Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Hevea brasiliensis
(rubber)

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Datasheet

Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hevea brasiliensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • rubber
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Nursery seedlings of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis).
TitleSeedlings
CaptionNursery seedlings of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis).
CopyrightAgrEvo
Nursery seedlings of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis).
SeedlingsNursery seedlings of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis).AgrEvo
Leaf fall in plantation during February-March, Perak, Malaysia.
TitlePlantation
CaptionLeaf fall in plantation during February-March, Perak, Malaysia.
CopyrightLai Hoe Ang
Leaf fall in plantation during February-March, Perak, Malaysia.
PlantationLeaf fall in plantation during February-March, Perak, Malaysia.Lai Hoe Ang
Tapping of mature Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis).
TitleTapping
CaptionTapping of mature Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis).
CopyrightAgrEvo
Tapping of mature Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis).
TappingTapping of mature Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis).AgrEvo
Leaves of H. brasiliensis turn red before shedding.
TitleFoliage
CaptionLeaves of H. brasiliensis turn red before shedding.
CopyrightLai Hoe Ang
Leaves of H. brasiliensis turn red before shedding.
FoliageLeaves of H. brasiliensis turn red before shedding.Lai Hoe Ang
Latex flowing from mature Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). (Note collection apparatus)
TitleLatex flowing
CaptionLatex flowing from mature Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). (Note collection apparatus)
CopyrightAgrEvo
Latex flowing from mature Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). (Note collection apparatus)
Latex flowingLatex flowing from mature Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). (Note collection apparatus)AgrEvo
A. seed capsule
B. seeds
TitleSeed capsules and seeds
CaptionA. seed capsule B. seeds
CopyrightLai Hoe Ang
A. seed capsule
B. seeds
Seed capsules and seedsA. seed capsule B. seedsLai Hoe Ang
H. brasiliensis: 1, flowering branch; 2, fruit.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
TitleH. brasiliensis - line drawing
CaptionH. brasiliensis: 1, flowering branch; 2, fruit. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
H. brasiliensis: 1, flowering branch; 2, fruit.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
H. brasiliensis - line drawingH. brasiliensis: 1, flowering branch; 2, fruit. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.PROSEA Foundation
TitleLatex collection
Caption
CopyrightLai Hoe Ang
Latex collectionLai Hoe Ang
1. tree habit
2. flowering twig
3. fruit
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. tree habit 2. flowering twig 3. fruit
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. tree habit
2. flowering twig
3. fruit
Line artwork1. tree habit 2. flowering twig 3. fruitPROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Muell. Arg.

Preferred Common Name

  • rubber

Other Scientific Names

  • Siphonia brasiliensis Willd. ex A. Juss.

International Common Names

  • English: Para rubber
  • Spanish: caucho; hevea; hule; jebe; siringa
  • French: arbre a caoutchouc; caoutchouc; caoutchouc de Para; hévéa
  • Arabic: lastik barâ
  • Portuguese: seringueira

Local Common Names

  • Brunei Darussalam: kayu getah; kayu keret; pokok getah para
  • Cambodia: kausuu
  • Germany: Heveakautschukbaum; Parakautschukbaum
  • Indonesia: karet; kayu getah; kayu keret; pokok getah para
  • Italy: albero del caucciu; evea
  • Laos: jaang
  • Malaysia: getah asli; kayu getah; kayu keret; pokok getah para
  • Myanmar: kyetpaung
  • Netherlands: Rubberboom
  • Sweden: brasilianskt Gummitraed
  • Thailand: yang phara
  • Vietnam: cao su

EPPO code

  • HVEBR (Hevea brasiliensis)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

The following summary is from Witt and Luke (2017):

Description

Large evergreen tree (to 40 m tall) with a straight trunk (50 cm in diameter), branching at top to form a dense canopy.

Origin

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela.

Reason for Introduction

Timber and rubber.

Invades

Roadsides, disturbed areas and forest gaps/edges.

