Hypochaeris radicata (cat's ear)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Hypochaeris radicata L.
Preferred Common Name
- cat's ear
Other Scientific Names
- Hypochoeris radicata L.
International Common Names
- English: Catsear dandelion; common catsear; Flatweed; hairy cat's ear; spotted catsear
- Spanish: Hierba de halcon
- French: porcelle; Porcelle enracinee
- Portuguese: almeirao-do-campo; leituga
Local Common Names
- English: cat's ears; coast dandelion; common cat's ear; false dandelion; flatweed; frogbit; Gosmore; hairy catsear; long-rooted cat's ear; pee-the-bed; rooted cat's ear; rooted cat's-ear; wild dandelion
- French: chicorée; chicorée-pays; herbe à l’épervier; porcelle enracinée
- Brazil: almeirão-do-campo (Portuguese); almeirão-roseta (Portuguese)
- Germany: Gemeines Ferkelkraut; Gewönliches Ferkelkraut
- Italy: Porcellina giuncolina; Scorzonera selvatica
- Japan: Butana; Tanpopomodoki
- Netherlands: gewoon Biggekruid
- Sweden: rotfibbla
- HRYRA (Hypochoeris radicata)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
H. radicata is a herbaceous perennial originally native to Morocco. It is a very successful colonizing species that is now present on all continents except Antarctica (Ortiz et al., 2008). In New Zealand, Healy (1992) described the distribution of the introduced H. radicata as ‘one of, if not the most widely distributed introduced weeds on a geographical and altitudinal basis.’ It is considered one of the most invasive alien plants on the island of La Reunion (ISSG, 2013). H. radicata readily invades freshly disturbed environments, such as Mount St. Helens following its 1980 eruption (Schoenfelder et al., 2010), and can crowd out more palatable and productive forage species when it invades overgrazed pasture and rangeland (DiTomaso et al., 2013). PIER (2014) indicated it is invasive in a wide range of territories and islands around the Pacific.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Asterales
- Family: Asteraceae
- Genus: Hypochaeris
- Species: Hypochaeris radicata
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Linnaeus was not consistent in his spelling of this species’ generic name, initially naming it Hypochaeris but later Hypochoeris (Aarssen, 1981). Both names have since been used by different authorities. ITIS (2013) prefered the form Hypochaeris radicata. Mabberley (1997) included 60 species in the genus Hypochaeris: nine from Europe and the others from Asia, North Africa and especially South America
DescriptionTop of page
Modified from Aarssen (1981):
Herbaceous perennial growing from hard, thickened, overwintering base (caudex); fibrous-rooted, but often with several enlarged roots, appearing tap-rooted; leaves in a basal rosette, hairv (hispid), oblanceolate, toothed or pinnatifid, 3-25 cm long and 0.5-7 cm wide; stems (stalks) 15-60 cm tall , branched above, or in small plants simple, sparsely and minutely bracteate, or naked, often spreading-hispid below, possessing a ‘milky’ juice; leafless, with small scale-like bracts only; flower heads (capitula) yellow, 20-30 (-40) mm wide, usually several, terminating the branches and rather showy; florets ligulate, monoclinous and bisexual, the ligules surpassing the involucre and about four times as long as wide; involucre l0-15 mm high at anthesis, up to about 25 mm in fruit, its bracts imbricate, glabrous or hispid; fruit an achene, orange or brown, body of the achene mostly 4-7 mm long, from a little longer to more often much shorter than the slender beak, the prominent nerves and the lower part of the beak muricate; pappus plumose with two rows of hairs, shorter outer hairs commonly merely barbellate.
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
H. radicata is a very successful colonizing species that is now present on all continents except Antarctica (Ortiz et al., 2008). It tends to be distributed in cooler, temperate parts of the world (Turkington and Aarssen, 1983). Its northern limit may be controlled more by winter cold than by lack of summer warmth.
Both Turkington and Aarssen (1983) and Ortiz et al. (2008) have questioned whether the species is truly native to the UK and Europe. Ortiz et al. (2008) proposed that the native area of distribution should be North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula and the central (and possibly eastern) Mediterranean.
