Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Muell. Arg.
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Siphonia brasiliensis Willd. ex A. Juss.
International Common Names
- English: Para rubber
- Spanish: caucho; hevea; hule; jebe; siringa
- French: arbre a caoutchouc; caoutchouc; caoutchouc de Para; hévéa
- Arabic: lastik barâ
- Portuguese: seringueira
Local Common Names
- Brunei Darussalam: kayu getah; kayu keret; pokok getah para
- Cambodia: kausuu
- Germany: Heveakautschukbaum; Parakautschukbaum
- Indonesia: karet; kayu getah; kayu keret; pokok getah para
- Italy: albero del caucciu; evea
- Laos: jaang
- Malaysia: getah asli; kayu getah; kayu keret; pokok getah para
- Myanmar: kyetpaung
- Netherlands: Rubberboom
- Sweden: brasilianskt Gummitraed
- Thailand: yang phara
- Vietnam: cao su
- HVEBR (Hevea brasiliensis)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
The following summary is from Witt and Luke (2017):
Large evergreen tree (to 40 m tall) with a straight trunk (50 cm in diameter), branching at top to form a dense canopy.
Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela.
Reason for Introduction
Timber and rubber.
Roadsides, disturbed areas and forest gaps/edges.
Introduced as a plantation crop, it has escaped cultivation and established dense stands, to the possible detriment of native plant and animal species.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Euphorbiales
- Family: Euphorbiaceae
- Genus: Hevea
- Species: Hevea brasiliensis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page At present some 10 species are distinguished in Hevea, including H. brasiliensis, H. benthamiana, H. camargoana, H. camporum, H. guianensis, H. microphylla, H. nitida, H. pauciflora, H. rigidifolia and H. spruceana. Only H. brasiliensis, H. guianensis and H. benthamiana yield usable rubber, the latex of other species being undesirable due to its high resin and low rubber content. However, other Hevea species possess desirable traits which could be used for breeding purposes (for example, better wood strength, disease resistance and dwarfing). Dwarfing is found in H. camargoana and H. nitida var. toxicodendroides. H. microphylla is unique in Hevea in having pistillate flowers with a conspicuously swollen torus.
DescriptionTop of page A tree, 30-40 m tall, about 15 m when cultivated. Root system massive, taproot 1-2 m long, laterals spreading to about 10 m. Trunk cylindrical, bark smooth to slightly corky, pale to dark brown. Branching varying considerably; shape conical with light branches emerging from a prominent main stem, broom- or fan-shaped with four to five heavy branches coming out of a main stem, or stem leader dominated by a diffuse array of heavy branches. Leaves alternate or subopposite at apex of shoot, trifoliolate, petioles long with apical glands; stipules deciduous. Leaflets elliptic or obovate, 4-50 x 1.5-15 cm, entire and pinnately veined. Flowers in axillary panicles on basal part of new flush, unisexual, with bell-shaped, 5-lobed perianth, bright yellow on ripening; male flowers smaller than and outnumbering the female flowers, attached at the base of the lateral branchlets of the inflorescence, with a staminal column with 10 sessile anthers spirally arranged; female flowers located at the apices of the main and lateral branchlets of the inflorescence, with a green disk at base and a superior, 3-celled ovary terminated by 3 sessile sticky stigmas. Fruit a 3-lobed capsule, 3-5 cm in diameter, light brown when mature. One seed per carpel, ovoid, about 1 x 2 cm.
DistributionTop of page The centre of origin of natural rubber covers part of the Amazon Basin, parts of Matto Grosso (Upper Orinoco) and the Guianas. Geographically, wild and semi-wild Hevea is found in the northern part of South America from Brazil to Venezuela and from Colombia to Peru and Bolivia.