Impacts

Introduced as a plantation crop, it has escaped cultivation and established dense stands, to the possible detriment of native plant and animal species.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Euphorbiales
  •                         Family: Euphorbiaceae
  •                             Genus: Hevea
  •                                 Species: Hevea brasiliensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page At present some 10 species are distinguished in Hevea, including H. brasiliensis, H. benthamiana, H. camargoana, H. camporum, H. guianensis, H. microphylla, H. nitida, H. pauciflora, H. rigidifolia and H. spruceana. Only H. brasiliensis, H. guianensis and H. benthamiana yield usable rubber, the latex of other species being undesirable due to its high resin and low rubber content. However, other Hevea species possess desirable traits which could be used for breeding purposes (for example, better wood strength, disease resistance and dwarfing). Dwarfing is found in H. camargoana and H. nitida var. toxicodendroides. H. microphylla is unique in Hevea in having pistillate flowers with a conspicuously swollen torus.

Description

Top of page A tree, 30-40 m tall, about 15 m when cultivated. Root system massive, taproot 1-2 m long, laterals spreading to about 10 m. Trunk cylindrical, bark smooth to slightly corky, pale to dark brown. Branching varying considerably; shape conical with light branches emerging from a prominent main stem, broom- or fan-shaped with four to five heavy branches coming out of a main stem, or stem leader dominated by a diffuse array of heavy branches. Leaves alternate or subopposite at apex of shoot, trifoliolate, petioles long with apical glands; stipules deciduous. Leaflets elliptic or obovate, 4-50 x 1.5-15 cm, entire and pinnately veined. Flowers in axillary panicles on basal part of new flush, unisexual, with bell-shaped, 5-lobed perianth, bright yellow on ripening; male flowers smaller than and outnumbering the female flowers, attached at the base of the lateral branchlets of the inflorescence, with a staminal column with 10 sessile anthers spirally arranged; female flowers located at the apices of the main and lateral branchlets of the inflorescence, with a green disk at base and a superior, 3-celled ovary terminated by 3 sessile sticky stigmas. Fruit a 3-lobed capsule, 3-5 cm in diameter, light brown when mature. One seed per carpel, ovoid, about 1 x 2 cm.

Distribution

Top of page The centre of origin of natural rubber covers part of the Amazon Basin, parts of Matto Grosso (Upper Orinoco) and the Guianas. Geographically, wild and semi-wild Hevea is found in the northern part of South America from Brazil to Venezuela and from Colombia to Peru and Bolivia.

Natural rubber was first introduced into South-East Asia from the Neotropics in 1876. Early attempts to encourage its planting were not well received. However, with the arrival and expansion of the motor car industry and the increased demand for natural rubber, it soon grew into an important plantation crop in a number of tropical and subtropical countries. Today, rubber is grown in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and China in Asia, as well as Cote d'Ivoire, Nigeria, Cameroon, Liberia and Gabon in Africa. In South America, particularly in Brazil, despite the massive opening up of new land for rubber cultivation, production continues to be hampered by the major leaf disease South American leaf blight (Microcyclus ulei).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 5,300 MT (F)
Brunei DarussalamPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 220 MT (F)
CambodiaPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 31,676 MT
ChinaPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 565,000 MT (F)
IndiaPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 819,000 MT (F)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent Planted
-AssamPresent Planted
-KarnatakaPresent Planted
-KeralaPresent Planted
-Tamil NaduPresent Planted
IndonesiaPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 2,921,872 MT
-Irian JayaPresent Planted
-JavaPresent Planted
-KalimantanPresent Planted
-MoluccasPresent Planted
-SulawesiPresent Planted
-SumatraPresent Planted
MalaysiaPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 1,072,400 MT
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent Planted
-SabahPresent Planted
-SarawakPresent Planted
MyanmarPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 45,000 MT (F)
PhilippinesPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 411,044 MT
SingaporePresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 0 MT (M)
Sri LankaPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 129,240 MT
ThailandPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 3,193,213 MT
VietnamPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 659,600 MT

Africa

Africa South of SaharaPresent Planted
CameroonPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 52,000 MT (F)
Central AfricaPresent Planted
Central African RepublicPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 1,000 MT (F)
CongoPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 1,350 MT (F)
Côte d'IvoirePresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 188,532 MT (F)
GabonPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 12,000 MT (F)
GhanaPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 13,500 MT (*)
GuineaPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 13,900 MT (*)
Guinea-BissauPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 0 MT (M)
LiberiaPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 81,000 MT (*)
MaliPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 0 MT (M)
NigeriaPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 143,000 MT (F)
Sierra LeonePresent Planted
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke, 2017Naturalized
UgandaPresent Planted
West AfricaPresent Planted

