Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- Biology and Ecology
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Hyoscyamus niger L.
Preferred Common Name
- black henbane
Other Scientific Names
- Hyoscyamus agrestis Kit.
- Hyoscyamus bohemicus F.W. Schmidt
- Hyoscyamus pallidus Waldst. & Kit. ex Willdenow
International Common Names
- English: common henbane; henbane; hog’s bean; stinking nightshade
- Spanish: beleno negro; chupa mieles; dormidera
- French: herbe aux dents; jusquiame noire
- Russian: belena chernaya
- Chinese: tian xian zi
Local Common Names
- Czech Republic: blen; blin
- Germany: schwarzes Bilsenkraut
- Italy: dente cavallino; erba del dento; guisquiamo nero
- Korea, Republic of: saripul
- Latvia: meln
- Netherlands: bilzekruid
- Poland: bielun
- Portugal: meimendro-negro
- Sweden: bolmört
- HSYNI (Hyoscyamus niger)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Hyoscyamus niger, an annual or biennial herb growing up to 1.5 m tall, is thought to have been native originally to a broad region of Eurasia. It is naturalized in many regions globally and is a noxious weed in much of North America. H. niger is cultivated as a medicinal plant in many countries, and risk of introduction is likely to be associated with commercial seed or as a seed contaminant. Once established, H. niger is capable of producing thousands of highly viable seeds per plant. However, its competitive ability appears to be limited to disturbed and cultivated areas.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Solanales
- Family: Solanaceae
- Genus: Hyoscyamus
- Species: Hyoscyamus niger
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Hyoscyamus niger L. was classified by Linnaeus (1753) and is a member of the Solanaceae family. The genus name Hyoscyamus derives from the Greek hyoskyamos, meaning hog bean, as pigs were purportedly immune to its toxic effects; even today hog’s bean is a common name for H. niger (Mitich, 1992). The specific epithet niger derives from the Latin for black, reflecting the colour of the seeds. Its accepted common name, black henbane, is also likely derived from the colour of the seeds, as well as the poisonous nature and poisonous effects on poultry (hen = poultry, bane = poison, Mitich, 1992). Other common names, such as stinking nightshade, herbe aux dents (French, “toothed grass”) and others, relate to anatomical or chemical characteristics of the plant. A more complete review of common and older names can be found in Hocking (1947).
H. niger is monocarpic and occurs in both annual and biennial forms in its native range. Varietal nomenclature includes some unconfirmed and confirmed names such as H. niger var. annuus Sims and H. niger var. chinensis Makino. Other synonyms include H. bohemicus F.W.Schmidt and H. pallidus Waldst. & Kit. ex Willdenow (The Plant List, 2013).
DescriptionTop of page
The entire plant is sticky, hairy and odorous (Mitich, 1992), with coarsely toothed or pinnatifid leaves that may be long petiolate or sessile and decurrent (Hocking, 1947; Williams, 1960). Depending on growing conditions and variety, the plant averages between 0.75 and 1.5m tall. The annual variety may be early or late flowering and germinates, blooms and dies during a single season. In the biennial variety, a tuber derived from the hypocotyl and the upper portion of the root (Lang, 1986) develops in the first year, giving the entire root the resemblance of a parsnip root. Sessile, yellowish-brown and purple-veined campanulate flowers are borne in several indeterminate scorpoid cymes (Halevy, 1986). The fruit, a pyxis (urn-shaped capsule with a lid-like top), dehisces to release hundreds of black/grey seeds (Hocking, 1947; Whitson et al., 2000). For further detailed descriptions of H. niger, see also Gibson (1964) and LaFantasie (2008).
