Hylobius abietis (large pine weevil)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Distribution Table
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Wood Packaging
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Hylobius abietis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Preferred Common Name
- large pine weevil
Other Scientific Names
- Curculio abietis Linnaeus, 1758
- Curculio pini Marsham, 1802
- Hylobitelus abietis (Linnaeus, 1758)
International Common Names
- English: fir-tree weevil; large brown pine weevil
- Spanish: gorgojo del abeto
- French: charançon de l'épinette; charançon européen; grand charançon du pin; hylobe du pin
- Russian: bolshoy sosnovy dolgonosik
Local Common Names
- Czech Republic: klikoroh borovy
- Denmark: n'lletróssnudebillen
- Estonia: männikärsakas
- Finland: tukkimiehentäin
- Germany: grosser brauner Rüsselkäfer; Ruesselkaefer, Grosser Brauner; Ruessler, Grosser Brauner Nadelholz-
- Hungary: nagy fenyoormanyos
- Italy: all'ilobio dell'abete; Ilobio dell'abete
- Latvia: priezu lielais smecernieks
- Lithuania: didysis pusinis straubliukas
- Netherlands: Grote dennesnuitkever
- Norway: gransnutebillen
- Poland: szeliniak sosnowiec
- Romania: trombarul puietilor de molid
- Sweden: snyttbage
- HYLOAB (Hylobius abietis)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Coleoptera
- Family: Curculionidae
- Genus: Hylobius
- Species: Hylobius abietis
DescriptionTop of page
The cream-coloured larva is soft, curved and legless. It has a large, light-brown head, with strong mandibles, which are flattened and as wide as the first segment of the body. Mature larvae are 10-15 mm long. There are five larval instars; the widths of the head capsule measure 0.6-0.8 mm (first instar), 0.9-1.1 mm (second instar), 1.1-1.7 mm (third instar), 1.6-2.5 mm (fourth instar) and 2.5-3.5 mm (fifth instar) (Bakke and Lekander, 1965).
The pupa is 8-10 mm long, exarate (appendages are free) and unpigmented.
The adult is 9-15 mm long. A hard chitinous covering protects the body. The wing cases, which completely cover the abdomen, are purple-brown in young adults and later become black. There are patches of yellow scales on the wing cases and on the thorax. The thorax is slightly broader than it is long, strongly convex and constricted at the front. The surface of the thorax is punctured and wrinkled with a raised central line. The head is extended to form a strong snout with mandibles at the tip. The antennae are elbowed and attached to the snout near the end. The large eyes are positioned on either side at the base of the snout. The legs have sharp claws with a strong tooth on the inner edge of each femur.
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|United Kingdom||Present, Localized|
|New Zealand||Absent, Formerly present|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Less damage is observed on beech (Fagus sylvatica) and oak (Quercus robur) seedlings (Lof et al., 2000).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Betula pendula (common silver birch)||Betulaceae||Other|
|Fagus sylvatica (common beech)||Fagaceae||Other|
|Larix decidua (common larch)||Pinaceae||Main|
|Picea abies (common spruce)||Pinaceae||Main|
|Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce)||Pinaceae||Main|
|Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus pinaster (maritime pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine)||Pinaceae||Main|
|Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir)||Pinaceae||Main|
|Quercus robur (common oak)||Fagaceae||Other|
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / wilting|
|Stems / external feeding|
|Whole plant / external feeding|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
|Whole plant / seedling blight|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
H. abietis tends to display two peaks of mass occurrence, which lead to higher levels of damage caused by the beetles. The first peak takes place from April in central Europe to June in northern Europe and corresponds to the emergence of overwintering pine weevils. The feeding activity of beetles is dependent on temperature and, in the laboratory, optimum temperatures oscillate between 19 and 28°C (Christiansen and Bakke, 1968). Very little feeding activity is observed at temperatures below 10 and above 30°C. Under extremely warm conditions, for example in mid-summer and in places exposed to direct solar radiation, the feeding activity of beetles is strongly nocturnal (Christiansen and Bakke, 1971).
In conifer plantations, the pine weevils feed on the phloem and browse the bark of stems and lateral shoots of seedlings, which can lead to the deformation or death of trees. The beetles can also feed on slash or branches of conifers lying on the ground and can eat the bark of branches in the crowns of standing trees located at the edge of clear cuttings (Örlander et al., 2000). Crown feeding mainly takes place during the spring and summer when the pine weevils migrate to new breeding sites. The beetles are polyphagous but Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Picea sitchensis and species of Larch are the most attractive food sources.