Although widespread in the USA, H. radicata seems to have stabilized there and, according to DiTomaso et al. (2013), is not likely to expand beyond its present habitats.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Feb 2022
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Present||Native|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present||Native|
|Russia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Canada||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Newfoundland and Labrador||Present||Introduced|
|Saint Pierre and Miquelon||Present||Introduced|
|United States||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-District of Columbia||Present||Introduced|
|-Hawaii||Present||Introduced||Invasive||All main islands|
|-Lord Howe Island||Present||Introduced||Invasive|
|-New South Wales||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive|
|-Northern Territory||Present||Introduced||Southern parts|
|-South Australia||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||South-eastern South Australia|
|-Western Australia||Present||Introduced||South-western West Australia|
|New Zealand||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive|
|Brazil||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Rio Grande do Sul||Present||Introduced|
|Chile||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Mainland and Juan Fernandez and Easter islands|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
H. radicata was originally native to Morocco, where the oldest populations are still found. From there the species expanded its range in the late Quaternary via at least three migratory routes, the earliest of which was apparently to the south-western Iberian Peninsula, with subsequent movement to the central Mediterranean and elsewhere. It is now considered native throughout Europe (Ortiz et al., 2008). Ortiz et al. (2008) proposed that there were possibly two or more independent colonisations of the UK.
Later, H. radicata was almost certainly taken, either accidentally or deliberately, by European migrants to new colonies in North and South America, Asia, Australia and New Zealand. Some seeds may have been taken by migrants for medicinal or food purposes; others may have been inadvertently taken in hay or straw for livestock, in straw palliasses, or in vegetation used for packing household necessities. This spread was probably helped by an important change in ecological tolerance, allowing H. radicata, originally suited to humid Mediterranean woodlands, to invade more open temperate grasslands.
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Australia||Europe||1873||Yes||Australia’s Virtual Herbarium (2013); Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (2004); Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (2013)||Probably accidental, first record, Camperdown, Victoria|
|Canada||Europe||Pre-1884||Yes||Aarssen (1981)||Probably accidental|
|China||2009||eFloras (2014); PIER (2014)||Recorded in Yunnan – status uncertain according to eFloras, naturalised and invasive according to PIER|
|New Zealand||Europe||1867||Yes||Webb et al. (1988)||Probably accidental|
HabitatTop of page
In its ancestral range in Morocco, H. radicata preferred humid Mediterranean woodlands (Ortiz et al., 2008). It has since expanded its range to include a wider variety of habitats; in particular, grasslands and waste places of various kinds have also become the natural home of H. radicata. It can be found along roadsides, in orchards, vineyards, landscaped areas and gardens, often as a lawn weed.
In the UK, H. radicata is primarily a plant of regularly cut or grazed neutral grasslands, of grassland on sandy soils, and of man-made habitats with bare soil. It is most often found in pastures and lawns, on roadside verges and banks, on fixed dunes, in cliff-top grasslands, in waste places in built-up areas and on raw soil (Turkington and Aarssen, 1983).
In New Zealand it is ‘abundant in waste places, pasture and modified tussock grassland through both islands and extending from sea-level to the upper level of vegetation on the mountains’ (Healy, 1992).
In Australia, Weeds of Australia (2013) described it as ‘possibly the most widely distributed weed in south-eastern Australia’, and ‘a very common weed of parks, gardens, footpaths, lawns, roadsides, disturbed sites, waste areas, cultivation and pastures,’ but commented that it is also common in natural habitats.
In British Columbia, H. radicata has been recorded from swamps, ditches, forest edges and clearings, on beaches and cliffs and in grazed pastures and grass/forb and sedge communities (Aarssen, 1981). It is rare in the Canadian prairies.
In California, CAL-IPC (2013) described H. radicta as invading sites relatively undisturbed by human activity, but more invasive and prevalent on disturbed sites such as grazed or burned lands, especially those in coastal areas. It is widespread and abundant in coastal terrace prairie and coastal bluff scrub, often one of the more dominant species.
In Japan, it is found in all temperate areas, often in grasslands (Doi et al., 2006).
