Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Hop stunt viroid
(hop stunt viroid)

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Datasheet

Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hop stunt viroid
  • Preferred Common Name
  • hop stunt viroid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: Viroids
  •     Family: Pospiviroidae
  •       Genus: Hostuviroid
  •         Species: Hop stunt viroid
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) is a covalently closed, single-stranded RNA molecule of 297 nucleotides (Sano et al., 1985). Vari...

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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hop stunt viroid Sasaki and Shikata, 1977a

Preferred Common Name

  • hop stunt viroid

Other Scientific Names

  • Citrus cachexia viroid Diener et al., 1988
  • Citrus viroid II Duran-Vila et al., 1988; Sano et al., 1988
  • Cucumber pale fruit viroid Van Dorst and Peters, 1974
  • Dapple plum and peach fruit disease viroid Sano et al., 1989

International Common Names

  • English: citrus gummy bark viroid; grapevine viroid; hop stunt disease; mulberry vein clearing; peach dapple viroid; plum dapple viroid

English acronym

  • HSVd

EPPO code

  • HSVD00

Summary of Invasiveness

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Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) is a covalently closed, single-stranded RNA molecule of 297 nucleotides (Sano et al., 1985). Variants consisting of 294-303 nucleotides have been described from different hosts (Kofalvi et al., 1997; Amari et al., 2001). HSVd has a rod-like conformation with five domains, a central conserved region (CCR) similar to members of genera Pospiviroid and Cocadviroid, and a terminal conserved hairpin (TCH) which is also present in the genus Cocadviroid (Flores et al., 1997). Replication is known to occur through an asymmetric, rolling-circle model because longer-than-unit minus strands have been found in infected tissue (Flores et al., 2005). HSVd was named due to the first identification of the pathogen on hop plants originating from Japan (Yamamoto et al., 1973). In a wide range of host species, infection by HSVd appears to be latent, whereas in hop, Citrus and Prunus species it causes specific disorders and economic damage (Hadidi et al., 2003).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: Viroids
  •         Family: Pospiviroidae
  •             Genus: Hostuviroid
  •                 Species: Hop stunt viroid

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 09 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentRouag et al. (2008); EPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentEl-Dougdoug et al. (2010); Sofy and El-Dougdoug (2014); EPPO (2020)
LibyaPresentNour-Eldin and Fudl-Allah (1976)
MoroccoPresentAmari et al. (2000); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentZongoma et al. (2018)
South AfricaPresentEPPO (2020)
SudanPresentMohamed et al. (2009); EPPO (2020)
TunisiaPresentMahfoudhi et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentEPPO (2020)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-BeijingPresentZhang ZhiXiang et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
-ChongqingPresentWang XueFeng et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)
-FujianPresentZhang ZhiXiang et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
-GansuPresentZhang ZhiXiang et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
-GuangxiPresentZhang ZhiXiang et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
-GuizhouPresentWang XueFeng et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)
-HebeiPresentZhang ZhiXiang et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
-HeilongjiangPresentZhang ZhiXiang et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
-HenanPresentZhang ZhiXiang et al. (2012)
-HubeiPresentZhang ZhiXiang et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
-HunanPresentWang XueFeng et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)
-Inner MongoliaPresentZhang ZhiXiang et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
-JiangxiPresentWang XueFeng et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)
-JilinPresentZhang ZhiXiang et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
-LiaoningPresentZhang ZhiXiang et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
-ShaanxiPresentZhang ZhiXiang et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
-ShandongPresent, WidespreadMu et al. (2009); Xu et al. (2017); EPPO (2020)
-ShanxiPresentZhang ZhiXiang et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
-SichuanPresentWang XueFeng et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)
-XinjiangPresentLi et al. (2006); Guo et al. (2008); EPPO (2020)
-ZhejiangPresentWang XueFeng et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentAnirban Roy and Padma Ramachandran (2003)
-AssamPresentAnirban Roy and Padma Ramachandran (2003)
-KarnatakaPresentSahana et al. (2013)
-MaharashtraPresentAnirban Roy and Padma Ramachandran (2003)
IranPresentBagherian and Izadpanah (2010); Mazhar et al. (2014); Vamenani et al. (2014); EPPO (2020)Mazandaran
IsraelPresentPuchta et al. (1989); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentSasaki and Shikata (1977); EPPO (2020)
JordanPresentEPPO (2020)
LebanonPresentElbeaino et al. (2012); Elbeaino et al. (2012a); Elbeaino et al. (2013); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentEPPO (2020)
Saudi ArabiaPresentEPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentLee et al. (1988); Jo et al. (2016); EPPO (2020)
SyriaPresentKubaa et al. (2011); Elbeaino et al. (2012a); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentEPPO (2020)
ThailandPresentEPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentAmari et al. (2000); EPPO (2020)
YemenPresentEPPO (2020)