Natural rubber was first introduced into South-East Asia from the Neotropics in 1876. Early attempts to encourage its planting were not well received. However, with the arrival and expansion of the motor car industry and the increased demand for natural rubber, it soon grew into an important plantation crop in a number of tropical and subtropical countries. Today, rubber is grown in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and China in Asia, as well as Cote d'Ivoire, Nigeria, Cameroon, Liberia and Gabon in Africa. In South America, particularly in Brazil, despite the massive opening up of new land for rubber cultivation, production continues to be hampered by the major leaf disease South American leaf blight (Microcyclus ulei).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Planted||Reference||Notes|
|Bangladesh||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 5,300 MT (F)|
|Brunei Darussalam||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 220 MT (F)|
|Cambodia||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 31,676 MT|
|China||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 565,000 MT (F)|
|India||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 819,000 MT (F)|
|-Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Present||Planted|
|Indonesia||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 2,921,872 MT|
|Malaysia||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 1,072,400 MT|
|Myanmar||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 45,000 MT (F)|
|Philippines||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 411,044 MT|
|Singapore||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 0 MT (M)|
|Sri Lanka||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 129,240 MT|
|Thailand||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 3,193,213 MT|
|Vietnam||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 659,600 MT|
|Africa South of Sahara||Present||Planted|
|Cameroon||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 52,000 MT (F)|
|Central African Republic||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 1,000 MT (F)|
|Congo||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 1,350 MT (F)|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 188,532 MT (F)|
|Gabon||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 12,000 MT (F)|
|Ghana||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 13,500 MT (*)|
|Guinea||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 13,900 MT (*)|
|Guinea-Bissau||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 0 MT (M)|
|Liberia||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 81,000 MT (*)|
|Mali||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 0 MT (M)|
|Nigeria||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 143,000 MT (F)|
|Tanzania||Present||Introduced||Witt and Luke, 2017||Naturalized|
|Mexico||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 27,709 MT (F)|
Central America and Caribbean
|Costa Rica||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 0 MT (M)|
|Dominican Republic||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 12 MT (F)|
|Guatemala||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 70,000 MT (F)|
|Bolivia||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 12,000 MT (F)|
|Brazil||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 114,000 MT (F)|
|-Fernando de Noronha||Present||Natural|
|-Mato Grosso do Sul||Present||Natural|
|-Rio de Janeiro||Present||Natural|
|-Rio Grande do Norte||Present||Natural|
|-Rio Grande do Sul||Present||Natural|
|Colombia||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 0 MT (M)|
|Ecuador||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 13,750 MT (F)|
|Peru||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 0 MT (M)|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||FAO, 2009||Natural rubber production (2008) 4,700 MT (F)|
Biology and EcologyTop of page Growth and Development
Germination of seeds usually takes place 7-10 days after sowing. Seedlings and buddings exhibit growth periodicity. Terminal buds of main stems produce long internodes with leaves clustered towards the end of them. The shoot pushes out vertically, slowly for 2-3 days, then rapidly before tailing off for 1-2 days. The energy for growth is then diverted into leaf development. Leaf petioles and leaf blades show the same kind of growth as the shoot, but the blades go on growing for 3-4 days longer than the petioles. When their growth ceases, the blades change colour from dark reddish to light green, and continue to droop. During the next stage the leaves rise to the horizontal position after which they become dark green. A complete cycle takes about 36 days, 18 for extension growth and 18 for leaf development. Subsequent growth proceeds in similar cycles, and as the plant grows, the leaves appear in whorls.
Branching begins about 1 year after sowing, depending on the clone. The more vigorous clones branch early whereas the less vigorous can take up to a year. The branches appear sequentially and the number ranges from 4-8 in one storey. They emerge from axillary buds. One-year-old seedlings may already be 2.5 m tall. After the first year of growth, the plants will then go through a phase of rapid vegetative growth for the next 4 years before they start flowering and fruiting.
After branching, girth development starts and growth periodicity is less pronounced. Girth development decreases when trees are tapped. To prevent wind damage a rather short tree with a symmetrical crown starting about 3 m above ground level is preferred. When trees reach a certain age they partly or completely shed their leaves, usually once a year. The intensity of leaf shedding, usually called wintering, depends on climatic conditions and varies with clone. A dry period of 1 month or longer causes partial or complete leaf fall. This causes a drop in latex production especially during refoliation. Along with new leaves, flowers are produced. Both self- and cross-pollination are carried out by small insects. Self-incompatibility occurs in some clones. Only a small proportion of female flowers set fruit and afterwards many of the fruitlets are shed. Even with hand pollination no more than five of the pollinated female flowers develop into mature fruit. This development takes about 5 months. Seeds are viable only for a few days. Storage in sealed containers with damp sawdust can extend the viability period to 1 month.
Rubber is a crop of the lowland tropics grown between 6°N and 6°S. Attempts to cultivate rubber as far south as the Sao Paolo region in Brazil and as far north as Mexico and Guangdong Province in China have met with some degree of success. The optimum day temperature is 26-28°C. Preferably rubber should not be planted at altitudes above 400-500 m because the low ambient temperature retards girth growth, delays tapping, and reduces latex production.