North America

MexicoPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 27,709 MT (F)

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 0 MT (M)
Dominican RepublicPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 12 MT (F)
GuatemalaPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 70,000 MT (F)

South America

BoliviaPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 12,000 MT (F)
BrazilPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 114,000 MT (F)
-AcrePresent Natural
-AlagoasPresent Natural
-AmapaPresent Natural
-AmazonasPresent Natural
-BahiaPresent Natural
-CearaPresent Natural
-Espirito SantoPresent Natural
-Fernando de NoronhaPresent Natural
-GoiasPresent Natural
-MaranhaoPresent Natural
-Mato GrossoPresent Natural
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent Natural
-Minas GeraisPresent Natural
-ParaPresent Natural
-ParaibaPresent Natural
-ParanaPresent Natural
-PernambucoPresent Natural
-PiauiPresent Natural
-Rio de JaneiroPresent Natural
-Rio Grande do NortePresent Natural
-Rio Grande do SulPresent Natural
-RondoniaPresent Natural
-RoraimaPresent Natural
-Santa CatarinaPresent Natural
-Sao PauloPresent Natural
-SergipePresent Natural
ColombiaPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 0 MT (M)
EcuadorPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 13,750 MT (F)
ParaguayPresent Natural
PeruPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 0 MT (M)
UruguayPresent Natural
VenezuelaPresent Natural

Oceania

Papua New GuineaPresentFAO, 2009Natural rubber production (2008) 4,700 MT (F)

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Growth and Development

Germination of seeds usually takes place 7-10 days after sowing. Seedlings and buddings exhibit growth periodicity. Terminal buds of main stems produce long internodes with leaves clustered towards the end of them. The shoot pushes out vertically, slowly for 2-3 days, then rapidly before tailing off for 1-2 days. The energy for growth is then diverted into leaf development. Leaf petioles and leaf blades show the same kind of growth as the shoot, but the blades go on growing for 3-4 days longer than the petioles. When their growth ceases, the blades change colour from dark reddish to light green, and continue to droop. During the next stage the leaves rise to the horizontal position after which they become dark green. A complete cycle takes about 36 days, 18 for extension growth and 18 for leaf development. Subsequent growth proceeds in similar cycles, and as the plant grows, the leaves appear in whorls.

Branching begins about 1 year after sowing, depending on the clone. The more vigorous clones branch early whereas the less vigorous can take up to a year. The branches appear sequentially and the number ranges from 4-8 in one storey. They emerge from axillary buds. One-year-old seedlings may already be 2.5 m tall. After the first year of growth, the plants will then go through a phase of rapid vegetative growth for the next 4 years before they start flowering and fruiting.

After branching, girth development starts and growth periodicity is less pronounced. Girth development decreases when trees are tapped. To prevent wind damage a rather short tree with a symmetrical crown starting about 3 m above ground level is preferred. When trees reach a certain age they partly or completely shed their leaves, usually once a year. The intensity of leaf shedding, usually called wintering, depends on climatic conditions and varies with clone. A dry period of 1 month or longer causes partial or complete leaf fall. This causes a drop in latex production especially during refoliation. Along with new leaves, flowers are produced. Both self- and cross-pollination are carried out by small insects. Self-incompatibility occurs in some clones. Only a small proportion of female flowers set fruit and afterwards many of the fruitlets are shed. Even with hand pollination no more than five of the pollinated female flowers develop into mature fruit. This development takes about 5 months. Seeds are viable only for a few days. Storage in sealed containers with damp sawdust can extend the viability period to 1 month.

Ecology

Rubber is a crop of the lowland tropics grown between 6°N and 6°S. Attempts to cultivate rubber as far south as the Sao Paolo region in Brazil and as far north as Mexico and Guangdong Province in China have met with some degree of success. The optimum day temperature is 26-28°C. Preferably rubber should not be planted at altitudes above 400-500 m because the low ambient temperature retards girth growth, delays tapping, and reduces latex production.