Europe

Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentEPPO (2020)
CroatiaPresentEPPO (2020)
CyprusPresentAmari et al. (2000); EPPO (2020)
CzechiaPresentMatoušek et al. (2003); EPPO (2020)
FinlandAbsent, EradicatedEPPO (2020); Lemmetty et al. (2011)
FrancePresent, LocalizedPallás et al. (2003); EPPO (2020)
-CorsicaPresentEPPO (2020)
GermanyPresentPuchta et al. (1989)
GreecePresentAmari et al. (2000); Kaponi et al. (2010); Kaponi and Kyriakopoulou (2013); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresent, LocalizedElbeaino et al. (2012); Giampetruzzi et al. (2012); Luigi et al. (2013); EPPO (2020)
-SardiniaPresentEPPO (2020)
PortugalPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
SerbiaPresentMandic et al. (2008); EPPO (2020)
SloveniaPresent, LocalizedRadisek et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
SpainPresentCarmen Cañizares et al. (1999); EPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresentMichelutti et al. (2005)
JamaicaPresentBennett et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentEPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-ArizonaPresentEPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresentRezaian et al. (1992); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentEPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentKunta et al. (2007); EPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresentEastwell and Nelson (2007); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentKinoti et al. (2020); Gillings et al. (1991)
New ZealandPresent, Few occurrencesWard et al. (2011); EPPO (2020)

South America

ArgentinaPresentEPPO (2020)
BrazilPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentEiras et al. (2006)
-Sao PauloPresentEiras et al. (2006); EPPO (2020)
ChilePresentEPPO (2020)
ColombiaPresentMurcia et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)
EcuadorPresentEPPO (2020)
SurinamePresentEPPO (2020)
UruguayPresentPagliano et al. (2000); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentEPPO (2020)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal patterns
Fruit / discoloration
Growing point / dwarfing; stunting
Inflorescence / dwarfing; stunting
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Pest or symptoms usually invisible

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

References

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Alavi SM, Rahimian H, 2012. Simultaneous association of several citrus viroids with psorosis and ring pattern symptoms in citrus trees in Mazandaran province. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 48(3):Pe439-Pe440, En151-En152. http://www.irjpp.ir/browse.php?a_id=614&sid=1&slc_lang=en

Amari K, Cañizares MC, Myrta A, Sabanadzovic S, Srhiri M, Gavriel I, Çaglayan K, Varveri C, Gatt M, Terlizzi Bdi, Pallás V, 2000. First report on hop stunt viroid (HSVd) from some Mediterranean countries. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 39(2):271-276

Amari K, Gomez G, Myrta A, Terlizzi Bdi, Pallás V, 2001. The molecular characterization of 16 new sequence variants of Hop stunt viroid reveals the existence of invariable regions and a conserved hammerhead-like structure on the viroid molecule. Journal of General Virology, 82(4):953-962

Amari K, Ruiz D, Gómez G, Sánchez-Pina MA, Pallás V, Egea J, 2007. An important new apricot disease in Spain is associated with Hop stunt viroid infection. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 118(2):173-181. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Asai M, Ohara T, Takahashi T, Saito S, Tanaka K, 1998. Detection of viroids in fruit trees by return gel electrophoresis. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 34:99-102

Astruc N, Marcos JF, Macquaire G, Candresse T, Pallás V, 1996. Studies on the diagnosis of hop stunt viroid in fruit trees: identification of new hosts and application of a nucleic acid extraction procedure based on non-organic solvents. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(9):837-846

Bagherian SAA, Izadpanah K, 2010. Two novel variants of hop stunt viroid associated with yellow corky vein disease of sweet orange and split bark disorder of sweet lime. Julius-Kühn-Archiv [Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Virus and other Graft Transmissible Diseases of Fruit Crops, Neustadt, Germany, 5-10 July, 2009.], No.427:105-113. http://pub.jki.bund.de/index.php/JKA/issue/archive

