Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Hop stunt viroid
(hop stunt viroid)

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Datasheet

Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 February 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hop stunt viroid
  • Preferred Common Name
  • hop stunt viroid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: Viroids
  •     Family: Pospiviroidae
  •       Genus: Hostuviroid
  •         Species: Hop stunt viroid
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) is a covalently closed, single-stranded RNA molecule of 297 nucleotides (Sano et al., 1985). Vari...

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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hop stunt viroid Sasaki and Shikata, 1977a

Preferred Common Name

  • hop stunt viroid

Other Scientific Names

  • Citrus cachexia viroid Diener et al., 1988
  • Citrus viroid II Duran-Vila et al., 1988; Sano et al., 1988
  • Cucumber pale fruit viroid Van Dorst and Peters, 1974
  • Dapple plum and peach fruit disease viroid Sano et al., 1989

International Common Names

  • English: citrus gummy bark viroid; grapevine viroid; hop stunt disease; mulberry vein clearing; peach dapple viroid; plum dapple viroid

English acronym

  • HSVd

EPPO code

  • HSVD00

Summary of Invasiveness

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Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) is a covalently closed, single-stranded RNA molecule of 297 nucleotides (Sano et al., 1985). Variants consisting of 294-303 nucleotides have been described from different hosts (Kofalvi et al., 1997; Amari et al., 2001). HSVd has a rod-like conformation with five domains, a central conserved region (CCR) similar to members of genera Pospiviroid and Cocadviroid, and a terminal conserved hairpin (TCH) which is also present in the genus Cocadviroid (Flores et al., 1997). Replication is known to occur through an asymmetric, rolling-circle model because longer-than-unit minus strands have been found in infected tissue (Flores et al., 2005). HSVd was named due to the first identification of the pathogen on hop plants originating from Japan (Yamamoto et al., 1973). In a wide range of host species, infection by HSVd appears to be latent, whereas in hop, Citrus and Prunus species it causes specific disorders and economic damage (Hadidi et al., 2003).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: Viroids
  •         Family: Pospiviroidae
  •             Genus: Hostuviroid
  •                 Species: Hop stunt viroid

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-BeijingPresent Not invasive Zhang et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-ChongqingPresent Not invasive Wang et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014
-FujianPresent Not invasive Zhang et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-GansuPresent Not invasive Zhang et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-GuangxiPresent Not invasive Zhang et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-GuizhouPresent Not invasive Wang et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresent Not invasive Zhang et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresent Not invasive Zhang et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-HenanPresent Not invasive Zhang et al., 2012
-HubeiPresent Not invasive Zhang et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresent Not invasive Wang et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014
-JiangxiPresent Not invasive Wang et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014
-JilinPresent Not invasive Zhang et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresent Not invasive Zhang et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-Nei MengguPresent Not invasive Zhang et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-ShaanxiPresent Not invasive Zhang et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-ShandongWidespreadMu et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014; Xu et al., 2017
-ShanxiPresent Not invasive Zhang et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresent Not invasive Wang et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014
-XinjiangPresent Not invasive Li et al., 2006; Guo et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresent Not invasive Wang et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014
IndiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresent Not invasive Roy and Ramachandran, 2003
-AssamPresent Not invasive Roy and Ramachandran, 2003
-KarnatakaPresentSahana et al., 2013
-MaharashtraPresent Not invasive Roy and Ramachandran, 2003
IranPresent Not invasive Bagherian and Izadpanah, 2010; EPPO, 2014; Mazhar et al., 2014; Vamenani et al., 2014Mazandaran
IsraelPresent Not invasive Puchta et al., 1989a; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresent Not invasive Sasaki and Shikata, 1977a; EPPO, 2014
JordanPresentEPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresent Not invasive Lee et al., 1988; EPPO, 2014; Jo et al., 2016
LebanonPresent Not invasive Elbeaino et al., 2012a; Elbeaino et al., 2012b; Elbeaino et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentEPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SyriaPresent Not invasive Elbeaino et al., 2012b; Kubaa et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentEPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresent Not invasive Amari et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
YemenPresentEPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaPresent Not invasive Rouag et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
EgyptPresent Not invasive El-Dougdoug et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014; Sofy and El-Dougdoug, 2014
LibyaPresent Not invasive Nour-Eldin and Fudl-Allah, 1976
MoroccoPresent Not invasive Amari et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
NigeriaPresentZongoma et al., 2018
South AfricaPresentEPPO, 2014
SudanPresent Not invasive Mohamed et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresent Not invasive Mahfoudhi et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaPresent Not invasive Michelutti et al., 2005
USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-ArizonaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent Not invasive Rezaian et al., 1992; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentEPPO, 2014
-TexasPresent Not invasive Kunta et al., 2007; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresent Not invasive Eastwell and Nelson, 2007; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