The annual rainfall requirement ranges from 2000 to 3000 mm with 170-200 rainy days. A well-distributed annual rainfall of 1500 mm is considered the lower limit for commercial production. In Indonesia, the best areas for rubber production have annual rainfall totals as high as 400 mm. In high rainfall areas, soils should have good internal drainage. A large number of rainy days, especially with rain in the morning, is undesirable because it disrupts the tapping schedule. Rubber can also tolerate a 2-3 month drought period in some areas. A dry period of 1 month or longer causes partial or complete leaf fall. Wind is an important factor because it may snap trunks and branches.

Owing to its extensive root system rubber needs a well-drained, root-penetrable soil, at least 1 m deep with an adequate moisture storage capacity. Temporary waterlogging with flowing water causes little damage. It can be grown in soils ranging from sandy to red lateritic and yellow podzols, young volcanic soils, alluvial clays and peat soil. Rubber is less demanding in terms of soil fertility and topography than other tree crops such as oil palm and cocoa, and is often planted on land which is not suitable for these crops.

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
12 -35 0 450

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 10
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 26 27
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 24 33
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 20 32

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration03number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall15003600mm; lower/upper limits

Uses

Top of page The rubber tree, when tapped, produces a milky liquid (latex). The latex can be processed into latex concentrate, sheet rubber or block rubber; it is marketed to manufacturers as natural raw rubber.

The main users of natural raw rubber are tyre manufacturers who consume 60-70% of the total world volume of natural rubber produced. The balance is divided among manufacturers of rubber car components (for example, producing engine mountings, bushes, weather strips, V-belts, hoses and joint rings), manufacturers of engineering components (building mounts, anti-vibration mounts, dock fenders, flooring and high-quality sheeting), and manufacturers of consumer products (such as footwear, sports goods, toys, gloves, latex threads, catheters, swimming caps and condoms).

When felled for replanting, the rubber tree is also sawn to give rubber wood (timber). With proper treatment, it can be used for high-value-added products like furniture, particleboeard, parquet flooring and many other wood products. Rubber wood can also be converted into fuel charcoal.

Seeds contain a semi-drying oil that can be used in making paints and soap and has some potential as a local fuel.

Bibliography

Top of page Abraham PD, 1981. Recent innovations in exploitation of Hevea. Planter (Kuala Lumpur), 57:631-648.

ACIAR, 1985. Smallholder rubber production and policies. Proceedings of an international workshop held at the University of Adelaide, South Australia, 18-20 February 1985. ACIAR Proceedings series, 9.

Azwar R, Sumarmadji, Haris U, Basuki, 1993. Intercrops in smallholder rubber-based farming system. Indonesian Agricultural Research and Development Journal, 15(3):45-51.

Charrier A, Jacquot M, Hamon S, Nicolas D, 1997. Tropical plant breeding. Montpellier, France: CIRAD-SAR.

Compagnon P, 1986. Le caoutchouc naturel. Paris, France: Maisonneuve & Larose.

D'Auzac J, 1998. From sucrose to rubber: Hevea as a "green rubber factory". In: Symposium on natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). Volume 1. General, soils and fertilization, and breeding and selection sessions, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 14-15 October 1997. Brickendonbury, UK: International Rubber Research and Development Board (IRRDB), 10-23.

Dijkman MJ, 1951. Hevea: thirty years of research in the Far East. Coral Gables, Florida, USA: University of Miami Press.

Dove MR, 1993. Smallholder rubber and swidden agriculture in Borneo: a sustainable adaptation to the ecology and economy of the tropical forest. Economic Botany, 47(2): 36-147.

Esekhade TU, Ugwa IK, AigbekaenEO, 1996. Suitability and economic viability of intercropping in rubber on acid sandy soil of Southern Nigeria. Indian Journal of Natural Rubber Research, 9(1):36-39.

Godon P, Nguyen Gia Quoc, 1997. Systems of intercropping rubber and cashew. Agriculture et Developpement, 15:169-174.

MTIB, 1986. Malaysian Rubberwood, a beautiful and versatile timber. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Timber Industry Board.

Ng KF, Stur WW, Shelton HM, 1977. New forage species for integration of sheep in rubber plantations. Journal of Agricultural Science, 128(3):347-355.