The annual rainfall requirement ranges from 2000 to 3000 mm with 170-200 rainy days. A well-distributed annual rainfall of 1500 mm is considered the lower limit for commercial production. In Indonesia, the best areas for rubber production have annual rainfall totals as high as 400 mm. In high rainfall areas, soils should have good internal drainage. A large number of rainy days, especially with rain in the morning, is undesirable because it disrupts the tapping schedule. Rubber can also tolerate a 2-3 month drought period in some areas. A dry period of 1 month or longer causes partial or complete leaf fall. Wind is an important factor because it may snap trunks and branches.
Owing to its extensive root system rubber needs a well-drained, root-penetrable soil, at least 1 m deep with an adequate moisture storage capacity. Temporary waterlogging with flowing water causes little damage. It can be grown in soils ranging from sandy to red lateritic and yellow podzols, young volcanic soils, alluvial clays and peat soil. Rubber is less demanding in terms of soil fertility and topography than other tree crops such as oil palm and cocoa, and is often planted on land which is not suitable for these crops.
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||10|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||26||27|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||24||33|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||20||32|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||0||3||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||1500||3600||mm; lower/upper limits|
UsesTop of page The rubber tree, when tapped, produces a milky liquid (latex). The latex can be processed into latex concentrate, sheet rubber or block rubber; it is marketed to manufacturers as natural raw rubber.
The main users of natural raw rubber are tyre manufacturers who consume 60-70% of the total world volume of natural rubber produced. The balance is divided among manufacturers of rubber car components (for example, producing engine mountings, bushes, weather strips, V-belts, hoses and joint rings), manufacturers of engineering components (building mounts, anti-vibration mounts, dock fenders, flooring and high-quality sheeting), and manufacturers of consumer products (such as footwear, sports goods, toys, gloves, latex threads, catheters, swimming caps and condoms).
When felled for replanting, the rubber tree is also sawn to give rubber wood (timber). With proper treatment, it can be used for high-value-added products like furniture, particleboeard, parquet flooring and many other wood products. Rubber wood can also be converted into fuel charcoal.
Seeds contain a semi-drying oil that can be used in making paints and soap and has some potential as a local fuel.
BibliographyTop of page Abraham PD, 1981. Recent innovations in exploitation of Hevea. Planter (Kuala Lumpur), 57:631-648.
ACIAR, 1985. Smallholder rubber production and policies. Proceedings of an international workshop held at the University of Adelaide, South Australia, 18-20 February 1985. ACIAR Proceedings series, 9.
Azwar R, Sumarmadji, Haris U, Basuki, 1993. Intercrops in smallholder rubber-based farming system. Indonesian Agricultural Research and Development Journal, 15(3):45-51.
Charrier A, Jacquot M, Hamon S, Nicolas D, 1997. Tropical plant breeding. Montpellier, France: CIRAD-SAR.
Compagnon P, 1986. Le caoutchouc naturel. Paris, France: Maisonneuve & Larose.
D'Auzac J, 1998. From sucrose to rubber: Hevea as a "green rubber factory". In: Symposium on natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). Volume 1. General, soils and fertilization, and breeding and selection sessions, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 14-15 October 1997. Brickendonbury, UK: International Rubber Research and Development Board (IRRDB), 10-23.
Dijkman MJ, 1951. Hevea: thirty years of research in the Far East. Coral Gables, Florida, USA: University of Miami Press.
Dove MR, 1993. Smallholder rubber and swidden agriculture in Borneo: a sustainable adaptation to the ecology and economy of the tropical forest. Economic Botany, 47(2): 36-147.
Esekhade TU, Ugwa IK, AigbekaenEO, 1996. Suitability and economic viability of intercropping in rubber on acid sandy soil of Southern Nigeria. Indian Journal of Natural Rubber Research, 9(1):36-39.
Godon P, Nguyen Gia Quoc, 1997. Systems of intercropping rubber and cashew. Agriculture et Developpement, 15:169-174.
MTIB, 1986. Malaysian Rubberwood, a beautiful and versatile timber. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Timber Industry Board.
Ng KF, Stur WW, Shelton HM, 1977. New forage species for integration of sheep in rubber plantations. Journal of Agricultural Science, 128(3):347-355.
Ong SH, Mohd Noor AG, Tan AM, Tan H, 1983. New Hevea germplasm - its introduction and potential. In: Proceedings RRIM Planters' Conference. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Ong SH, Othman R, Benong M, 1998. Breeding and selection of clonal genotypes for climatic stress conditions. Symposium on natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). Volume 1. General, soils and fertilization, and breeding and selection sessions, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 14-15 October 1997. Brickendonbury, UK: International Rubber Research and Development Board, 149-154.