JamaicaPresent Not invasive Bennett et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoPresentEPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentEPPO, 2014
BrazilRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Rio Grande do SulPresent Not invasive Eiras et al., 2006
-Sao PauloPresent Not invasive Eiras et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014
ColombiaPresent Not invasive Murcia et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014
EcuadorPresentEPPO, 2014
SurinamePresentEPPO, 2014
UruguayPresent Not invasive Pagliano et al., 2000

Europe

CyprusPresent Not invasive Amari et al., 2000; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresent Not invasive Matousek et al., 2003; EPPO, 2014
FinlandEradicatedLemmetty et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014
FranceRestricted distribution Not invasive Pallás et al., 2003; EPPO, 2014
-CorsicaPresentEPPO, 2014
GermanyPresent Not invasive Puchta et al., 1989a
GreecePresent Not invasive Amari et al., 2000; Kaponi et al., 2010; Kaponi and Kyriakopoulou, 2013; EPPO, 2014
ItalyRestricted distribution Not invasive Elbeaino et al., 2012a; Giampetruzzi et al., 2012; Luigi et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresentEPPO, 2014
PortugalRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresent Not invasive Mandic et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaRestricted distribution Not invasive EPPO, 2012; Radisek et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
SpainPresent Not invasive Carmen Cañizares et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaPresent Not invasive Gillings et al., 1991
New ZealandPresent, few occurrences Not invasive Ward et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal patterns
Fruit / discoloration
Growing point / dwarfing; stunting
Inflorescence / dwarfing; stunting
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Pest or symptoms usually invisible

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

References

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Alavi SM, Rahimian H, 2012. Simultaneous association of several citrus viroids with psorosis and ring pattern symptoms in citrus trees in Mazandaran province. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 48(3):Pe439-Pe440, En151-En152. http://www.irjpp.ir/browse.php?a_id=614&sid=1&slc_lang=en

Amari K, Cañizares MC, Myrta A, Sabanadzovic S, Srhiri M, Gavriel I, Çaglayan K, Varveri C, Gatt M, Terlizzi Bdi, Pallás V, 2000. First report on hop stunt viroid (HSVd) from some Mediterranean countries. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 39(2):271-276

Amari K, Gomez G, Myrta A, Terlizzi Bdi, Pallás V, 2001. The molecular characterization of 16 new sequence variants of Hop stunt viroid reveals the existence of invariable regions and a conserved hammerhead-like structure on the viroid molecule. Journal of General Virology, 82(4):953-962

Amari K, Ruiz D, Gómez G, Sánchez-Pina MA, Pallás V, Egea J, 2007. An important new apricot disease in Spain is associated with Hop stunt viroid infection. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 118(2):173-181. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Asai M, Ohara T, Takahashi T, Saito S, Tanaka K, 1998. Detection of viroids in fruit trees by return gel electrophoresis. Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service, Japan, No. 34:99-102

Astruc N, Marcos JF, Macquaire G, Candresse T, Pallás V, 1996. Studies on the diagnosis of hop stunt viroid in fruit trees: identification of new hosts and application of a nucleic acid extraction procedure based on non-organic solvents. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(9):837-846

Bagherian SAA, Izadpanah K, 2010. Two novel variants of hop stunt viroid associated with yellow corky vein disease of sweet orange and split bark disorder of sweet lime. Julius-Kühn-Archiv [Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Virus and other Graft Transmissible Diseases of Fruit Crops, Neustadt, Germany, 5-10 July, 2009.], No.427:105-113. http://pub.jki.bund.de/index.php/JKA/issue/archive

Bennett S, Tennant P, McLaughlin W, 2010. First report of Hop stunt viroid infecting citrus orchards in Jamaica. Plant Pathology, 59(2):393. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Bernard L, Duran-Vila N, 2006. A novel RT-PCR approach for detection and characterization of citrus viroids. Molecular and Cellular Probes, 20:105-113

Carmen Cañizares M, Marcos JF, Pallás V, 1999. Molecular characterization of an almond isolate of hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and conditions for eliminating spurious hybridization in its diagnosis in almond samples. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 105(6):553-558