Plant TypeTop of page Annual
DistributionTop of page
The precise native range of H. niger is unknown but is thought to encompass most of Eurasia, from the Atlantic to China. In Europe, it is thought to have originally stretched from Scandinavia and Britain in the north through to the Mediterranean, as far as North Africa in the south (Hocking, 1947; Mitich, 1992). Other sources, however, suggest a smaller native range in southern Europe and West Asia (Lempiäinen, 1991). The species is now naturalized throughout temperate regions globally (USDA-ARS, 2015). Lempiäinen (1991) considers it to be a threatened species in northern Europe.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Afghanistan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; Flora of Pakistan, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015|
|-Gansu||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|-Guizhou||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|-Hebei||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|-Heilongjiang||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|-Jilin||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|-Liaoning||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|-Nei Menggu||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|-Ningxia||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|-Qinghai||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|-Shaanxi||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|-Shandong||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|-Shanxi||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|-Sichuan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|-Xinjiang||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|-Yunnan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|Georgia (Republic of)||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015|
|India||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015||Cultivated|
|Iran||Present||Native||Flora of Pakistan, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015|
|Iraq||Present||Native||Flora of Pakistan, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015|
|Japan||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015||Cultivated|
|Kazakhstan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015|
|Korea, Republic of||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|Kyrgyzstan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015|
|Nepal||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015|
|Pakistan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015||Cultivated|
|Tajikistan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015|
|Turkmenistan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015|
|Uzbekistan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Occasionally cultivated|
|-New Brunswick||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2015|
|-Nova Scotia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2015|
|-Prince Edward Island||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2015|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2015|
|-New Jersey||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2015|
|-New Mexico||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2015|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2015|
|-North Dakota||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2015|
|-South Dakota||Present||Introduced||Invasive||USDA-NRCS, 2015|
|Czech Republic||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015|
|Finland||Localised||Introduced||Not invasive||Lempiainen, 1991||Local only in ancient settlement areas|
|Russian Federation||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015|
|-Eastern Siberia||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015|
|-Western Siberia||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2015|
|-Channel Islands||Present||USDA-ARS, 2015|
|Ukraine||Present||Introduced||Burda et al., 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015|
|Australia||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||1891||Not invasive||Australian Government Department of Agriculture, 2015; Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015|
|-New South Wales||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Not invasive||Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015||Cultivated|
|-South Australia||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Not invasive||Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015|
|-Victoria||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Not invasive||Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015||Cultivated|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Plants of H. niger are typically scattered regionally and associated with disturbance and historical human occupation. Observations of H. niger date to 1672 and earlier in the eastern USA (Bigelow, 1817; Mack, 2003) and to 1891 in scattered cultivated areas in Australia (Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015). Introductions have been made accidentally as well as purposely for cultivation as a medicinal as well as an ornamental plant in numerous regions globally (Williams, 1960; Mitich, 1992; USDA-ARS, 2015; Utah State University Extension, 2015) for thousands of years (Leonti et al., 2009). Based on evidence from archaeology and historical texts (e.g. Ødum, 1965; Bonet, 2014; Karg et al., 2015), H. niger has been important medicinally, ceremonially and economically for centuries and longer (Lempiäinen, 1991). This explains the paucity of information regarding its native range and history of introductions.
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Australia||1891||No||Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2015)||Cultivated|
|Germany||5090 BC||Medicinal use (pathway cause)||Leonti et al. (2009)||Earliest subfossil H. niger remains in Europe|
|USA||<1672||Horticulture (pathway cause)
Medicinal use (pathway cause)
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
The risk of introduction is currently limited to trade in seed for medicinal, cultivation or ornamental purposes, and as a potential seed contaminant (USDA-ARS, 2015). A web search for ‘black henbane seed’ results in multiple hits, many from non-commercial sources that are not regulated. Its distribution across North American borders in hay is prohibited under the North American Weed Seed Free Forage programme (North American Invasive Species Management Association, 2015), but does not otherwise appear to be regulated. Once established, each plant is capable of producing thousands of highly viable seeds with dormancy mechanisms that allow establishment of a large seedbank (Roberts, 1986; Whitson et al., 2000; Toth, 2001; LaFantasie, 2008; Leo, 2013).