Bennett S, Tennant P, McLaughlin W, 2010. First report of Hop stunt viroid infecting citrus orchards in Jamaica. Plant Pathology, 59(2):393. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Bernard L, Duran-Vila N, 2006. A novel RT-PCR approach for detection and characterization of citrus viroids. Molecular and Cellular Probes, 20:105-113

Carmen Cañizares M, Marcos JF, Pallás V, 1999. Molecular characterization of an almond isolate of hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and conditions for eliminating spurious hybridization in its diagnosis in almond samples. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 105(6):553-558

Diener T, Smith D, Hammond R, Albanese G, Rosa RLa, Davino M, 1988. Citrus B viroid identified as a strain of hop stunt viroid. Plant Disease, 72:691-693

Diener TO, 1987. Biological properties. In: The Viroids [ed. by Diener, T. O.]. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 9-35

Dorst HJMvan, Peters D, 1974. Some biological observations on pale fruit, a viroid-incited disease of cucumber. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 80(3):85-96

Duran-Vila N, Roistacher CN, Rivera-Bustamante R, Semancik JS, 1988. A definition of citrus viroid groups and their relationship to the exocortis disease. Journal of General Virology, 69(12):3069-3080

Duran-Vila N, Semancik JS, 2003. Citrus viroids. In: Viroids [ed. by Hadidi, A.\Flores, R.\Randles, J. W.\Semancik, J. S.]. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 178-194

Eastwell KC, Nelson ME, 2007. Occurrence of viroids in commercial hop (Humulus lupulus L.) production areas of Washington State. Plant Health Progress, November:1127-01

Eastwell KC, Sano T, 2009. Hop Stunt. In: Compendium of Hop Diseases and Pests [ed. by Mahaffee, W. F. \Pethybridge, S. J. \Gent, D. H.]. St Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society, 48-50

Eiras M, Targon MLPN, Fajardo TVM, Flores R, Kitajima EW, 2006. Citrus exocortis viroid and Hop Stunt viroid doubly infecting grapevines in Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 31(5):440-446. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v31n5/02.pdf

Elbeaino T, Choueiri E, Digiaro M, 2013. First report of Hop stunt viroid in Lebanese fig trees. Journal of Plant Pathology, 95(1):218. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2768

Elbeaino T, Kubaa RA, Choueiri E, Digiaro M, Navarro B, 2012. Occurrence of Hop stunt viroid in mulberry (Morus alba) in Lebanon and Italy. Journal of Phytopathology, 160(1):48-51. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Elbeaino T, Kubaa RA, Ismaeil F, Mando J, Digiaro M, 2012. Viruses and Hop stunt viroid of fig trees in Syria. Journal of Plant Pathology, 94(3):687-691. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/124

El-Dougdoug KA, Osman ME, Hayam SA, Rehab AD, Elbaz RM, 2010. Biological and molecular detection of HSVd - infecting peach and pear trees in Egypt. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4(1):19-26. http://www.insipub.com/ajbas/2010/19-26.pdf

EPPO, 2012. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Farkas E, Palkovics L, Mikulás J, Balázs E, 1999. High incidence of hop stunt viroid in Hungarian grapevines. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 34(1/2):7-11

Flores R, Hernández C, García S, Llácer G, 1990. Is apricot "viruela"(pseudopox) induced by a viroid? In: Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union, Agadir, Morocco. Agadir, Morocco: Mediterranean Phytopathological Union

Flores R, Hernández C, Martínez de Alba AE, Daròs JA, Serio Fdi, 2005. Viroids and viroid-host interactions. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 43:117-139. http://www.annualreviews.org

Flores R, Randles JW, Bar-Joseph M, Diener TO, 1998. A proposed scheme for viroid classification and nomenclature. Archives of Virology, 143(3):623-629; 36 ref

Flores R, Serio FDi, Hernández C, 1997. Viroids: the non coding genomes. Seminars in Virology, 8:65-73

Giampetruzzi A, Roumi V, Roberto R, Malossini U, Yoshikawa N, Notte Pla, Terlizzi F, Credi R, Saldarelli P, 2012. A new grapevine virus discovered by deep sequencing of virus- and viroid-derived small RNAs in cv Pinot gris. Virus Research, 163(1):262-268. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681702