Diener T, Smith D, Hammond R, Albanese G, Rosa RLa, Davino M, 1988. Citrus B viroid identified as a strain of hop stunt viroid. Plant Disease, 72:691-693

Diener TO, 1987. Biological properties. In: The Viroids [ed. by Diener, T. O.]. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 9-35

Dorst HJMvan, Peters D, 1974. Some biological observations on pale fruit, a viroid-incited disease of cucumber. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 80(3):85-96

Duran-Vila N, Roistacher CN, Rivera-Bustamante R, Semancik JS, 1988. A definition of citrus viroid groups and their relationship to the exocortis disease. Journal of General Virology, 69(12):3069-3080

Duran-Vila N, Semancik JS, 2003. Citrus viroids. In: Viroids [ed. by Hadidi, A.\Flores, R.\Randles, J. W.\Semancik, J. S.]. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 178-194

Eastwell KC, Nelson ME, 2007. Occurrence of viroids in commercial hop (Humulus lupulus L.) production areas of Washington State. Plant Health Progress, November:1127-01

Eastwell KC, Sano T, 2009. Hop Stunt. In: Compendium of Hop Diseases and Pests [ed. by Mahaffee, W. F. \Pethybridge, S. J. \Gent, D. H.]. St Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society, 48-50

Eiras M, Targon MLPN, Fajardo TVM, Flores R, Kitajima EW, 2006. Citrus exocortis viroid and Hop Stunt viroid doubly infecting grapevines in Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 31(5):440-446. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v31n5/02.pdf

Elbeaino T, Choueiri E, Digiaro M, 2013. First report of Hop stunt viroid in Lebanese fig trees. Journal of Plant Pathology, 95(1):218. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/2768

Elbeaino T, Kubaa RA, Choueiri E, Digiaro M, Navarro B, 2012. Occurrence of Hop stunt viroid in mulberry (Morus alba) in Lebanon and Italy. Journal of Phytopathology, 160(1):48-51. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Elbeaino T, Kubaa RA, Ismaeil F, Mando J, Digiaro M, 2012. Viruses and Hop stunt viroid of fig trees in Syria. Journal of Plant Pathology, 94(3):687-691. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/124

El-Dougdoug KA, Osman ME, Hayam SA, Rehab AD, Elbaz RM, 2010. Biological and molecular detection of HSVd - infecting peach and pear trees in Egypt. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4(1):19-26. http://www.insipub.com/ajbas/2010/19-26.pdf

EPPO, 2012. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Farkas E, Palkovics L, Mikulás J, Balázs E, 1999. High incidence of hop stunt viroid in Hungarian grapevines. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 34(1/2):7-11

Flores R, Hernández C, García S, Llácer G, 1990. Is apricot "viruela"(pseudopox) induced by a viroid? In: Proceedings of the 8th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union, Agadir, Morocco. Agadir, Morocco: Mediterranean Phytopathological Union

Flores R, Hernández C, Martínez de Alba AE, Daròs JA, Serio Fdi, 2005. Viroids and viroid-host interactions. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 43:117-139. http://www.annualreviews.org

Flores R, Randles JW, Bar-Joseph M, Diener TO, 1998. A proposed scheme for viroid classification and nomenclature. Archives of Virology, 143(3):623-629; 36 ref

Flores R, Serio FDi, Hernández C, 1997. Viroids: the non coding genomes. Seminars in Virology, 8:65-73

Giampetruzzi A, Roumi V, Roberto R, Malossini U, Yoshikawa N, Notte Pla, Terlizzi F, Credi R, Saldarelli P, 2012. A new grapevine virus discovered by deep sequencing of virus- and viroid-derived small RNAs in cv Pinot gris. Virus Research, 163(1):262-268. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681702

Gillings MR, Broadbent P, Gollnow BI, 1991. Viroids in Australian Citrus: Relationship to Exocortis, Cachexia and Citrus Dwarfing. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 18(5):559 - 570

Guo L, Liu S, Wu Z, Mu L, Xiang B, Li S, 2008. Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) newly reported from hop in Xinjiang, China. Plant Pathology, 57(4):764. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Hadidi A, Flores R, Randles JW, Semancik JS, 2003. Viroids [ed. by Hadidi, A.\Flores, R.\Randles, J. W.\Semancik, J. S.]. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, xiv + 370 pp