H. radicata tolerates a wide range of soil texture and pH, having been found from light sand and gravel through to clay, and from soils with a pH of 3.9 to those with pH 8.6 (Turkington and Aarssen, 1983). It occurs on some of the driest soils in the UK, but in continental Europe it prefers moist, well-drained sites, although it is absent from sites subject to prolonged waterlogging.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Principal habitat|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Principal habitat|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Principal habitat|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Principal habitat|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Recorded diploid counts for both British and Canadian plants are 2n=8 (Aarssen, 1981; Turkington and Aarssen, 1983). Panigrahi and Kammathy (1961, cited in Aarssen, 1991) reported occasional trisomics with 2n = 9 for Indian plants.
Ho (1964, cited in Aarssen, 1981) found that mature, flowering plants can be produced from seed in as little as 2 months under favourable conditions in British Columbia. According to several sources (Fryxel, 1957; Parker 1975), H. radicata is cross-pollinated and self-incompatible. Picó et al. (2004) observed that selfing dramatically reduced seed set, but the few selfed seeds produced were larger and had a greater chance of surviving to flowering than outcrossed seeds. This ability to self-fertilise may be important for isolated individuals that are the first to reach new habitats.
Flowering begins in response to long days, in May in British Columbia and in June in the UK, and continues until October or September (Salisbury, 1964; Aarssen, 1981). Although Salisbury (1964) claimed that ‘the flower heads close at night but open in daylight even when it is dull and cloudy’, Percival (1950) said that sunlight is necessary to stimulate the flowers to open in the morning, and that the flowers do not open in rain or if rain and sun alternate for about half an hour each. Once the flower is open it cannot close for at least 3 hours. In warm sunny conditions, flowers may stay open for about 3-4 hours, or up to 6-7 hours in cool cloudy conditions (Percival, 1950). Many insects visit the flowers, some to eat, and possibly disperse pollen whilst others feed on the nectar (and presumably disperse pollen at the same time) (Aarssen, 1981). The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is one of the major beneficiaries of the large amounts of pollen the flowers produce (Percival, 1950).
The fruit heads may total 60 or more on one plant but on average only about 20 are produced, and each one contains about 44 fruits (seeds) but sometimes as many as 136 (Salisbury, 1942). The ripe fruit is orange-brown in colour, 4-5 mm long with about 15 longitudinal ridges and a beak-like apex with a pappus of an outer ring of short simple hairs and an inner ring of feathery ones. The average weight is from 0.6-0.8 mg and germination ranges from 30 to 90% (Salisbury, 1964). Ho (1964, cited in Aarssen, 1981) estimated an annual production of 2329 achenes per plant over a 27 day period in British Columbia.
Soons et al. (2004) simulated wind dispersal of grassland plant seed (one species being H. radicata) and found that ‘autocorrelated turbulent fluctuations in vertical wind velocity are the key mechanism for long-distant dispersal.’ Dispersal distances are greatest under high wind velocity, when mechanically produced turbulent air movements are large. Under very low wind velocity conditions seeds are dispersed further when there is more surface heating, but never as far as when winds are strong.
Physiology and phenology
In the UK the species begins flowering in June and continues until September, usually with a flush in each of those two seasons (Salisbury, 1964). The flower heads in the first flush are often larger, nearly 4 cm across, whilst those of the autumn flush are often about 2.5 cm across. All the individual flowers in the flower head are strap-shaped and yellow but at the margins they have a greenish underside with a purplish tinge. Intermingled with the flowers are many tapering scales.
Ho (1964, cited in Aarssen, 1981) said that freshly harvested seeds did not need a period of dormancy before germination, that light is needed for germination and that seeds lost viability rapidly in dry storage. Immediately after harvest seeds gave 68% germination but after two months of dry storage, this percentage had fallen to 4%. Grime et al. (1981) also found that dry storage (in their case for 12 months at 5oC) reduced germination from 94% for fresh seed to 31%.
Hartemink et al. (2004) found that regular and continuous removal of flower buds of H. radicata from the onset of flowering until early October led to a 3-4 fold increase in the number of flower buds produced, an increase in the number of flowering stems and greater branching of the flower stems. In addition, when flowering was prevented, plants switched their resources to greater vegetative reproduction and they generated more new rosettes. Struik (1967) found that 20% of his sampled plants (in lawns and grazed pasture) were in clusters of two to six individuals, presumably originating by vegetative reproduction of a single plant.