HabitatTop of page
H. niger inhabits disturbed or cultivated habitats (Bigelow, 1817; Stewart, 1934; Hocking, 1947; Gillham et al., 2004) and benefits from enhanced nutrient availability in these situations. It is limited by competition from established plant communities (LaFantasie, 2008; LaFantasie and Enloe, 2011). The correlation between its occurrence and historical or ancient human occupation (Lempiäinen, 1991; Aslan and Atamov, 2006) and cultivation suggest that its distribution largely depends on human activities, hence its presence on roadsides, waste ground, building sites, ruins, field margins and in pastures.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Disturbed areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Rail / roadsides||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Natural grasslands||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Natural grasslands||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
The presence of H. niger in hay affects hay quality. It is a weed of several crops, including wheat, millet and cotton (AgroAtlas, 2015), and of pastures.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage
Biology and EcologyTop of page
H. niger is a diploid, self-pollinating species with a chromosome number of 2n = 34 (Sangeeta Srivastava and Lavania, 1987). As an important medicinal plant, it has been subject to numerous genetic and molecular genetic studies. For example, using crosses between annual and biennial H. niger forms, Schläppi (2011) has shown that biennial habit is a dose-dependent trait with incomplete dominance, and that allelic differences exist in photoperiod-specific flowering time genes.
H. niger is monocarpic and reproduces by seed. It occurs as both biennial and annual varieties, with the annual variety being recessive and occurring primarily in warmer climates (Stewart, 1934; Selleck, 1964; Lang, 1986; Schläppi, 2011). Germination rates tend to be low but are improved by cold stratification, scarification, a ripening period and application of plant hormones such as gibberellic acid (Roberts, 1986; Toth, 2001; LaFantasie, 2008; Leo, 2013). Seeds of H. niger are typically thought to remain viable in rangeland soils for 1-5 years, while gene bank samples have survived six years (Toth, 2001). Roberts (1986) reports that seeds from cultivated soil germinated after surviving for up to five years. Older samples and research literature indicate a potential for longer lived seeds, one example being the germination of H. niger seeds contained in an archaeological soil sample dated to the year 1300 AD (Bigelow, 1817).
Physiology and Phenology
H. niger is a long-day plant that begins flowering early in the summer season, although the timing of flowering is somewhat plastic. Vernalization is required for the biennial type but annual types may or may not benefit from vernalization (Schläppi, 2011; Fettig and Hufbauer, 2014). Seeds germinate in the autumn or early summer.
H. niger plants live either one (annual) or two (biennial) years.
Lázaro-Bello (2009) gives details of plant communities with which H. niger is associated on waste ground in Valladolid, Spain; members of the Compositae and Gramineae [Poaceae] were particularly important. Mycorrhizal associations seem to be critical for henbane establishment and productivity in its introduced and cultivated ranges (Pandey et al., 1999; LaFantasie, 2008).
H. niger is predominantly a temperate species and thrives in zones with hot summers (AgroAtlas, 2015). It occurs at elevations up to 2134 m in North America and 3353 m in India (Hocking, 1947; Mitich, 1992). It prefers sandy to sandy loam soils with high organic matter and available plant nutrients (Williams, 1960; Maheshwari et al., 1989; Mitich, 1992; Gillham et al., 2004) and tolerates soil pH ranges from 3.8 to 8.7; however, it does not perform well in sodic soils (Sharma et al., 1988; Haseeb, 1998). Under cultivation it is irrigated and fertilized (Maheshwari et al., 1989; Pareek et al., 1991).
ClimateTop of page
|BS - Steppe climate||Preferred||> 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Preferred||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Preferred||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
|Ds - Continental climate with dry summer||Preferred||Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)|
|Dw - Continental climate with dry winter||Preferred||Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)|
Soil TolerancesTop of page
- very acid
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Ascochyta kashmiriana||Pathogen||Leaves||not specific||PADWICK and MERH, 1943|
|Leptinotarsa decemlineata||Herbivore||Leaves||not specific|
|Meloidogyne incognita||Parasite||Roots||not specific||Haseeb et al., 1990|
|Pegomya hyoscyami||Herbivore||Leaves||not specific||Cameron, 1914|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Known natural enemies of H. niger are generalists, so there are no identified potential biological control agents with the necessary specificity. Insect predators of H. niger include, but are not limited to, belladona leaf miner (Pegomya hyoscyami) (Cameron, 1914) and Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata). Parasites and pathogens include root knot nematodes such as Meloidogyne incognita (Haseeb et al., 1990) and fungal diseases such as Ascochyta kashmiriana (Padwick and Merh, 1943) and Alternaria.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
H. niger seed does not exhibit special appendages for dispersal, so seed just drops to the ground below the parent plant, where it can remain in the soil for up to 4 years (DiTomaso et al., 2013). Introductions, intentional or accidental, are likely associated with human vectors as disturbance agents or via the seed trade, although seed, though toxic, can be consumed by livestock occasionally and spread in faeces (LaFantasie, 2008).
