Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Spoladea recurvalis
(Hawaiian beet webworm)

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Datasheet

Spoladea recurvalis (Hawaiian beet webworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 May 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Spoladea recurvalis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Hawaiian beet webworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Mature larva ca 15 mm long, head light yellowish-brown with many brown spots, body appears green with transparent epidermis.
TitleLarva
CaptionMature larva ca 15 mm long, head light yellowish-brown with many brown spots, body appears green with transparent epidermis.
CopyrightYoichi Shirai
Mature larva ca 15 mm long, head light yellowish-brown with many brown spots, body appears green with transparent epidermis.
LarvaMature larva ca 15 mm long, head light yellowish-brown with many brown spots, body appears green with transparent epidermis.Yoichi Shirai
Adult (museum set specimen).
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult (museum set specimen).
Copyright©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Adult (museum set specimen).
AdultAdult (museum set specimen).©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Wingspan of both sexes 22-24 mm, forewings are 9-11 mm long, deep brown with broad white median band; hindwings deep brown with a broad white median bar.
TitleAdults
CaptionWingspan of both sexes 22-24 mm, forewings are 9-11 mm long, deep brown with broad white median band; hindwings deep brown with a broad white median bar.
CopyrightYoichi Shirai
Wingspan of both sexes 22-24 mm, forewings are 9-11 mm long, deep brown with broad white median band; hindwings deep brown with a broad white median bar.
AdultsWingspan of both sexes 22-24 mm, forewings are 9-11 mm long, deep brown with broad white median band; hindwings deep brown with a broad white median bar. Yoichi Shirai
Larvae skeletonize leaves of leafy vegetables such as spinach and chard.
TitleDamage on spinach
CaptionLarvae skeletonize leaves of leafy vegetables such as spinach and chard.
CopyrightYoichi Shirai
Larvae skeletonize leaves of leafy vegetables such as spinach and chard.
Damage on spinachLarvae skeletonize leaves of leafy vegetables such as spinach and chard.Yoichi Shirai
Amaranthus weed (A. retroflexus) defoliated by S. recurvalis.
TitleDamage on Amaranthus
CaptionAmaranthus weed (A. retroflexus) defoliated by S. recurvalis.
CopyrightYoichi Shirai
Amaranthus weed (A. retroflexus) defoliated by S. recurvalis.
Damage on AmaranthusAmaranthus weed (A. retroflexus) defoliated by S. recurvalis.Yoichi Shirai

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Spoladea recurvalis (Fabricius)

Preferred Common Name

  • Hawaiian beet webworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Hydrocampa albifacialis Boisduval
  • Hymenia diffascialis Hübner
  • Hymenia exodias Meyrick
  • Hymenia fascialis (Butler)
  • Hymenia recurvalis (Fabricius)
  • Phalaena angustalis Fabricius
  • Phycis recurvella Zincker
  • Spoladea animalis Guenee
  • Zinckenia fascialis (Cramer)
  • Zinckenia recurvalis Fabricius

International Common Names

  • English: beet webworm; small webworm
  • Spanish: gusano de capullo; gusano de la remolacha; pega-pega hawaiiano de la remolacha
  • French: pyrale de la betterave

Local Common Names

  • Japan: siroobi-nomeiga

EPPO code

  • HYMARE (Spoladea recurvalis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Crambidae
  •                             Genus: Spoladea
  •                                 Species: Spoladea recurvalis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 11 May 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
AngolaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
CameroonPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
ComorosPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1991);
Congo, Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1991);
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
Equatorial GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
GambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
LesothoPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
LiberiaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
MaliPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1991);
NigerPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
RéunionPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
Saint HelenaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
São Tomé and PríncipePresentUK, CAB International (1991);
SenegalPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
SeychellesPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
Sierra LeonePresentUK, CAB International (1991);
SomaliaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1991);

Asia

BangladeshPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
BruneiPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
CambodiaPresentWaterhouse (1993)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-GuangdongPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-JiangsuPresent, Few occurrencesRiley et al. (1995)
-JiangxiPresentCABI (Undated a)
-ShandongPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-Andhra PradeshPresentBabu et al. (2000)
-AssamPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-BiharPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-DelhiPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-GujaratPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-HaryanaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-KarnatakaPresentUK, CAB International (1991); Manjula and Kotikal (2018)
-KeralaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-MaharashtraPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-MeghalayaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-RajasthanPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-Tamil NaduPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-Uttar PradeshPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-UttarakhandPresentAswal et al. (2005)
-West BengalPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
IndonesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-JavaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-Maluku IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-SulawesiPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-SumatraPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
JapanPresentGreathead and Greathead (1992)
-HokkaidoPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-HonshuPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-KyushuPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-ShikokuPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-SabahPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-SarawakPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
MaldivesPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
MyanmarPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
NepalPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
North KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
OmanPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
SingaporePresentUK, CAB International (1991);
South KoreaPresentAPPPC (1987)
Sri LankaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
SyriaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
VietnamPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
YemenPresentUK, CAB International (1991);

