum. EPPO Publications, Paris, B, No. 77:61 pp.

Fedosov SA, 1989. Diurnal rhythm in the hatching of larvae of the fall web worm moth (Hyphantria cunea) and its regulation by environmental factors. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 68(2):218-227.

Ferrari R; Trevisan M, 1987. Control of Hyphantria cunea and repercussions on cultures of Bombyx mori.. Informatore Fitopatologico, 37(10):55-58; 15 ref.

Gaziev MB; Mustafaeva TM; Gyandzhaliev GA, 1999. American white butterfly in Azerbaijan. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.11:33-34.

Giovanni Gde; Oliva G; Montermini A, 1986. Defence strategy against the American Hyphantria.. Informatore Fitopatologico, 36(2):11-15; [6 fig. (5 col.)]; 7 ref.

Greathead DJ, 1976. A review of biological control in western and southern Europe. Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Technical Communication, No. 7. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 182 pp.

Isin MM; Shanimov KhI; Kopzhasarov BK, 2008. American fall webworm in Kazakhstan. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.9:39. http://www.z-i-k-r.ru

Járfás J; Miklós V, 1986. Study of the activity and food consumption of the American white butterfly (Hyphantria cunea Drury, Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Kertészeti Egyetem Közleményei, 50(1):251-258; [3 fig.]; 4 ref.

Jarfas J; Viola M, 1986. Activity and nutrition of the fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea Drury, Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). I. Kerteszeti Egyetem Kozlemenyei, 49:173-182.

Jasinka J, 1984. Farm studies on application techniques and pesticide efficiency against Hyphantria cunea Drury. Növényvédelem, 20(8):368-372; [2 fig.].

Ji Rong; Xie BaoYu; Li XinHai; Gao ZengXiang; Li DianMo, 2003. Research progress on the invasive species, Hyphantria cunea. Entomological Knowledge, 40(1):13-18.

Johnson WT; Lyon HH, 1994. Insects that feed on Trees and Shrubs (2nd edition). Ithaca, USA: Comstock, 166.

Liu HaiJun; Luo YouQing; Wen JunBao; Zhang ZhiMing; Feng JiHua; Tao WanQiang, 2005. Pest risk assessment of Dendroctonus valens, Hyphantria cunea and Apriona swainsoni in Beijing area. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 27(2):81-87.

Loladze ZP; Partsvaniya MSh; Lobzhanidze TD, 2003. American white butterfly in the Republic of Georgia. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.1:30.

Montermini A; Oliva G, 1984. Let us learn to know the fall webworm. Informatore Fitopatologico, 34(1):35-40; [13 fig. (11 col.)]; 16 ref.

Morris RF, 1976. Relation of parasite attack to the colonial habit of Hyphantria cunea. Canadian Entomologist, 108(8):833-836.

OEPP/EPPO, 1957. Fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea) in 1956. EPPO Publications Series A, No. 19.

Qiao XiuRong, 2001. Study on bionomics of Hyphantria cunea in Qinhuangdao. Journal of Hebei Vocation-Technical Teachers College, 15(2):48-51.

Rezaei V; Moharramipour S; Fathipour Y; Talebi AA, 2006. Some biological characteristics of American white webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lep.: Arctiidae) in the Guilan province. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 26(1):Pe33-Pe43.

Rezaei V; Moharramipour S; Talebi AA, 2003. The first report of Psychophagus omnivorus (Walker) and Chouioia cunea (Yang) parasitoid wasps of American white webworm Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lep.: Arctiidae) from Iran. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 70(2):En33, Pe137-138.

Sazonov AP; Karetnikova IN, 1984. The sterilant effect of diflubenzuron using the American white butterfly as an example. Regulyatory rosta i razvitiya nasekomykh v bor'be s sel'skokhozyaistvennymi vreditelyami [edited by Novozhilov, K.V.] Leningrad, USSR; Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-issledovatel'skii Institut Zashchity Rastenii, 54-58.

Schmutzenhofer H; Mielke ME; Luo Y; Ostry ME; Wen J, 1996. Field Guide/Manual on the Identification and Management of Poplar Pests and Diseases in the Area of the "Three North 009 Project" (North-Eastern China). Rome, Italy: FAO.

Shu CR; Yu CY, 1984. A preliminary report on quarantine and experimental control of Hyphantria cunea at pupal stage. Forest Science and Technology (Linye Keji Tongxun), 9:21-22.

Shu CR; Yu CY, 1985. An investigation on the natural enemies of Hyphantria cunea. Natural Enemies of Insects (Kunchong Tiandi), 7(2):91-94, 99.

Sikura AI; Fedosov SA; Vovk TI, 1988. Synthetic pyrethroids in the control of the American white butterfly. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), 5:40.

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