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Crop production||Grown worldwide as a medicinal plant||Yes||Yes|
|Disturbance||anthropogenic disturbance is a major vector in North America||Yes||LaFantasie, 2008|
|Escape from confinement or garden escape||a potential source of invasion, as seed is available to home gardeners online||Yes|
|Garden waste disposal||Yes|
|Horticulture||Grown worldwide as a medicinal plant and sometimes as an ornamental||Yes||Yes|
|Internet sales||a potential source of invasion, as seed is available online||Yes||Yes|
|Medicinal use||important in traditional and conventional medicine||Yes||Yes||NCBI, 2015|
|Nursery trade||Grown worldwide as a medicinal plant and sometimes as an ornamental||Yes||Yes|
|Ornamental purposes||Sometimes grown as an ornamental||Yes||Knight, 2007|
|People sharing resources||a potential source of invasion, as seed is available online||Yes|
|Seed trade||a potential source of invasion, as seed is available online||Yes||Yes|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Cultural/amenity||Positive and negative|
|Economic/livelihood||Positive and negative|
|Human health||Positive and negative|
Economic ImpactTop of page
The alkaloids that are produced by H. niger make the plant poisonous to humans and livestock under uncontrolled conditions (Knight and Walter, 2001). Accounts of poisoning have been documented for centuries (Bigelow, 1817); however, the direct current economic impact on livestock producers is unknown. H. niger can cause problems as a contaminant in hay and seed (North American Invasive Species Management Association, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015). As a weed of poppy, wheat, millet and cotton crops in some countries it requires control measures (AgroAtlas, 2015).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
H. niger is not a particularly aggressive invader in undisturbed situations; however, once established, monocultures may persist and suppress recovery of native plant communities (LaFantasie, 2008). It can affect the growth of native plants in its introduced range by producing a persistent litter that affects the germination and growth of native species. It also creates shade that helps it out-compete native species for light (Utah State University Extension, 2015).
Social ImpactTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Altered trophic level
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of nutrient regime
- Modification of successional patterns
- Monoculture formation
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts human health
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Negatively impacts livelihoods
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Damages animal/plant products
- Causes allergic responses
- Competition - shading
- Competition - smothering
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
UsesTop of page
H. niger is cultivated as an important medicinal crop worldwide, its roots, leaves and seeds serving as sources of numerous alkaloids, including atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine for use in medicine (Batugal et al., 2004; Alizadeh et al., 2014; USDA-ARS, 2015). It is also sold and grown as an ornamental for its interesting flowers and unique urn-shaped seed pods which are attractive in dry floral arrangements (Knight, 2007).
It has been and still is an important ingredient in traditional and homeopathic medicine. As a cultural resource, apart from its medicinal value, H. niger is and has been used deliberately in ancient and traditional societies as a poison and as a hallucinogen in rituals.
Uses ListTop of page
Drugs, stimulants, social uses
- Ritual uses
- Sociocultural value
- Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
- garden plant
Detection and InspectionTop of page
In the field, H. niger has a distinctive shape upon flowering, and developing a search image would not take much time. Surveying fields and monitoring points of entry would benefit from the use of photos, descriptions and keys, including Weeds of the West (Whitson et al., 2000), Flora of the Northeast (Magee and Ahles, 1999) and Flora of China (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). An excellent description of seed characteristics can be found in Shahid Farooq and Khan (1996); however, seed size (1.5 mm long) may make detection difficult.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
H. niger is distinct and is not likely to be confused with other species in the field. However, in southern Europe, where white or yellow henbane (H. albus) is regarded as of similar medicinal value as H. niger and is grown as an alternative, H. albus can be distinguished by its bracts, as well as the leaves being all stalked, and by the uniformly pale-yellow colour of the flower (Grieve, 1931).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
H. niger movement across North American borders as a hay contaminant is limited by the North American Weed Free Forage Program certification standards for weed free forage and mulch (North American Invasive Species Management Association, 2015); however, prevention of H. niger introduction does not appear to be a priority at this time. To prevent local invasion, it is advisable to establish a vigorous and competitive plant community composed of desirable species by sowing or planting immediately following disturbance.