Ong SH, Mohd Noor AG, Tan AM, Tan H, 1983. New Hevea germplasm - its introduction and potential. In: Proceedings RRIM Planters' Conference. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Ong SH, Othman R, Benong M, 1998. Breeding and selection of clonal genotypes for climatic stress conditions. Symposium on natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). Volume 1. General, soils and fertilization, and breeding and selection sessions, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 14-15 October 1997. Brickendonbury, UK: International Rubber Research and Development Board, 149-154.

Pee TY, Ani Bin Arope, 1976. Rubber owners' manual. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia.

Pinniam N, Weber KE, Tomita M, 1993. Reforestation through the establishment of small scale rubber plantations in northeast Thailand. Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 37(3):171-178.

Ray SK, Mathew J, 1990. Structural changes and developments in the rural rubber economy of India. Administrator, 35(3):65-73.

Roux P le et al., 1991. The Golden Forests: Report of an anthropological, socioeconomic and technical survey on rubber plantations in the Provinces of Patani, Yala, Narathiwat and Songkla (Southern Thailand): April 1988 to December 1989: Part 1: General Report. Patani, Thailand.

RRIM, 1998. Annual report 1997. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia.

RRIM, 1998. Symposium on natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). Volume I. General, soils and fertilization, and breeding and selection sessions, Ho Minh City, Vietnam, 14-15 October 1997. Brickendonbury, UK: International Rubber Research and Development Board.

Samat MSA, Shelton HM, Mullen BF, Shelton HM, 1995. Biological modelling of rubber and forage productivity. ACIAR, Australia. Integration of ruminants into plantation systems in southeast Asia: Proceedings of a workshop at Lake Toba, North Sumatra, Indonesia, 9 13 September 1994. ACIAR Proceedings, 64:72-78.

Tan AG, Mohd Ali Sujan, 1981. Rubber wood for furniture manufacture. Planter (Kuala Lumpur), 57:649 655.

Tan Hong, 1987. Strategies in rubber tree breeding. In: Abott AJ, Atkin RK, eds. Improving vegetatively propagated crops. London, UK: Academic Press.

Webster CC, Baulkwell WJ, 1989. Rubber. UK: Longman Scientific and Technical.

Wessel M, 1988. Hevea (in English). In: Rehm S, ed. Handbuch der Landwirtschaft und Ernährung in den Entwicklungsländern. 2. Aufl. Band 4. Specieller Pflanzenbau in den Tropen und Subtropen. Stuttgart, Germany: Verlag Eugen Ulmer.

References

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Albaladejo JL, 1997. The potential of rubberwood. Tropical Forest Update, 7(4):9-10

Alvim P de T, 1994. Non-chemical approaches to tropical tree crop disease management: the case of rubber and cacao in Brazil. Agricultural technology: policy issues for the international community [edited by Anderson, J. R.] Wallingford, UK; CAB INTERNATIONAL, 425-434

Anuar AR, Yaacob O, Pushparajah E, Lefroy RDB (ed. ), Blair GJ (ed.), Craswell ET, 1995. Management of nutrients and residues in perennial tree crop systems of Malaysia. Soil organic matter management for sustainable agriculture: a workshop held in Ubon, Thailand, 24 26 August 1994, 56-62; ACIAR Proceedings No. 56; 19 ref

Appanah S, 1995. Plantation forestry: its prospects in Malaysia. Wallaceana, No. 76, 7-12; 10 ref

Arokiaraj P, Jones H, Jaafar H, Coomber S, Charlwood BV, 1996. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Hevea anther calli and their regeneration into plantlets. Journal of Natural Rubber Research, 11(2):77-87

Brown AE, Soepena H, 1994. Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides on leaves of Hevea spp. Mycological Research, 98(3):264-266

Carron MP, Dea BG, Tison J, Leconte A, Keli J, 1997. Field growth of Hevea brasiliensis clones produced by in vitro culture. Plantations, Recherche, Developpement, 4(4):264-273