Pee TY, Ani Bin Arope, 1976. Rubber owners' manual. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia.
Pinniam N, Weber KE, Tomita M, 1993. Reforestation through the establishment of small scale rubber plantations in northeast Thailand. Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 37(3):171-178.
Ray SK, Mathew J, 1990. Structural changes and developments in the rural rubber economy of India. Administrator, 35(3):65-73.
Roux P le et al., 1991. The Golden Forests: Report of an anthropological, socioeconomic and technical survey on rubber plantations in the Provinces of Patani, Yala, Narathiwat and Songkla (Southern Thailand): April 1988 to December 1989: Part 1: General Report. Patani, Thailand.
RRIM, 1998. Annual report 1997. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia.
RRIM, 1998. Symposium on natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis). Volume I. General, soils and fertilization, and breeding and selection sessions, Ho Minh City, Vietnam, 14-15 October 1997. Brickendonbury, UK: International Rubber Research and Development Board.
Samat MSA, Shelton HM, Mullen BF, Shelton HM, 1995. Biological modelling of rubber and forage productivity. ACIAR, Australia. Integration of ruminants into plantation systems in southeast Asia: Proceedings of a workshop at Lake Toba, North Sumatra, Indonesia, 9 13 September 1994. ACIAR Proceedings, 64:72-78.
Tan AG, Mohd Ali Sujan, 1981. Rubber wood for furniture manufacture. Planter (Kuala Lumpur), 57:649 655.
Tan Hong, 1987. Strategies in rubber tree breeding. In: Abott AJ, Atkin RK, eds. Improving vegetatively propagated crops. London, UK: Academic Press.
Webster CC, Baulkwell WJ, 1989. Rubber. UK: Longman Scientific and Technical.
Wessel M, 1988. Hevea (in English). In: Rehm S, ed. Handbuch der Landwirtschaft und Ernährung in den Entwicklungsländern. 2. Aufl. Band 4. Specieller Pflanzenbau in den Tropen und Subtropen. Stuttgart, Germany: Verlag Eugen Ulmer.
ReferencesTop of page
Albaladejo JL, 1997. The potential of rubberwood. Tropical Forest Update, 7(4):9-10
Alvim P de T, 1994. Non-chemical approaches to tropical tree crop disease management: the case of rubber and cacao in Brazil. Agricultural technology: policy issues for the international community [edited by Anderson, J. R.] Wallingford, UK; CAB INTERNATIONAL, 425-434
Anuar AR, Yaacob O, Pushparajah E, Lefroy RDB (ed. ), Blair GJ (ed.), Craswell ET, 1995. Management of nutrients and residues in perennial tree crop systems of Malaysia. Soil organic matter management for sustainable agriculture: a workshop held in Ubon, Thailand, 24 26 August 1994, 56-62; ACIAR Proceedings No. 56; 19 ref
Arokiaraj P, Jones H, Jaafar H, Coomber S, Charlwood BV, 1996. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Hevea anther calli and their regeneration into plantlets. Journal of Natural Rubber Research, 11(2):77-87
Carron MP, Dea BG, Tison J, Leconte A, Keli J, 1997. Field growth of Hevea brasiliensis clones produced by in vitro culture. Plantations, Recherche, Developpement, 4(4):264-273
Clement-Demange A, Chapuset T, Legnate H, Costes E, Doumbia A, Obouayeba S, Nicolas D 1995. Wind damage: the possibilities of an integrated research for improving the prevention of risks and the resistance of clones in the rubber tree. Symposium on physiological and molecular aspects of the breeding of Hevea brasiliensis, Penang, Malaysia, 6-7 November, 1995:182-199
Hashim I, 1991. A review on control of rubber root diseases. Proceedings of Ganoderma workshop, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia, 11 September 1990 [edited by Darus, A.; Sukaimi, J.] Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, 49-63
Ikram A, Jensen ES, Jakobsen I, 1994. No significant transfer of N and P from Pueraria phaseoloides to Hevea brasiliensis via hyphal links of arbuscular mycorrhiza. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 26(11):1541-1547
Kliwon S, Iskandar MI, Sutigno P, 1992. The effect of veneer preservation with BFCA compound on the bonding strength of plywood made from rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis). [Pengaruh pengawetan venir dengan senyawa BFCA terhadap keteguhan rekat kayu lapis dari kayu karet (Hevea brasiliensis).] Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan, 10(3):97-101; English tables; 8 ref
Lemmens RHMJ, Soerianegara I, Wong WC, eds. 1995. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (2). Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. 655 pp.; Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers
Lieberei R, Junqueira NTV, Feldmann F, 1990. Integrated disease control in rubber plantations in South America. Proceedings: integrated pest management in tropical and subtropical cropping systems '89, vol. 2 Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft, 445-456
Lim SunHeng, Leong LyneChing, 1996. The socio-economic impact of planting tropical timber species with plantation technology - agro-forestry. Planter, 72(849): 669-673. Paper presented at the Conference on Tropical Forests and Timber `96 organized by the Centre for Management Technology on 18-19 July, 1996 in Singapore
Malaysia, Malaysian Rubber Research and Development Board, 1995. 1995 Annual report. 1995, publ. 1996, 71 pp.; many col. pl
Medrado MJS, Appezzato-da-Gloria B, Costa JD, 1995. Anatomical changes in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clone RRIM 600) cuttings in response to different rooting techniques. Scientia Agricola, 52(1):89-95
Nehru CR, Thankamony S, Jayarathnam K, 1991. Occurrence of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita as a pest of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seedlings. Indian Journal of Natural Rubber Research, 4(1):77-78; 7 ref
Nurhayati T, 1994. Trial of the use of hot gas produced by rubber wood [Hevea brasiliensis] burning in the gasifier-combustor for cacao seed drying. [Uji coba penggunaan gas panas dari tungku gasifikasi kayu karet untuk pengeringan biji coklat.] Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan, 12(5):164-168; English figures and tables.; 5 ref
Oktavia F, Lasminingsih M, Kuswanhadi, 2011. Genetic diversity of wild germplasm and cultivated clones of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. detected by RAPD analysis. Journal of Rubber Research, 14(4):241-251
Pelacani CR, de Oliveira LEM, Soares AM, Cruz JL, 1995. Water relations of some forest species under flooded environment. Revista Arvore, 19(4): 548-558
Priyadarshan PM, 2011. Biology of Hevea rubber [ed. by Priyadarshan, P. M.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, viii + 226 pp. http://www.cabi.org/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFHier&BookID=600
Priyani Seneviratne, Nugawela A, Samarakoon SMA, Seneviratne P, 1996. Deep planting for better performance. Bulletin of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, 340:43-48
Rivano F, 1997. South American leaf blight of Hevea I. Variability of Microcyclus ulei pathogenicity. Plantations, Recherche, Developpement, 4(2):104-114
Seneviratne P, 1996. Branch induction for better growth. Bulletin of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, 34:36-42
Seneviratne P, 1996. Tissue culture for rubber. Bulletin of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, 34:26-31
Silveira AP da, Oliveira D de A, Cardoso RMG, Brignani Neto F, Ortolani AA, Godoy G Jr, 1994. Characterization of mouldy rot (Ceratocystis fimbriata) damage on the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) crop panel. Summa Phytopathologica, 20(3/4):196-199
Thankamma L, Marattukalam JG, Joseph A, Potty SN, 1995. Pink disease of rubber can be prevented. Rubber Board Bulletin, 279(2):35-38
Vijayakumar KR, Rao PS, Sethuraj MR, 1989. Natural rubber. A commercially important forest species. Rubber Board Bulletin, 24(3):21-23; Paper presented at the Seminar on Rubber held at Ponda, Goa, on 29 May, 1989
Wijesundera RLC, Prelis SP, Liyanage NIS, 1991. A study of isolates of Rigidoporus lignosus the causative agent of white root disease of rubber. Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, 71:29-43; 13 ref
Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000
Wong EeDing, Razali AK, Kawai S, Wong ED, 1996. Properties of rubberwood LVL reinforced with Acacia veneers. Wood Research, No. 83:8-16
Yi Peng T, Mat Don M, Ujang S, 2011. Assessment of the properties, utilization, and preservation of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis): a case study in Malaysia. Journal of Wood Science, 57(4):255-266
Zainol Eusof, Mahmud Abdul Wahab, Sajjapongse A (ed. ), Elliott CR, 1995. The management of sloping lands for sustainable agriculture in Malaysia. ASIALAND: the management of sloping lands for sustainable agriculture in Asia Phase 2, 1992 1994, 103-122; Network Document No. 12
Distribution MapsTop of page
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/