In the USA H. niger requires control as a listed noxious weed in California, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, Washington and Wyoming (USDA-NRCS, 2015). Public education about H. niger is accomplished through virtual fact sheets produced by state or local weed and pest districts/groups. Other databases list H. niger as a pest weed in crops in other regions (AgroAtlas, 2015).
Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures
All control measures must be repeated for several years to ensure seedbank depletion. Cultural control measures include timing of tillage and establishment of competing crops/plant communities in disturbed areas (LaFantasie, 2008; Pokorny et al., 2010; AgroAtlas, 2015). H. niger does not tolerate ploughing, discing or cultivation, and plants can be burned to kill seeds (Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board, 2010).
Mowing prior to flowering, hand-pulling and digging are all viable mechanical control measures for smaller infestations. The taproot needs to be fully removed. To prevent seed dispersal, plants with mature fruits should be bagged after removal. The infested area should be monitored subsequently for at least four years (Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board, 2010).
While there are no biological control methods for H. niger, chemical control options are available and include 2,4-D, dicamba, fluroxypyr, picloram, glyphosate, chlorsulfuron and metsulfuron (DiTomaso et al., 2013).
IPM approaches would include a programme that integrates all control measures. In uncropped situations, focus should remain on regaining the ecological integrity of the plant community to prevent H. niger establishment, but could include other control measures as well.
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
Little research has been published about the invasiveness of H. niger and its impacts on a global scale.
ReferencesTop of page
AgroAtlas, 2015. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds. http://www.agroatlas.ru/en/content/weeds/Hyoscyamus_niger/
Alizadeh A; Moshiri M; Alizadeh J; Balali-Mood M, 2014. Black henbane and its toxicity - a descriptive review. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, 4(5):297-311. http://ajp.mums.ac.ir/article_3187_381.html
Australian Government Department of Agriculture, 2015. Animals, plants and pests. http://www.agriculture.gov.au/pests-diseases-weeds/weeds
Batugal PA; Kanniah J; Lee SY; Oliver JT, 2004. Medicinal plants research in Asia. Volume 1: The framework and project workplans. Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia: IPGRI-APO, 221 pp.
Bigelow J, 1817. American medical botany, being a collection of the native medicinal plants of the United States, containing their botanical history and chemical analysis, and properties and uses in medicine, diet and the arts, with coloured engravings. Boston, USA: Cummings and Hilliard.
Bonet V, 2014. On analgesic and narcotic plants: Pliny and his Greek sources, the history of a complex graft. In: 'Greek' and 'Roman' in Latin medical texts. Studies in cultural change and exchange in ancient medicine [ed. by Maire, B.]. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 224-239.
Burda RI; Golivets MA; Petrovych OZ, 2015. Alien species in the flora of the nature reserve fund of the flatland part of Ukraine. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions, 6(1):6-20. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134%2FS2075111715010038
Cameron AB, 1914. A contribution to a knowledge of the belladonna leaf-miner, Pegomyia hyoscyami, Panz., its life-history and biology. Annals of Applied Biology, 1(1):43-76.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2015. Australia's virtual herbarium. Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au/#tab_simpleSearch
DAISIE, 2015. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do
DiTomaso JM; Kyser GB; Oneto SR; Wilson RG; Orloff SB; Anderson LW; Wright SD; Roncoroni JA; Miller TL; Prather TS, 2013. Weed control in natural areas in the western United States. Davis, California, USA: Weed Research and Information Center, University of California, 544 pp.
Fettig CE; Hufbauer RA, 2014. Introduced North American black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) populations are biennial. Invasive Plant Science and Management, 7(4):624-630. http://wssajournals.org/loi/ipsm
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
Flora of Pakistan, 2015. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. USA: St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
Gibson D, 1964. Hyoscyamus niger, a study. British Homoeopathic Journal, 53(2):120-124.
Gillham JH; Hild AL; Johnson JH; Hunt ER Jr; Whitson TD, 2004. Weed Invasion Susceptibility Prediction (WISP) model for use with Geographic Information Systems. Arid Land Research and Management, 18(1):1-12.
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01/06/2015 Original text by:
Jordge LaFantasie, Research Scientist, Colorado State University, Colorado, USA
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