Gillings MR, Broadbent P, Gollnow BI, 1991. Viroids in Australian Citrus: Relationship to Exocortis, Cachexia and Citrus Dwarfing. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 18(5):559 - 570

Guo L, Liu S, Wu Z, Mu L, Xiang B, Li S, 2008. Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) newly reported from hop in Xinjiang, China. Plant Pathology, 57(4):764. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Hadidi A, Flores R, Randles JW, Semancik JS, 2003. Viroids [ed. by Hadidi, A.\Flores, R.\Randles, J. W.\Semancik, J. S.]. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, xiv + 370 pp

Hadidi A, Terai Y, Powell CA, Scott SW, Desvignes JC, Ibrahim LM, Levy L, 1992. Enzymatic cDNA amplification of hop stunt viroid variants from naturaly infected fruit crops. Acta Horticulturae, 309:339-344

Hirashima K, Noguchi Y, Ushijima K, Kusano N, 1994. Diagnosis of plum dapple fruit disease by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mechanical transmission. Bulletin of the Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center, B-13:65-68

Jo YH, Chu HS, Cho JK, Lian S, Choi HS, Cho WK, 2016. First report of Hop stunt viroid in peach trees in Korea. Plant Disease, 100(12):2543. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Kaponi MS, Kyriakopoulou PE, 2013. First report of Hop stunt viroid infecting Japanese plum, cherry plum, and peach in Greece. Plant Disease, 97(12):1662-1663. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Kaponi MS, Luigi M, Barba M, Kyriakopoulou PE, 2010. Pospiviroidae viroids in naturally infected stone and pome fruits in Greece. Julius-Kühn-Archiv [Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Virus and other Graft Transmissible Diseases of Fruit Crops, Neustadt, Germany, 5-10 July, 2009.], No.427:353-356. http://pub.jki.bund.de/index.php/JKA/issue/archive

Kofalvi SA, Marcos JF, Cañizares MC, Pallás V, Candresse T, 1997. Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) sequence variants from Prunus species: evidence for recombination between HSVd isolates. Journal of General Virology, 78(12):3177-3186

Koltunow AM, Rezaian MA, 1988. Grapevine yellow speckle viroid: structural features of a new viroid group. Nucleic Acids Research, 16(3):849-864

Kubaa AR, El-Khateeb A, D'Onghia AM, Djelouah K, 2011. First record of Hop stunt viroid infecting citrus orchards in Syria. Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(4S):S4.67

Kunta M, Graça JVda, Skaria M, 2007. Molecular detection and prevalence of citrus viroids in Texas. HortScience, 42(3):600-604. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/

Lee JY, Puchta H, Ramm K, Sänger HL, 1988. Nucleotide sequence of the Korean strain of hop stunt viroid (HSV). Nucleic Acids Research, 16(17):8708

Lemmetty A, Werkman AW, Soukainen M, 2011. First report of Hop stunt viroid in greenhouse cucumber in Finland. Plant Disease, 95(5):615. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Li SF, Guo R, Tsuji M, Sano T, 2006. Two grapevine viroids in China and the possible detection of a third. Plant Pathology, 55(4):564. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2006.01424.x

Li ShiFang, Onodera S, Sano T, Yoshida K, Wang GuoPing, Shikata E, 1995. Gene diagnosis of viroids: comparison of return-PAGE and hybridization using DIG-labeled DNA and RNA probes for practical diagnosis of hop stunt, citrus exocortis and apple scar skin viroids in their natural host plants. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 61(4):381-390; 23 ref

Luigi M, Manglli A, Tomassoli L, Faggioli F, 2013. First report of Hop stunt viroid in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in Italy. New Disease Reports, 27:14. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=027014

Mahfoudhi N, Salleh W, Djelouah K, 2010. First report of Hop stunt viroid in apricot in Tunisia. Journal of Plant Pathology, 92(S4):116

Mandic B, Al Rwahnih M, Myrta A, Gomez G, Pallas V, 2008. Incidence and genetic diversity of Peach latent mosaic viroid and Hop stunt viroid in stone fruits in Serbia. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 120(2):167-176

Matousek J, Orctová L, Patzak J, Svoboda P, Ludvíková I, 2003. Molecular sampling of hop stunt viroid (HSVd) from grapevines in hop production areas in the Czech Republic and hop protection. Plant, Soil and Environment, 49(4):168-175