Between late May and early July the females lay eggs in niches chewed in the bark of roots of fresh coniferous stumps. Eggs can also be laid in the soil and newly-hatched larvae are able to find roots due to host odour (Salisbury and Leather, 1998). In the vegetative season, H. abietis females may lay about 100 eggs (Korczynski, 1985). Females prefer to oviposit in pine rather than spruce and development of H. abietis is slower in spruce stumps than in pine (Långström, 1982). The larvae feed on tissues of the inner bark and the cambium, forming a tunnel of increasing diameter. Fully grown, fifth-instar larvae, that are ready to pupate, excavate pupal chambers between the bark and wood or in the wood. The time required for completion of the life cycle of H. abietis from egg to adult emergence depends on a combination of locality factors and weather conditions. The life cycle is completed in 1 year in sunny or moderately sheltered areas and 2 years in shaded areas (Kuziemska-Grzeczka, 1984). In colder climates, larval development generally takes 2 years but can take up to 5 years (Långström, 1982). On the basis of laboratory studies and field observations, the optimum temperature for development of H. abietis larvae was found to oscillate between 20 and 25°C; development takes 40 days at 23°C (Christiansen, 1971b). Under warm summer conditions there is a second mass occurrence of H. abietis beetles in the growing season between late July and early September, resulting from the emergence of adults from eggs laid in late spring to early summer. Larvae of the final instar may enter a diapause lasting 60 to 220 days when exposed to temperatures between 10 and 20°C (Eidmann, 1963); this leads to the extension of H. abietis development into the following spring.
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis||Pathogen|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
In Sweden and the UK, the fungus, Beauveria bassiana, was isolated from H. abietis larvae and adults (Gerdin, 1977; Leather et al., 1999). The fungus was found on H. abietis in the field and its biological activity was confirmed in laboratory experiments (Gerdin; 1977; Wegensteiner and Führer, 1988).
Bracon hylobii is a common parasitoid of H. abietis larvae and has been described in Sweden, UK, Denmark and Germany (Henry and Day, 2001). In the UK, it appears wherever the larvae of H. abietis are found and can cause up to 50% mortality of the large pine weevil population developing in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) stumps during 3 years after felling.
In Sweden and former Czechoslovakia, Perilitus areolaris has been reported as a parasitoid of H. abietis beetles (Gerdin and Hedqvist, 1985; Stary et al., 1988). Field evidence in Czechoslovakia indicated that P. areolaris is an effective parasitoid and was found in 15-16% of collected beetles.
In Poland, Perilitus rutilus was described as a parasite of H. abietis and parasitized about 2.5% of adults (Korczynski, 1984).
The entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema feltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora have been described as parasites of the beetles and larvae of H. abietis in Sweden and the UK (Pye and Burman, 1977; Brixey, 1997).
S. carpocapsae has been found on the host in the field. Laboratory and field studies have shown its biological activity against H. abietis. S. feltiae was described as a natural enemy of H. abietis on the basis of laboratory experiments (Pye and Burman, 1977; Pye and Pye, 1985; Brixey, 1997; Skrzecz, 1998; Armendáriz et al., 2000).
Studies conducted in the UK indicated that Pterostichus madidus were able to consume larvae of H. abietis during their migration through the soil (Salisbury and Leather, 1998).
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
ImpactTop of page
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Within Pissodes sp., only P. pini develops in the bark of felled trees or in stumps and the larvae can be confused with those of H. abietis. The larvae of H. abietis differ from those of Pissodes; their heads are large, flattened and almost as wide as the first segment of the body whereas the head of Pissodes larvae is more rounded and much smaller in relation to the body.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Physical Control
To directly reduce the number of pine weevils, freshly cut and split billets or pieces of fresh pine or spruce bark are used (Långström, 1982; Leather et al., 1999). In Sweden and Poland, traps with food attractant were developed for capturing H. abietis beetles (Nordlander, 1987; Kolk, 1994). In Sweden, experiments have been conducted to use available synthetic anti-feedant compounds to protect seedlings against H. abietis (Klepzig and Schlyter, 1999).
The most common method of protecting forest plantations against H. abietis is by using chemicals. This consists of dipping the above-ground parts of the seedlings in insecticides immediately before planting or using post-planting sprays (Glowacka et al., 1991; Heritage, 1997; Tortensson et al., 1999).