Europe

SloveniaPresentJež et al. (2015)
United KingdomPresent, Few occurrencesMere (1952); Clancy (1991)

North America

AnguillaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
Antigua and BarbudaPresentUK, CAB International (1991); CABI (Undated)
BahamasPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
BarbadosPresentUK, CAB International (1991); CABI (Undated)
BermudaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
Costa RicaPresentUK, CAB International (1991); CABI (Undated)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
DominicaPresentSchotman (1989)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1991); CABI (Undated)
GrenadaPresentSchotman (1989)
GuadeloupePresentSchotman (1989)
HondurasPresentSchotman (1989)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
MartiniquePresentSchotman (1989)
MontserratPresentSchotman (1989)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1991); CABI (Undated)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentSchotman (1989)
Saint LuciaPresentSchotman (1989)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentUK, CAB International (1991); CABI (Undated)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK, CAB International (1991); CABI (Undated)
United StatesPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-New JerseyPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-South CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);

Oceania

American SamoaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-Northern TerritoryPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
-Western AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
Christmas IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
Cook IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
New CaledoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
Norfolk IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
SamoaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
Solomon IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
TongaPresentAPPPC (1987)
TuvaluPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
VanuatuPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
Wallis and FutunaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);

South America

BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
ChilePresentUK, CAB International (1991);
ColombiaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
French GuianaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
ParaguayPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1991);
SurinamePresentUK, CAB International (1991);
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1991);

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / internal feeding; boring
Inflorescence / internal feeding
Inflorescence / rot
Inflorescence / webbing
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / webbing
Roots / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Apanteles Parasite Larvae
Apanteles delhiensis Parasite Larvae
Apanteles hemara Parasite Larvae
Apanteles opacus Parasite Larvae
Aphanogmus fijiensis Parasite
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen
Campoletis chlorideae Parasite Larvae
Campoletis flavicincta Parasite Larvae
Cardiochiles fulvus Parasite Larvae
Cardiochiles hymeniae Parasite Larvae
Chelonus versatilis Parasite Larvae
Gibberella fujikuroi Pathogen
Perilampus microgastris Parasite
Phanerotoma hendecasisella Parasite Larvae
Prosopodopsis Parasite Larvae
Trichogramma dendrolimi Parasite Eggs

References

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APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)

Aswal JS, Bisht BS, Suman Bisht, 2005. Relative abundance of Spoladea recurvalis (F.) in mountain agro-ecosystem of Uttaranchal Hills. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 13(2):475-476. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Babu BS, Premi PL, Varaprasad KS, Sharma SB, 2000. Incidence of Hexamermis sp. (Dorylaimida; Mermithidae) parasitising larvae of Hymenia recurvalis Fabricius on Trianthema monogyna. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 28(1):107-108

Bhattacherjee NS, Ramdas Menon MG, 1964. Bionomics, biology and control of Hymenia recurvalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Indian Journal of Entomology, 26:176-183

CABI, 1991. Distribution Maps of Pests No 527. Spoladea recurvalis (Fabricius). Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Chaudhary JP, Kapil RP, 1975. Record of a new host plant of Hymenia recurvalis (F.) and its parasites. Indian Journal of Entomology, 37(3):314

Clancy S, 1991. Psammotis pulveralis Hnb. Lepidoptera pyralidae and other migrant lepidoptera in the Dungeness, Kent, England, area 1990. Entomology Rec. J. Var., 103:51-52

Creighton CS, McFadden TL, Cuthbert ER, 1973. Supplementary data on phenylacetaldehyde: an attractant for Lepidoptera. Journal of Economic Entomology, 66(1):114-115

Gangwar SK, Yadava CPS, Mishra RK, Dadheech LN, Saxena RC, 1980. Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopterous pests. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 8(2):154-156

Greathead DJ, Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N

Hama H, 1992. Trends and backgrounds in insecticide resistance problem on agricultural insect pests. Journal of Agricultural Science, 47:289-294

Hamilton JT, 1983. Beet webworm. Agfacts, No. H8.p.2:1 p

Hawkes RB, Andres LA, Anderson WH, 1967. Release and progress of an introduced flea beetle, Agasicies sp. to control alligator weed. Journal of Economic Entomology, 60:1476-1477

Jez M, Kastelic M, Kamin J, 2015. Spoladea recurvalis (Fabricius, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), new moth species in Slovenia. (Spoladea recurvalis (Fabricius, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), nova vrsta metulja v Sloveniji.) Acta Entomologica Slovenica, 23(2):135-138. http://www.pms-lj.si/si/o-nas/arhiv-publikacij/acta-entomologica-slovenica

Julien MH, Broadbent JE, 1980. The biology of Australian weeds 3. Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 46(3):150-155

Kalshoven LGE, Laan PA van der (Reviser and translator), 1981. Pests of crops in Indonesia (revised). Jakarta, Indonesia: Ichtiar Baru, 701 pp

Kuruvilla S, Jacob A, 1980. Pathogenicity of the entomogenous fungus Ppcilomyces farinosus (Dickson ex Fries) to several insect pests. Entomon, 5(3):175-176