Matousek J, Orctová L, Ptácek J, Patzak J, Dedic P, Steger G, Riesner D, 2007. Experimental transmission of Pospiviroid populations to weed species characteristic of potato and hop fields. Journal of Virology, 81(21):11891-11899. http://jvi.asm.org/

Mazhar MA, Bagherian SAA, Izadpanah K, 2014. Variants of Hop stunt viroid associated with mulberry vein clearing in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology, 162(4):269-271. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Michelutti R, Myrta A, Pallás V, 2005. A preliminary account on the sanitary status of stone fruits at the Clonal Genebank in Harrow, Canada. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 44(1):71-74

Mohamed ME, Hashemian SMB, Dafalla G, Bové JM, Duran-Vila N, 2009. Occurrence and identification of citrus viroids from Sudan. Journal of Plant Pathology, 91(1):185-190. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Mu LX, Wu YH, Li SF, 2009. First report of Hop stunt viroid from almond tree in China. Journal of Plant Pathology, 91(4, Supplement):S4.102. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Murcia N, Bernad L, Caicedo A, Duran-Vila N, 2010. Citrus Viroids in Colombia. In: Proceedings of the 17th Conference, IOCV - Viroids, 22-26 October 2007, held at Adana, Turkey. Riverside, USA: International Organization of Citrus Virologists, 158-166

Nour-Eldin F, Fudl-Allah AE-SA, 1976. Citrus virus and virus-like diseases in Libya. Libyan Journal of Agriculture, 5:101-110

Ohno T, Takamatsu N, Meshi T, Okada Y, 1983. Hop stunt viroid: Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the complete cDNA copy. Nucleic Acids Research, 11:6185-6197

Pagliano G, Peyrou M, Campo RDel, Orlando L, Gravina A, Wettstein R, Francis M, 2000. Detection and characterizationof citrus viroids in Uruguay. In: Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the International Organisation Citrus Virologists, IOCV [ed. by Gracxa, J. J. V. \Lee, R. F. \Yokomi, R. K.]. Riverside, USA: International Organization of Citrus Virologists, 282-288

Pallás V, Gómez G, Duran-Vila N, 2003. Viroids in Europe. In: Viroids [ed. by Hadidi, A.\Flores, R.\Randles, J. W.\Semancik, J. S.]. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 268-274

Puchta H, Ramm K, Hadas R, Bar-Joseph M, Luckinger R, Freimüller K, Sänger HL, 1989. Nucleotide sequence of a hop stunt viroid (HSVd) isolate from grapefruit in Israel. Nucleic Acids Research, 17(3):1247

Puchta H, Ramm K, Luckinger R, Freimüller K, Sänger HL, 1989. Nucleotide sequence of a hop stunt viroid (HSVd) isolate from the German grapevine rootstock 5BB as determined by PCR-mediated sequence analysis. Nucleic Acids Research, 17(14):5841

Radisek S, Majer A, Jakse J, Javornik B, Matousek J, 2012. First report of Hop stunt viroid infecting hop in Slovenia. Plant Disease, 96(4):592

Reanwarakorn K, Semancik JS, 1999. Correlation of hop stunt viroid variants to cachexia and xyloporosis diseases of citrus. Phytopathology, 89(7):568-574

Rezaian MA, Krake LR, Golino DA, 1992. Common identity of grapevine viroids from USA and Australia revealed by PCR analysis. Intervirology, 34:38-43

Roistacher CN, Blue RL, Calavan EC, 1973. A new test for citrus cachexia. Citrograph, 58(7):261-262

Rouag N, Guechi A, Matic S, Myrta A, 2008. Viruses and viroids of stone fruits in Algeria. Journal of Plant Pathology, 90(2):393-395. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Roy A, Ramachandran P, 2003. Occurrence of a Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) variant in yellow corky vein disease of citrus in India. Current Science, 85:1608-1612

Sahana AB, Adkar-Purushothama CR, Chennappa G, Zhang ZX, Sreenivasa MY, Sano T, 2013. First report of Grapevine yellow speckle viroid-1 and Hop stunt viroid infecting grapevines (Vitis vinifera) in India. Plant Disease, 97(11):1517. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Sano T, 2003. Hop stunt viroid in cucumber. In: Viroids [ed. by Hadidi, A.\Flores, R.\Randles, J. W.\Semancik, J. S.]. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 134-136