Hadidi A, Terai Y, Powell CA, Scott SW, Desvignes JC, Ibrahim LM, Levy L, 1992. Enzymatic cDNA amplification of hop stunt viroid variants from naturaly infected fruit crops. Acta Horticulturae, 309:339-344

Hirashima K, Noguchi Y, Ushijima K, Kusano N, 1994. Diagnosis of plum dapple fruit disease by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mechanical transmission. Bulletin of the Fukuoka Agricultural Research Center, B-13:65-68

Jo YH, Chu HS, Cho JK, Lian S, Choi HS, Cho WK, 2016. First report of Hop stunt viroid in peach trees in Korea. Plant Disease, 100(12):2543. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Kaponi MS, Kyriakopoulou PE, 2013. First report of Hop stunt viroid infecting Japanese plum, cherry plum, and peach in Greece. Plant Disease, 97(12):1662-1663. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Kaponi MS, Luigi M, Barba M, Kyriakopoulou PE, 2010. Pospiviroidae viroids in naturally infected stone and pome fruits in Greece. Julius-Kühn-Archiv [Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Virus and other Graft Transmissible Diseases of Fruit Crops, Neustadt, Germany, 5-10 July, 2009.], No.427:353-356. http://pub.jki.bund.de/index.php/JKA/issue/archive

Kofalvi SA, Marcos JF, Cañizares MC, Pallás V, Candresse T, 1997. Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) sequence variants from Prunus species: evidence for recombination between HSVd isolates. Journal of General Virology, 78(12):3177-3186

Koltunow AM, Rezaian MA, 1988. Grapevine yellow speckle viroid: structural features of a new viroid group. Nucleic Acids Research, 16(3):849-864

Kubaa AR, El-Khateeb A, D'Onghia AM, Djelouah K, 2011. First record of Hop stunt viroid infecting citrus orchards in Syria. Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(4S):S4.67

Kunta M, Graça JVda, Skaria M, 2007. Molecular detection and prevalence of citrus viroids in Texas. HortScience, 42(3):600-604. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/

Lee JY, Puchta H, Ramm K, Sänger HL, 1988. Nucleotide sequence of the Korean strain of hop stunt viroid (HSV). Nucleic Acids Research, 16(17):8708

Lemmetty A, Werkman AW, Soukainen M, 2011. First report of Hop stunt viroid in greenhouse cucumber in Finland. Plant Disease, 95(5):615. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Li SF, Guo R, Tsuji M, Sano T, 2006. Two grapevine viroids in China and the possible detection of a third. Plant Pathology, 55(4):564. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2006.01424.x

Li ShiFang, Onodera S, Sano T, Yoshida K, Wang GuoPing, Shikata E, 1995. Gene diagnosis of viroids: comparison of return-PAGE and hybridization using DIG-labeled DNA and RNA probes for practical diagnosis of hop stunt, citrus exocortis and apple scar skin viroids in their natural host plants. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 61(4):381-390; 23 ref

Luigi M, Manglli A, Tomassoli L, Faggioli F, 2013. First report of Hop stunt viroid in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in Italy. New Disease Reports, 27:14. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=027014

Mahfoudhi N, Salleh W, Djelouah K, 2010. First report of Hop stunt viroid in apricot in Tunisia. Journal of Plant Pathology, 92(S4):116

Mandic B, Al Rwahnih M, Myrta A, Gomez G, Pallas V, 2008. Incidence and genetic diversity of Peach latent mosaic viroid and Hop stunt viroid in stone fruits in Serbia. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 120(2):167-176

Matousek J, Orctová L, Patzak J, Svoboda P, Ludvíková I, 2003. Molecular sampling of hop stunt viroid (HSVd) from grapevines in hop production areas in the Czech Republic and hop protection. Plant, Soil and Environment, 49(4):168-175

Matousek J, Orctová L, Ptácek J, Patzak J, Dedic P, Steger G, Riesner D, 2007. Experimental transmission of Pospiviroid populations to weed species characteristic of potato and hop fields. Journal of Virology, 81(21):11891-11899. http://jvi.asm.org/

Mazhar MA, Bagherian SAA, Izadpanah K, 2014. Variants of Hop stunt viroid associated with mulberry vein clearing in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology, 162(4):269-271. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Michelutti R, Myrta A, Pallás V, 2005. A preliminary account on the sanitary status of stone fruits at the Clonal Genebank in Harrow, Canada. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 44(1):71-74