Studies aimed at the development of biological methods based on micro-organisms pathogenic to H. abietis have been conducted in many countries but at present none have been put into practice. In the UK, experiments have focused on using nematodes against H. abietis. It was found that these parasites may be used in the long-term suppression of H. abietis populations (Brixey, 1997).
Experiments were carried out in Poland using Phlebiopsis gigantea, a fungus that decomposes pine stumps, to estimate the impact of P. gigantea on the colonization of pine stumps by H. abietis (Skrzecz, 1996). Results indicated that the infection of pine stumps by P. gigantea reduces their colonisation intensity by H. abietis. Application of the fungus may protect plants by reducing the number of large pine weevil larvae developing in the stumps.
ReferencesTop of page
+rlander G; Nilsson U; Nordlander G, 1997. Pine Weevil Abundance on Clear-cuttings of Different Ages: A 6-year Study using Pitfall Traps. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 12:225-240.
Armendßriz I; Downes MJ; Griffin CT, 2000. Pine weevil biocontrol: compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes and stump-degrading fungi in laboratory conditions. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 23(2):47-50; 3 ref.
Bakke A; Lekander B, 1965. Studies on Hylobius abietis L. II. The influence of exposure on the development and production of Hylobius abietis, illustrated through one Norwegian and one Swedish experiment. Meddeleser fra det. Norske Skogsforsoksvesen, 20:117-135.
Cankov G, 1968. The biology, ecology and control of Hylobius abietis in Bulgaria. Gorskostop. Nauka, Sofija, 5(2):41-53.
Christiansen E, 1971. Laboratory study on factors influencing pre-imaginal development in Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Norske Entomol. Tiddskrift, 18:1-8.
Christiansen E; Bakke A, 1968. Temperature preference in adults of Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) during feeding and oviposition. Zeitschrift fnr Angewandte Entomologie, 62:83-89.
Christiansen E; Bakke A, 1971. Feeding activity of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) during a hot period. Norsk Entomol. Tidskr., 18:109-111.
Christiansen E; Sandvik M, 1974. Damage by Hylobius abietis to Scots Pine on scarified patches. Norsk Skogbruk, 20(5):8-9.
Doom D; Frenken GWP, 1980. Postponement of replanting as a silvicultural method to prevent damage by the large pine weevil Curculio [Hylobius] abietis. Nederlands Bosbouw Tijdschrift, 52(9):217-227.
Eidmann HH, 1963. Zur Diapause einiger Forstinsecten. Zeitschrift fnr Angewandte Entomologie, 52:362-367.
Eidmann HH, 1981. Pine weevil research for better reforestations, Proceedings of the XVII World Congress IUFRO, Japan Division, 2:441-447.
Engberg B, 1976. Hylobius abietis and a Danish method of forest regeneration. Skogen, 63(2):54-56.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Espanol F, 1965. Wood-inhabiting Coleoptera observed on Pinus pinaster in the Sierra de Espadan (Castellon). Bol. Serv. Plagas For., Madrid, 8(16):110-4.
Ferenczy J, 1991. Mit Erfolg gegen den Grossen Braunen RusselkaSfer. Osterreichische Forstzeitung, 3:62-63.
Geiser R; Waldert R, 1979. Development of Hylobius abietis L. (Col., Curculionidae) in heaps of spruce and pine bark near Munich. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz, 52(6):93-94.
Gerdin S; Hedqvist KJ, 1984. Perilitus areolaris sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an imago-parasitoid of the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (Linnpus), and its reproductive behaviour. Entomologica Scandinavica, 15(3):363-369
Glowacka B; Lech A; Wilczynski W, 1991. Application of deltamethrin for spraying or dipping to protect Scots pine seedlings against Hylobius abietis L. and logs against Tomicus piniperda L. Annales des Sciences Forestieres, 48(1):113-117.
Henry CJ; Day KR, 2001. Egg allocation by Bracon hylobii Ratz., the principal parasitoid of the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.), and implications for host suppression. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 3(1):11-18; 46 ref.
Heritage S, 1997. Protecting plants from weevil damage by dipping or spraying before planting using aqueous insecticides. Research Information Note Forestry Commission, No. 270.
Heritage S; Collins S; Evans HF, 1989. A survey of damage by Hylobius abietis and Hylastes spp. in Britain. Insects affecting reforestation: biology and damage [edited by Alfaro, R. I.; Glover, S. G.] Victoria, Canada; Forestry Canada, Pacific and Yukon Region, 36-42.