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Sano T, 2003. Hop stunt viroid. In: Viroids [ed. by Hadidi, A.\Flores, R.\Randles, J. W.\Semancik, J. S.]. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 207-212

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Sano T, Sasaki M, Shikata E, 1981. Comparative studies on hop stunt viroid, cucumber pale fruit viroid and potato spindle tuber viroid. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 47(5):599-605

Sano T, Uyeda I, ShikataE, Ohno T, Okada Y, 1984. Nucleotide sequence of cucumber pale fruit viroid : homology to hop stunt viroid: homology to hop stunt viroid. Nucleic Acids Research, 12:3427-3434

Sasaki M, Shikata E, 1977. On some properties of hop stunt disease agent, a viroid. Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B, 53:109-112

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Sofy AR, El-Dougdoug KA, 2014. First record of a Hop stunt viroid variant associated with gumming and stem pitting on Citrus volkameriana trunk rootstock in Egypt. New Disease Reports, 30:11. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030011

Vamenani R, Rahimian H, Alavi SM, Babaeizad V, 2014. Detection of Hop stunt viroid in lemon, sweet lime, Clementine and Satsuma mandarins and grapefruit trees in Mazandaran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 50(2):Pe191-Pe191, En105. http://www.ijpp.ir/article_11005_1823.html

Wang XF, Zhou Y, Li ZA, Tang K, Liu YQ, Cao M, Zhou C, 2010. Molecular, biological and phylogenetic analysis of Chinese isolates of Hop stunt viroid associated with citrus cachexia disease. Journal of Phytopathology, 158(5):372-377

Ward LI, Burnip GM, Liefting LW, Harper SJ, Clover GRG, 2011. First report of Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 and Hop stunt viroid in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) in New Zealand. Plant Disease, 95(5):617. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Wu, B., Feng, J., Zhang, M., Jiang, S. S., Wang, S. J., Xin, Z. M., Xin, X. Q., 2019. First report of hop stunt Viroid infecting strawberry in China. Plant Disease, 103(1), 168. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-01-18-0164-PDN

Xu L, Wang JW, Zhu DZ, Zong XJ, Wei HR, Chen X, Hammond RW, Liu QZ, 2017. First report of Hop stunt viroid from sweet cherry with dapple fruit symptoms in China. Plant Disease, 101(2):394. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Yamamoto H, Kagami Y, Kurukawa M, Nishimura S, Kubo S, 1973. Studies on hop stunt disease in Japan. Report of the Research Laboratories of Kirin Brewery Co., Ltd, 16. 49-62

Zhang B, Liu GY, Liu C, Wu Z, Jiang D, Li S, 2009. Characterisation of Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) isolates from jujube trees (Ziziphus jujuba). European Journal of Plant Pathology, 125:665-669

Zhang Z, Shou Y, Guo R, Mu L, Yang Y, Li S, Wang H, 2012. Molecular characterization of Chinese Hop stunt viroid isolates reveals a new phylogenetic group and possible cross transmission between grapevine and stone fruits. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 134(2):217-225

Zongoma, A. M., Dangora, D. B., Rwahnih, M. A., Bako, S. P., Alegbejo, M. D., Alabi, O. J., 2018. First report of Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1, Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 2, and Hop stunt viroid infecting grapevines (Vitis spp.) in Nigeria. Plant Disease, 102(1), 259. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1133-PDN

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Vamenani R, Rahimian H, Alavi S M, Babaeizad V, 2014. Detection of Hop stunt viroid in lemon, sweet lime, Clementine and Satsuma mandarins and grapefruit trees in Mazandaran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 50 (2), Pe191-Pe191, En105. http://www.ijpp.ir/article_11005_1823.html

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Xu L, Wang J W, Zhu D Z, Zong X J, Wei H R, Chen X, Hammond R W, Liu Q Z, 2017. First report of Hop stunt viroid from sweet cherry with dapple fruit symptoms in China. Plant Disease. 101 (2), 394. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-16-1086-PDN

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Zongoma A M, Dangora D B, Rwahnih M A, Bako S P, Alegbejo M D, Alabi O J, 2018. First report of Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1, Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 2, and Hop stunt viroid infecting grapevines (Vitis spp.) in Nigeria. Plant Disease. 102 (1), 259. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1133-PDN

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