Clement-Demange A, Chapuset T, Legnate H, Costes E, Doumbia A, Obouayeba S, Nicolas D 1995. Wind damage: the possibilities of an integrated research for improving the prevention of risks and the resistance of clones in the rubber tree. Symposium on physiological and molecular aspects of the breeding of Hevea brasiliensis, Penang, Malaysia, 6-7 November, 1995:182-199

Hashim I, 1991. A review on control of rubber root diseases. Proceedings of Ganoderma workshop, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, 11 September 1990 [edited by Darus, A.; Sukaimi, J.] Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, 49-63

Ikram A, Jensen ES, Jakobsen I, 1994. No significant transfer of N and P from Pueraria phaseoloides to Hevea brasiliensis via hyphal links of arbuscular mycorrhiza. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 26(11):1541-1547

International Rubber Research and Development Board, 1997. Proceedings of the symposium on agronomy aspects of the cultivationof natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). Brickendonbury, UK: IRRDB

Ismail BS, Tasrif A, Sastroutomo SS, Latiff A, 1995. Weed seed populations in rubber and oil palm plantations with legume cover crops. Plant Protection Quarterly, 10(1):20-23

Ismail H, 1992. Management of rubber diseases in Malaysia in 2000. Pest management and the environment in 2000 [edited by Kadir, A.A.S.A.; Barlow, H.S.] Wallingford, UK; CAB International, 181-194

Jayasinghe CK, 2001. Check list of rubber pathogens in Sri Lanka. Colombo, Sri Lanka: National Science Foundation, 48 pp

Jayasinghe CK, Silva WPK, 1994. Foot canker and sudden wilt of Hevea brasiliensis associated with Nattrassia mangiferae. Plant Pathology, 43(5):938-940

Jayatissa HG, Liyanage NIS, Wijesundera RLC, 1994. Fungicides in the control of Phytophthora disease of rubber in Sri Lanka. Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka, 22(1):7-13

Kliwon S, Iskandar MI, Sutigno P, 1992. The effect of veneer preservation with BFCA compound on the bonding strength of plywood made from rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis). [Pengaruh pengawetan venir dengan senyawa BFCA terhadap keteguhan rekat kayu lapis dari kayu karet (Hevea brasiliensis).] Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan, 10(3):97-101; English tables; 8 ref

Lam CH, Lim JK, Jantan B, 1993. Comparative studies of a paraquat mixture and glyphosate and/or its mixtures on weed succession in plantation crops. Planter, 69(812):525-535

Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC, eds. 1995. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (2). Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. 655 pp.; Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers

Lieberei R, Junqueira NTV, Feldmann F, 1990. Integrated disease control in rubber plantations in South America. Proceedings: integrated pest management in tropical and subtropical cropping systems '89, vol. 2 Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft, 445-456

Lim SunHeng, Leong LyneChing, 1996. The socio-economic impact of planting tropical timber species with plantation technology - agro-forestry. Planter, 72(849): 669-673. Paper presented at the Conference on Tropical Forests and Timber `96 organized by the Centre for Management Technology on 18-19 July, 1996 in Singapore

Malaysia, Malaysian Rubber Research and Development Board, 1995. 1995 Annual report. 1995, publ. 1996, 71 pp.; many col. pl

Medrado MJS, Appezzato-da-Gloria B, Costa JD, 1995. Anatomical changes in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clone RRIM 600) cuttings in response to different rooting techniques. Scientia Agricola, 52(1):89-95

Mohd Nor MY, 1995. The manufacture of medium density fibreboard from rubberwood of different age groups. Journal of Tropical Forest Products, 1(1):78-82; 3 ref

Nehru CR, Thankamony S, Jayarathnam K, 1991. Occurrence of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita as a pest of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seedlings. Indian Journal of Natural Rubber Research, 4(1):77-78; 7 ref

Nurhayati T, 1994. Trial of the use of hot gas produced by rubber wood [Hevea brasiliensis] burning in the gasifier-combustor for cacao seed drying. [Uji coba penggunaan gas panas dari tungku gasifikasi kayu karet untuk pengeringan biji coklat.] Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan, 12(5):164-168; English figures and tables.; 5 ref

Oktavia F, Lasminingsih M, Kuswanhadi, 2011. Genetic diversity of wild germplasm and cultivated clones of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. detected by RAPD analysis. Journal of Rubber Research, 14(4):241-251

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