Lingren PD, Guerra RJ, Nickelsen JW, White G, 1970. Hosts and host-age preference of Campoletis perdistinctus. Journal of Economic Entomology, 63:518-522

Manjula, K. N., Kotikal, Y. K., 2018. Studies on major in sect pests of fenugreek and their management. Annals of Horticulture, 11(2), 141-149. doi: 10.5958/0976-4623.2018.00022.1

Mere RM, 1952. A pyrale new to Britain, re Hymenia recurvalis Fabr. Entomologist's Gazette, 3:56-57

Miyahara Y, 1990. The moths of the rice leaf roller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee, and the Hawaiian beet webworm, Hymenia recurvalis Fabricius, found on seashore vegetation during the summer and autumn. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 34(1):21-27

Miyahara Y, 1991. Examination of the overwintering of the Hawaiian beet webworm, Hymenia recurvalis Fabricius, pupae. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 37:156-159

Okuno T, Tanaka Y, Kimura Y, Yonezawa S, 1983. Diseases and pests of flowers and vegetables in color. Osaka, Japan: Hoikusha Publishing

Pande YD, 1969. Biology of Hymenia recurvalis Fabricius (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) as a defoliator of the serious kharif weeds in Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Science and Industry, 3:107-108

Peter C, Balasubramanian R, 1984. New report of parasites on mango fleaweevil, Rhynchpnus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Entomon, 9(1):73

Riley JR, Reynolds DR, Smith AD, Edwards AS, Zhang XX, Cheng XN, Wang HK, Cheng JY, Zhai BP, 1995. Observations of the autumn migration of the rice leaf roller Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and other moths in eastern China. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 85(3):397-414

Robinson GS, Tuck KR, Shaffer M, 1994. A field guide to the smaller moths of south-east Asia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Nature Society

Rose HS, Pajni HR, 1985. Some observations on the pyralidoid fauna of north-west India (Lepidoptera). Research Bulletin of the Panjab University, Science, 36(3/4):203-216

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp

Suzuki H, Hayashi K, Asahina S, 1977. Note on the transoceanic insects captured on East China Sea in 1976. Tropical Medicine, 19(2):85-93

Verma JP, Jain FC, 1972. Efficacy of triphenyl tinacetate as a crop protectant for some Lepidopterous pests. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 42(6):529-531

Walker HG, Anderson LD, 1940. The Hawaiian beet webworm and its control. Bulletin Virgina Truck Experimental Station, 103:1651-1659

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

Yadav CPS, Pareek BL, 1985. Alternate hosts of Hymenia fascialis Butler (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Bulletin of Entomology, 26(1):100-102

Yamada H, Koshihara T, Tanaka K, 1979. Biology and seasonal life history of the Hawaiian beet webworm, Hymenia recurvalis (F.). Bulletin of the Vegetable and Ornamental Crops Research Station, A6:171-183

Yoshimatsu SI, 1991. Lepidopterous insects captured on East China Sea from 1981 to 1987. Japanese Journal of Entomology, 59(4):811-820; 48 ref

Distribution References

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Aswal J S, Bisht B S, Suman Bisht, 2005. Relative abundance of Spoladea recurvalis (F.) in mountain agro-ecosystem of Uttaranchal Hills. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 13 (2), 475-476. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Babu B S, Premi P L, Varaprasad K S, Sharma S B, 2000. Incidence of Hexamermis sp. (Dorylaimida; Mermithidae) parasitising larvae of Hymenia recurvalis Fabricius on Trianthema monogyna. Indian Journal of Plant Protection. 28 (1), 107-108.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Clancy S, 1991. Psammotis pulveralis Hnb. Lepidoptera pyralidae and other migrant lepidoptera in the Dungeness, Kent, England, area 1990. In: Entomology Rec. J. Var. 103 51-52.

Greathead D J, Greathead A H, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information. 13 (4), 61N-68N.

Jež M, Kastelic M, Kamin J, 2015. Spoladea recurvalis (Fabricius, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), new moth species in Slovenia. (Spoladea recurvalis (Fabricius, 1775) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), nova vrsta metulja v Sloveniji.). Acta Entomologica Slovenica. 23 (2), 135-138. http://www.pms-lj.si/si/o-nas/arhiv-publikacij/acta-entomologica-slovenica

Manjula K N, Kotikal Y K, 2018. Studies on major in sect pests of fenugreek and their management. Annals of Horticulture. 11 (2), 141-149.

Mere R M, 1952. A pyrale new to Britain, re Hymenia recurvalis Fabr. Entomologist's Gazette. 56-57.

Riley J R, Reynolds D R, Smith A D, Edwards A S, Zhang X X, Cheng X N, Wang H K, Cheng J Y, Zhai B P, 1995. Observations of the autumn migration of the rice leaf roller Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and other moths in eastern China. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 85 (3), 397-414. DOI:10.1017/S0007485300036130

Schotman C Y L, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. In: RLAC-PROVEG, 80 pp.

UK, CAB International, 1991. Spoladea recurvalis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 527.

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Distribution Maps

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