Jurc M, 2000. Vegetation, insects and fungi in selected forest plantations of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) on Karst. Nova znanja v gozdarstvu - prispevek visokega s^hacek~olstva: zbornik referatov s^hacek~tudijskih dni, Kranjska gora, 11-12.5.2000., 127-150; [With English captions]; 28 ref.
Kiss L, 1966. Damage by Hylobius abietis and its control. ErdTszeti Kutatßsok, Budapest, 62(1/3):279-83.
Klepzig KD; Schlyter F, 1999. Laboratory evaluation of plant-derived antifeedants against the pine weevil Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 92(3):644-650; 26 ref.
Kolk A, 1994. The use of synthetic pheromones in forest protection in Poland. Proceedings of the 3rd Meeting of EPS/IOBC, 12-14 September 1994, Sekocin, Poland, 117-130.
Korczynski I, 1985. Investigations on fecundity of large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.), Prace Komisji Nauk Rolniczych i Komisji Nauk Lesnych, LX:47-51.
Korczynski J, 1984. New data on the occurrence in Poland of Perilitus rutilus Nees (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) as a parasite of the pine weevil
Kuziemska-Grzeczka G, 1984. Potential for and rate of development of Hylobius abietis (Col., Curculionidae) on various tree species in sunny and shaded areas. Folia Forestalia Polonica, A (Lesnictwo), No. 27:49-57.
L÷f M; Madsen P, 2000. Feeding preferences of Hylobius abietis L. on Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies L. Karst and Quercus robur L. seedlings in relation to silvicultural practices. Forest ecosystem restoration: ecological and economical impacts of restoration processes in secondary coniferous forests. Proceedings of the International Conference, Vienna, Austria, 10-12 April, 2000, 183-186; 21 ref.
Langstrom B, 1982. Abundance and seasonal activity of adult Hylobius-weevils in reforestation areas during first years following final felling. Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, 106:4-22.
Leather SR; Day KR; Salisbury AN, 1999. The biology and ecology of the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): a problem of dispersal?. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 89(1):3-16; 4 pp. of ref.
Leather SR; Small AA; Bogh S, 1995. Seasonal variation in local abundance of adults of the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis L. (Col., Curculionidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 119(8):511-513.
Liu ZF; Zhao BY; Zhao SF; Sheng ML; Zhang QH; Cui ZQ; Chu D; Sun YJ; Xu SB; Zhang XD, 1989. A report on monitoring stem borers in burned areas in Daxinganling Mountain. Forest Science and Technology, No. 2:12-15.
Prorocu M; Oprean L, 2000. Results of monitoring Hylobius abietis L. in very young coniferous forest. Revista Padurilor, 115(3):24-27.
Pye AE; Burman M, 1977. Pathogenicity of the nematode Neoaplectana carpocapsae (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae) and certain microorganisms towards the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Annales Entomologici Fennici, 43(4):115-119.
Pye AE; Pye NL, 1985. Different application of the insect parasitic nematode Neoplectana carpocapsae to control the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis. Nematologica, 31: 109-116.
Roversi PF; Baccetti C; Fabbricatore T; Covassi M; Nocentini S, 1993. Insects associated with Douglas fir in the Apennines. Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per la Selvicoltura, 24:49-62; [With English captions]; 21 ref.
Salisbury AN; Leather SR, 1998. Migration of larvae of the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis L. (Col., Curculionidae): possible predation a lesser risk than death by starvation? Journal of Applied Entomology, 122(6):295-299; 14 ref.
Sasakawa M; Wakita K, 1959. A note on the damages by the Pine weevils. Scientific Reports of the Kyoto Prefectural University, No. 11, 71-4.
Scerbakova LN, 1968. Types of damage to Norway Spruce plantations by insects in Lisinsk leskhoz, Leningrad region. Nauc. Trud. Leningr. Lesoteh. Akad. No. 115, 126-31.
Selander J, 1993. Survival model for Pinus sylvestris seedlings at risk from Hylobius abietis. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 8(1):66-72.
Skrzecz I, 1996. Impact of Phlebia gigantea (Fr.: Fr) Donk on the colonization of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stumps by the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). Folia Forestalia Polonica. Seria A, Les^acute~nictwo, No. 38:89-101; 11 ref.