Mohamed ME, Hashemian SMB, Dafalla G, Bové JM, Duran-Vila N, 2009. Occurrence and identification of citrus viroids from Sudan. Journal of Plant Pathology, 91(1):185-190. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Mu LX, Wu YH, Li SF, 2009. First report of Hop stunt viroid from almond tree in China. Journal of Plant Pathology, 91(4, Supplement):S4.102. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Murcia N, Bernad L, Caicedo A, Duran-Vila N, 2010. Citrus Viroids in Colombia. In: Proceedings of the 17th Conference, IOCV - Viroids, 22-26 October 2007, held at Adana, Turkey. Riverside, USA: International Organization of Citrus Virologists, 158-166

Nour-Eldin F, Fudl-Allah AE-SA, 1976. Citrus virus and virus-like diseases in Libya. Libyan Journal of Agriculture, 5:101-110

Ohno T, Takamatsu N, Meshi T, Okada Y, 1983. Hop stunt viroid: Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the complete cDNA copy. Nucleic Acids Research, 11:6185-6197

Pagliano G, Peyrou M, Campo RDel, Orlando L, Gravina A, Wettstein R, Francis M, 2000. Detection and characterizationof citrus viroids in Uruguay. In: Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the International Organisation Citrus Virologists, IOCV [ed. by Gracxa, J. J. V. \Lee, R. F. \Yokomi, R. K.]. Riverside, USA: International Organization of Citrus Virologists, 282-288

Pallás V, Gómez G, Duran-Vila N, 2003. Viroids in Europe. In: Viroids [ed. by Hadidi, A.\Flores, R.\Randles, J. W.\Semancik, J. S.]. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 268-274

Puchta H, Ramm K, Hadas R, Bar-Joseph M, Luckinger R, Freimüller K, Sänger HL, 1989. Nucleotide sequence of a hop stunt viroid (HSVd) isolate from grapefruit in Israel. Nucleic Acids Research, 17(3):1247

Puchta H, Ramm K, Luckinger R, Freimüller K, Sänger HL, 1989. Nucleotide sequence of a hop stunt viroid (HSVd) isolate from the German grapevine rootstock 5BB as determined by PCR-mediated sequence analysis. Nucleic Acids Research, 17(14):5841

Radisek S, Majer A, Jakse J, Javornik B, Matousek J, 2012. First report of Hop stunt viroid infecting hop in Slovenia. Plant Disease, 96(4):592

Reanwarakorn K, Semancik JS, 1999. Correlation of hop stunt viroid variants to cachexia and xyloporosis diseases of citrus. Phytopathology, 89(7):568-574

Rezaian MA, Krake LR, Golino DA, 1992. Common identity of grapevine viroids from USA and Australia revealed by PCR analysis. Intervirology, 34:38-43

Roistacher CN, Blue RL, Calavan EC, 1973. A new test for citrus cachexia. Citrograph, 58(7):261-262

Rouag N, Guechi A, Matic S, Myrta A, 2008. Viruses and viroids of stone fruits in Algeria. Journal of Plant Pathology, 90(2):393-395. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Roy A, Ramachandran P, 2003. Occurrence of a Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) variant in yellow corky vein disease of citrus in India. Current Science, 85:1608-1612

Sahana AB, Adkar-Purushothama CR, Chennappa G, Zhang ZX, Sreenivasa MY, Sano T, 2013. First report of Grapevine yellow speckle viroid-1 and Hop stunt viroid infecting grapevines (Vitis vinifera) in India. Plant Disease, 97(11):1517. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Sano T, 2003. Hop stunt viroid in cucumber. In: Viroids [ed. by Hadidi, A.\Flores, R.\Randles, J. W.\Semancik, J. S.]. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 134-136

Sano T, 2003. Hop stunt viroid in plum and peach. In: Viroids [ed. by Hadidi, A.\Flores, R.\Randles, J. W.\Semancik, J. S.]. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 165-167

Sano T, 2003. Hop stunt viroid. In: Viroids [ed. by Hadidi, A.\Flores, R.\Randles, J. W.\Semancik, J. S.]. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 207-212

Sano T, Hataya T, Shikata E, 1988. Complete nucleotide sequence of a viroid isolated from Etrog citron, a new member of hop stunt viroid group. Nucleic Acids Research, 16(1):347

Sano T, Hataya T, Terai Y, Shikata E, 1989. Hop stunt viroid strains from dapple fruit disease of plum and peach in Japan. Journal of General Virology, 70(6):1311-1319

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