The rosette leaves can grow very close to the ground, which protects them and buds from mowing or grazing. The perennial roots grow far below the root depth of neighbouring species in lawns, which may explain its high mineral and trace element content (Fagan and Watkins, 1932; Coop et al., 1953; Struik, 1967) as well as its tolerance of drought (Turkington and Aarenssen, 1983). The small epidermal cells of the leaves and the large multicellular hairs (Ormrod and Renney, 1968) may also assist in its drought tolerance. In lawns and possibly elsewhere the plant is often multi-crowned, and the crown may extend 2-3 cm below the ground surface (Healy, 1962).
H. radicata is a relatively short-lived species which lives for up to two seasons (de Kroon et al., 1987; Fone, 1989). Plants can overwinter as green leafy rosettes or, in colder climates, above-ground parts die back, leaving perennating buds at ground level (Aarssen, 1981). The seeds do not seem to persist for long in the soil seed bank.
Population size and structure
Ridley (1930, cited in Aarssen, 1981) claimed that H. radicata has been known to displace every other plant in pastures, including white clover (Trifolium repens). Ho (1964, cited in Aarssen, 1981) found little reduction in top and root development or number of seeds produced when plants were growing in grass compared with plants growing alone.
H. radicata may exert allelopathic effects on other grassland species (Aarseen, 1981). Root leachates were found to reduce shoot dry weight of several grassland species (Newman and Rovira. 1975). Leaf extracts caused a significant decline in germination rate and seedling shoot length in Agrostis tenuis (now known as A. capillaris). The same authors found that H. radicata is autotoxic, its own exudates inhibiting its growth by more than that of neighbouring plants, which may explain why it is often found as isolated individuals or in small clusters rather than forming large patches or pure stands (Aarssen, 1981).
Guthrie-Smith (1953) observed H. radicata to be one of the early colonisers after fire in grassland in New Zealand.
Coop et al. (1953) analysed the chemical components of H. radicata in New Zealand: protein 10-15%, fibre 10-20%, calcium 1-2%, phosphorus 0.15-0.5% and copper 5-10 ppm, on a dry matter basis. Grace and Scott (1974) and Turkington and Aarssen (1983) presented further information on the concentration of mineral elements in New Zealand and British plant material.
Brun et al. (2003) experimented with different levels of copper added to soil and measured its effects on H. radicata and other species found in European vineyards, where high concentrations of copper are found in the soil surface due to the repeated use of copper-based fungicides for protection against vine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). High concentrations of copper in the soil led to lower survival, lower total plant biomass, a delay in flowering and fruiting, and low seed set in the five species tested. H. radicata was especially sensitive to high concentrations of copper in the soil, although it still produced seeds at all levels of copper except the highest tested (400 mg kg-1 of added copper, making the total copper load in the soil 558 mg kg-1).
Turkington and Aarssen (1983) presented a large table of species associated with H. radicata in the Sheffield area in England, UK, and also listed many communities in which it occurs. In the Sheffield area it was associated with 197 other species, almost all species of open grassland like Agrostis capillaris, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Festuca rubra, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne and Trifolium spp.
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
The stalks of H. radicata often show gall swellings caused by the hymenopteran insect Aulax hypochaeridis. Guthrie-Smith (1953) observed broomrape (Orobanche minor) attached to the roots of H. radicata in New Zealand. Both Aarssen (1981) and Turkington and Aarssen (1983) listed invertebrate species that parasitise or feed on H. radicata, and Turkington and Aarssen (1983) also listed fungi and viruses found on H. radicata (see Natural Enemies table).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Natural dispersal (non-biotic)
The large numbers of wind-dispersed achenes (seeds) ensure their wide dispersal from the parent plants.
Vector transmission (biotic)
Ridley (1930, cited in Aarssen, 1981) reported that birds are known to disperse the fruit by attachment to their feet and plumage, and ants have been observed carrying seeds of H. radicata.