Skrzecz I, 1998. Natural enemies of the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) - possibilities for control. Methodology of forest insect and disease survey in Central Europe. Proceedings, First Workshop of the IUFRO WP 7.03.10, Ustron^acute~-Jaszowiec, Poland, 21-24 April, 1998., 109-114; 14 ref.
Solbreck C; Gyldberg B, 1979. Temporal flight pattern of the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis L. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), with special reference to the influence of weather. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 88(5):532-536.
Stary P; Sterba J; Soldan T, 1988. Perilitus areolaris G. & H. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a parasitoid of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) in Czechoslovakia. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 85(6):428-433.
Tilles DA; Sjodin K; Nordlander G; Eidmann HH, 1986. Synergism between ethanol and conifer host volatiles as attractants for the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(4):970-973.
Tortensson L; Borjesson E; Arvidsson B, 1999. Treatment of bare root spruce seedlings with permethrin against pine weevil before lifting, Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 14(5):408-415.
Tozlu G, 2001. Studies on the pest species belonging to the families Elateridae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae (Coleoptera) and Diprionidae (Hymenoptera) in Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests of Sarikamis (Kars), Turkey. Tnrkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 25(3):193-204; many ref.
Valenta VT, 1981. Principles of developing forest protection measures for conifer plantations. In: Aukshtikal'nene AM, ed. Nove
Vladyshevskii DV; Petrenko ES, 1987. Ecological assessment of the habitats of forest animals. Novosibirsk, USSR: Nauka, Sibirskoe Otdelenie.
Von Sydow F, 1997. Abundance of pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) and damage to conifer seedlings in relation to silvicultural practices. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 12(2):157-167.
Wilson WL; Day KR, 1994. Spatial variation in damage dispersion, and the relationship between damage intensity and abundance of the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). International Journal of Pest Management, 40(1):46-49.
Yurkina EV, 1991. Factors regulating the numbers of dangerous pests of buds and shoots in young Scots pine stands in the Komi SSR. Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii^breve~, Lesnoi^breve~ Zhurnal, No. 5:19-21.
Zumr V; Stary P, 1995. Monitoring Hylobius abietis (L.) (Col., Curculionidae) by baited pitfall traps in relation to planting and treatment of seedlings in a re-forested area. Anzeiger fnr SchSdlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz, 68(1):18-21.
Ansari M A, Butt T M, 2012. Susceptibility of different developmental stages of large pine weevil Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic fungi and effect of fungal infection to adult weevils by formulation and application methods. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 111 (1), 33-40. DOI:10.1016/j.jip.2012.05.006
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Dillon A B, Ward D, Downes M J, Griffin C T, 2006. Suppression of the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in pine stumps by entomopathogenic nematodes with different foraging strategies. Biological Control. 38 (2), 217-226. DOI:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2006.03.004
Doom D, Frenken G W P, 1980. Postponement of replanting as a silvicultural method to prevent damage by the large pine weevil Curculio [Hylobius] abietis. (Het uitstellen van herbeplantingen als maatregel tegen schade door de grote dennesnuitkever, Curculio abietis.). Nederlands Bosbouw Tijdschrift. 52 (9), 217-227.
Eidmann HH, 1981. Pine weevil research for better reforestations. [Proceedings of the XVII World Congress IUFRO, Japan Division], 2 441-447.
Ferenczy J, 1991. (Mit Erfolg gegen den Grossen Braunen RusselkaSfer). In: Osterreichische Forstzeitung, 3 62-63.
Geiser R, Waldert R, 1979. Development of Hylobius abietis L. (Col., Curculionidae) in heaps of spruce and pine bark near Munich. (Entwicklung von Hylobius abietis L. (Col., Curculionidae) in Fichten- und Kiefernrindenhaufen bei Munchen.). Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz. 52 (6), 93-94.
Girling R D, Ennis D, Dillon A B, Griffin C T, 2010. The lethal and sub-lethal consequences of entomopathogenic nematode infestation and exposure for adult pine weevils, Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 104 (3), 195-202. DOI:10.1016/j.jip.2010.04.003
Heritage S, Collins S, Evans H F, 1989. A survey of damage by Hylobius abietis and Hylastes spp. in Britain. In: Insects affecting reforestation: biology and damage [Insects affecting reforestation: biology and damage], [ed. by Alfaro R I, Glover S G]. Victoria, Canada: Forestry Canada, Pacific and Yukon Region. 36-42.
Kiss L, 1966. Damage by Hylobius abietis and its control. In: ErdTszeti Kutatßsok, Budapest, 62 (1/3) 279-83.