Seeds may have been inadvertently transported to the Americas, Asia, Australia and New Zealand by European migrants as contaminants of grass seed, straw or hay for livestock, straw palliasses, or vegetation used for packing household necessities.
Seeds may have also been taken by European migrants to North and South America, Asia, Australia and New Zealand deliberately for medicinal or food purposes.
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Economic/livelihood||Positive and negative|
Economic ImpactTop of page
The consumption of H. radicata apparently causes stringhalt, a disease of horses, at least in Australia and New Zealand (Cahill et al., 1995). Stringhalt refers to a myoclonic affliction of one or both hindlimbs seen as spasmodic overflexion of the joints (Merck Veterinary Manual, 2013). MacKay et al. (2013) observed dose-dependent cytotoxicity when they exposed cultured cells of neural tissue to extracts of H. radicata.
Time, energy and expense are spent by gardeners in controlling H. radicata when it invades lawns and golf courses, and by municipal councils in killing it on roadsides and waste places around towns and cities.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Is a habitat generalist
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
UsesTop of page
Modified slightly from Aarssen (1981):
In New Zealand and Australia H. radicata has been considered one of the most palatable species occurring in tussock grassland and, being more productive than other herbs, is therefore useful to livestock (Coop et al., 1953; Healy, 1962). It often invades thin, overgrazed and under-fertilised pastures and thus tends to offset the reduced carrying capacity of these pastures (Sewell, 1950; Lamp and Collett, 1976). Sheep preferentially eat H. radicata before any other herb or grass (Struik, 1967; Hughes, 1975). H. radicata is superior to many grasses in nutritive value and is comparable to white clover, being high in protein, low in fibre, exceptionally high in calcium and quite good for copper content (Coop et al., 1953). It is also rich in sulphur, phosphorus (Begg and Freney, 1960) and chloride (Fagan and Watkins, 1932). Highest nutritive value occurs in spring and winter months (Coop et al., 1953). Stapledon (1948) suggested sowing H. radicata in grazed grasslands along with a non-aggressive grass.
The shoots of H. radicata are eaten by sheep (Ovis ovis), pigs (Sus scrofula), snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) (Radwan and Campbell, 1968), slugs (Healy 1962), snails (Helix aspersa (Weiner, 1993), birds and ants. Pigs uproot the plants and feed on the roots.
H. radicata leaves have been used as in salads or cooked as a vegetable (PFAF, 2013). Leaves can be rather bitter, although young leaves are milder. The roots can also be dried and ground and used as a coffee substitute.
The plant also has properties useful to herbalists and for natural medicines. Jamuna et al. (2012) described its use in traditional medical practice for its anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diuretic and hepatoprotective activity, and also in treating kidney problems. In Nilgiris (Tamil Nadu, India), traditional healers prescribed H. radicata for wound healing and skin diseases caused by pathogens. Jamuna et al. (2012) also investigated the antibiotic properties of roots and leaves and found that ‘the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extracts of both parts was comparable to that of the standard drug, ampicillin.’
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
H. radicata can be confused with other rosette weeds with similar bright yellow flowers in the same family, including H. glabra, Crepis capillaris, Leontodon autumnalis and the true dandelion Taraxacum officinale (Aarssen, 1981).Aarssen (1981) provided a key for separating these species (but did not include Crepis capillaris), and Healy (1992) provided a useful guide to distinguishing these species. In essence, in the rosette stage H. radicata has rounded leaf lobes, hairs on the leaf margins, a thick, rough leaf surface, and simple leaf hairs. When flowering, it has leafless branched flower stalks and large flower heads. The stalks of both H. radicata and H. glabra often show gall swellings caused by the hymenopteran insect Aulax hypochaeridis.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Ploughing and cultivating for one or two years before reseeding gave effective control (Aarssen, 1981, quoting the Canadian Dept. of Agriculture). Pigs may exert some control by uprooting plants, but by disturbing the ground they probably aid rapid reinfestation by H. radicata.
The taproot must be cut several inches below the crown and removed to stop it resprouting (DiTomaso et al., 2013).
In Canada, Turkington and Aarssen (1983) mentioned that H. radicata was ‘resistant’ to atrazine and dalapon and moderately ‘resistant’ to paraquat, asulam, picloram and other herbicides. However, they suggested that adequate selective control can be achieved in grassland or turfgrasses with MCPA, 2,4-D, or mecoprop.
DiTomaso et al. (2013) presented a long list of herbicides that can be used to control H. radicata in different circumstances. Some of these are selective and will not affect grasses; others will kill any green plant they contact. The list includes 2,4-D, aminocyclopyrachlor, aminopyralid, chlorsulfuron, clopyralid, dicamba, fluroxypyr, glyphosate, hexazinone, imazapyr, metsulfuron, picloram, sulfometuron and triclopyr.
Control by utilization
The species is considered highly palatable and nutritious to sheep and cattle, although the rosette leaves can be strongly appressed to the ground and may sometimes be hard for livestock to access.
Livestock grazing benefits the growth and reproduction of H. radicata. Struik (1967) studied the size and growth of H. radicata in mown and unmown lawns and in heavily and lightly grazed pastures in New Zealand. Dry weight per plant was least in the mown lawns and greatest in grazed pasture; the greatest vegetative weight was achieved under heavy grazing and the highest reproductive weight under lax grazing. Relative weight of leaves and roots decreased and relative weight of floral organs increased with decreasing stand defoliation. Relative root biomass decreased with increasing relative weight of floral organs.
ReferencesTop of page
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Cabrera AL, 1978. Part 10: Compositae. (Flora de la Provincia de Jujuy. Republica Argentina. Parte X. Compositae.) In: Flora of Jujuy Province, Republic of Argentina. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Scientific Collection of INTA, 671-686.
Cabrera AL, 1987. Hypochoeris L. (Flora Ilustrada de Entre Rios (Argentina). Parte IV.) In: Illustrated Flora of Entre Rios Province (Argentina) [ed. by Burkart, A.]. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Scientific Collection of INTA, 512-525.
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eFloras, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
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Grace ND; Scott D, 1974. Diet and mineral nutrition of sheep on undeveloped and developed tussock grassland. 1. The macro- and micro-element composition of blood plasma and herbage. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 17(2):165-175.
Guthrie-Smith H, 1953. Tutira. The Story of a New Zealand Sheep Station, 3rd edition. William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh:282-285.
Ho LS, 1964. The biology and control of some turf weeds. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: The University of British Columbia, 76 pp.
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ITIS, 2013. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS). Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution/NMNH. http://www.itis.gov/
Jamuna S; Paulsamy S; Karthika K, 2012. Screening of in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf and root extracts of Hypochaeris radicata L. (Asteraceae). Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2(7):149-154. http://www.japsonline.com/admin/php/uploads/563_pdf.pdf
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MacKay RJ; Wyer S; Gilmour A; Kongara K; Harding DR; Clark S; Mayhew IG; Thomson CE, 2013. Cytotoxic activity of extracts from Hypochaeris radicata. Toxicon, 70:194-203. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00410101
Merck Veterinary Manual, 2013. Stringhalt in horses. Merck Veterinary Manual. http://www.merckmanuals.com/vet/musculoskeletal_system/lameness_in_horses/stringhalt_in_horses.html
Mulligan GA, 1976. Common weeds of Canada. (Les mauvaises herbes communes du Canada.) Les mauvaises herbes communes du Canada. McClelland and Stewart Limited in association with Information and the Department of Agriculture., Canada 140 pp.
Ortiz MÂ; Tremetsberger K; Terrab A; Stuessy TF; García-Castaño JL; Urtubey E; Baeza CM; Ruas CF; Gibbs PE; Talavera S, 2008. Phylogeography of the invasive weed Hypochaeris radicata (Asteraceae): from Moroccan origin to worldwide introduced populations. Molecular Ecology, 17(16):3654-3667. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/120847848/HTMLSTART
Panigrahi G; Kammathy RV, 1961. Studies on Hypochoeris radicata L. (Compositae). A new record for India. Memoirs of the Indian Botanical Socciety, 3:200-210.
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: Original text by:
Ian Popay, consultant, New Zealand, with the support of Landcare Research.
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