Korczyński I, 1988. Seasonal changes in the spatial distribution of feeding by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis in Scots pine plantations. (Sezonowe zmiany w rozmieszczeniu przestrzennym żerów szeliniaka sosnowca (Hylobius abietis L.) w uprawach sosny.). Sylwan. 132 (9), 49-53.
Leather S R, Small A A, Bøgh S, 1995. Seasonal variation in local abundance of adults of the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis L. (Col., Curculionidae). Journal of Applied Entomology. 119 (8), 511-513. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.1995.tb01327.x
Liu Z F, Zhao B Y, Zhao S F, Sheng M L, Zhang Q H, Cui Z Q, Chu D, Sun Y J, Xu S B, Zhang X D, 1989. A report on monitoring stem borers in burned areas in Daxinganling Mountain. Forest Science and Technology. 12-15.
Nef L, Zenon-Roland L, 1974. Control of Hylobius abietis L.: persistence of various insecticides used as dips. (Lutte contre Hylobius abietis L.: remanence de divers insecticides appliques par trempage.). Parasitica. 30 (4), 159-166.
Semİz G, Erbilgin N, Holopainen J K, 2017. Hylobius abietis L. feeding on the novel host Pinus brutia Ten. increases emission of volatile organic compounds. Journal of Applied Entomology. 141 (1/2), 133-140. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0418
Steyrer G, Cech T L, Krehan H, Perny B, Stagl W G, Tomiczek C, 2002. Forest damage monitoring in Austria - results 2000. (Forst-Schadensmonitoring in Österreich - Ergebnisse 2000.). Forstschutz Aktuell. 1-29.
Sydow F von, 1997. Abundance of pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) and damage to conifer seedlings in relation to silvicultural practices. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. 12 (2), 157-167. DOI:10.1080/02827589709355397
Thacker J R M, Bryan W J, McGinley C, Heritage S, Strang R H C, 2003. Field and laboratory studies on the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil on the feeding activity of the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) and implications for pest control in commercial conifer plantations. Crop Protection. 22 (5), 753-760. DOI:10.1016/S0261-2194(03)00041-3
Thorpe K, Day K, 2008. Reproductive maturation in the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis: the relative importance of larval and adult diet. Agricultural and Forest Entomology. 10 (1), 53-59. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/afe
Tozlu G, 2001. Studies on the pest species belonging to the families Elateridae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae (Coleoptera) and Diprionidae (Hymenoptera) in Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests of Sarikami? (Kars), Turkey. (Sarıkamıș (Kars) Ormanlarında Sarıçam (Pinus sylvestris L.)'da zarar yapan Elateridae, Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae (Coleoptera) ve Diprionidae (Hymenoptera) familyalarına bağlı türler üzerinde çalıșmalar.). Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi. 25 (3), 193-204.
Varga M, Oltean I, Gliga S, Florian T, Bunescu H, Bodis I, Pall D Ö, 2010. Observations on damage of Hylobius abietis L. species in O.S. Topli?a, D.S. Harghita plantations. Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. Horticulture. 67 (1), 527. http://journals.usamvcj.ro/horticulture
Vitola R P, Ozols G Ė, 1989. Problems of the protection of pine and spruce from harmful insects and diseases in the Latvian SSR. In: Zashchita sosny i eli v Latviĭskoĭ SSR. [ed. by Spalvin'sh ZP]. Riga, USSR: 'Zinatne'. 4-11.
Voolma K, 2001. The large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis L., in the felling areas of the Räpina forest district: a case study with baited ground traps. (Harilik männikärsakas (Hylobius abietis L.) Räpina metskonna raiestikel: uurimus atraktantpüünistega.). Metsanduslikud Uurimused. 172-178.
Wilson W L, Day K R, 1994. Spatial variation in damage dispersion, and the relationship between damage intensity and abundance of the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). International Journal of Pest Management. 40 (1), 46-49. DOI:10.1080/09670879409371852
Zumr V, Starý P, 1993. Baited pitfall and flight traps in monitoring Hylobius abietis (L.) (Col., Curculionidae). Journal of Applied Entomology. 115 (5), 454-461. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.1993.tb00414.x
Zumr V, Stary P, 1995. Monitoring Hylobius abietis (L.) (Col., Curculionidae) by baited pitfall traps in relation to planting and treatment of seedlings in a re-forested area. In: Anzeiger fnr SchSdlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz, 68 (1) 18-21.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/