Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Hordeum vulgare
(barley)

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Datasheet

Hordeum vulgare (barley)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hordeum vulgare
  • Preferred Common Name
  • barley
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
H. vulgare: 1, habit; 2, 6-rowed spike; 3, triad of spikelets of 6-rowed spike.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
TitleLine drawing
CaptionH. vulgare: 1, habit; 2, 6-rowed spike; 3, triad of spikelets of 6-rowed spike. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
H. vulgare: 1, habit; 2, 6-rowed spike; 3, triad of spikelets of 6-rowed spike.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
Line drawingH. vulgare: 1, habit; 2, 6-rowed spike; 3, triad of spikelets of 6-rowed spike. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.PROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hordeum vulgare L. (1753)

Preferred Common Name

  • barley

Other Scientific Names

  • Hordeum distichon L. (1753)
  • Hordeum hexastichon L. (1753)
  • Hordeum sativum Jessen (1863)

International Common Names

  • English: four-rowed (= six-rowed) barley; Spring barley; Winter barley
  • Spanish: cebada; cebada comun; cebada de invierno; cebada de verano
  • French: escourgeon; orge; orge commune; orge d'ete
  • Portuguese: cevada-comum

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Mehrzeilige Gerste; Sommer- Gerste; Winter- Gerste
  • Indonesia: ta mé; tai mak
  • Italy: orzo comune; orzo invernale; orzo primaverile
  • Malaysia: barli
  • Netherlands: gewone gerst; Wintergerst; Zomergerst
  • Sweden: hoestkorn; odlat Korn; vaarkorn
  • Thailand: khao-ba-le
  • Vietnam: daji majch; lusa majch nha

EPPO code

  • HORVX (Hordeum vulgare)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Hordeum
  •                                 Species: Hordeum vulgare

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 22 Jul 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentBarley production (2008) 1,200,000 MT (F)
EgyptPresentBarley production (2008) 149,238 MT
EritreaPresentBarley production (2008) 15,000 MT (F)
EthiopiaPresentBarley production (2008) 1,352,148 MT
KenyaPresentBarley production (2008) 44,597 MT
LesothoPresentBarley production (2008) 240 MT (F)
MauritaniaPresentBarley production (2008) 1,000 MT (F)
MoroccoPresentBarley production (2008) 1,353,240 MT
RéunionPresentIntroduced1984
RwandaPresentBarley production (2008) 0 MT (M)
South AfricaPresentBarley production (2008) 215,000 MT (F)
SudanPresentBarley production (2008) 0 MT (M)
TunisiaPresentBarley production (2008) 254,000 MT
Western SaharaPresentBarley production (2008) 2,000 MT (F)
ZambiaPresentBarley production (2008) 2,350 MT (F)
ZimbabwePresentBarley production (2008) 48,000 MT (F)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentBarley production (2008) 333,000 MT
ArmeniaPresentBarley production (2008) 149,091 MT
AzerbaijanPresentBarley production (2008) 605,525 MT
BangladeshPresentBarley production (2008) 536 MT
BhutanPresentBarley production (2008) 4,835 MT (F)
ChinaPresentBarley production (2008) 3,550,000 MT (*)
-AnhuiPresent
-ChongqingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresentBarley production (2008) 1,196,100 MT
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresentBarley production (2008) 748,000 MT (F)
IsraelPresentBarley production (2008) 10,500 MT
JapanPresentBarley production (2008) 194,600 MT (F)
JordanPresentBarley production (2008) 10,328 MT
KazakhstanPresentBarley production (2008) 2,058,550 MT
KuwaitPresentBarley production (2008) 2,150 MT (F)
KyrgyzstanPresentBarley production (2008) 210,600 MT
LebanonPresentBarley production (2008) 33,100 MT (F)
MongoliaPresentBarley production (2008) 1,394 MT
MyanmarPresentBarley production (2008) 0 MT (M)
NepalPresentBarley production (2008) 28,082 MT
OmanPresentBarley production (2008) 3,417 MT (F)
PakistanPresentBarley production (2008) 87,400 MT
QatarPresentBarley production (2008) 5,000 MT (F)
Saudi ArabiaPresentBarley production (2008) 31,000 MT (F)
South KoreaPresentBarley production (2008) 170,053 MT
SyriaPresentBarley production (2008) 784,479 MT (F)
TajikistanPresentBarley production (2008) 57,601 MT
ThailandPresentBarley production (2008) 18,000 MT (F)
TurkeyPresentBarley production (2008) 5,923,000 MT
TurkmenistanPresentBarley production (2008) 58,700 MT (F)
UzbekistanPresentBarley production (2008) 157,000 MT (*)
YemenPresentBarley production (2008) 26,704 MT

Europe

AlbaniaPresentBarley production (2008) 3,500 MT
AustriaPresentBarley production (2008) 967,921 MT
BelarusPresentBarley production (2008) 2,212,480 MT
BelgiumPresentBarley production (2008) 423,800 MT
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentIntroduced1903
BulgariaPresentBarley production (2008) 878,000 MT
CroatiaPresentBarley production (2008) 272,100 MT
CyprusPresentBarley production (2008) 46,806 MT
CzechiaPresentBarley production (2008) 2,243,865 MT
DenmarkPresentBarley production (2008) 3,396,000 MT
EstoniaPresentBarley production (2008) 349,100 MT
FinlandPresentBarley production (2008) 2,128,600 MT
FrancePresentBarley production (2008) 1,217,1300 MT
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced1906
GermanyPresentBarley production (2008) 1,196,7100 MT
GreecePresentBarley production (2008) 380,000 MT
HungaryPresentBarley production (2008) 1,478,200 MT
IcelandPresentIntroduced1889
IrelandPresentBarley production (2008) 1,249,700 MT
ItalyPresentBarley production (2008) 1,236,697 MT
-SicilyPresent
LatviaPresentBarley production (2008) 307,100 MT
LithuaniaPresentBarley production (2008) 970,400 MT
LuxembourgPresentBarley production (2008) 52,816 MT
MaltaPresentBarley production (2008) 1,600 MT (F)
MoldovaPresentBarley production (2008) 353,124 MT
NetherlandsPresentBarley production (2008) 310,200 MT
NorwayPresentBarley production (2008) 530,000 MT
PolandPresentBarley production (2008) 3,619,460 MT
PortugalPresentBarley production (2008) 99,800 MT
RomaniaPresentBarley production (2008) 1,209,410 MT
RussiaPresentBarley production (2008) 2,314,8450 MT
-SiberiaPresent
SerbiaPresentBarley production (2008) 344,141 MT
SlovakiaPresentBarley production (2008) 891,317 MT
SloveniaPresentBarley production (2008) 76,788 MT
SpainPresentBarley production (2008) 1,126,1100 MT
Svalbard and Jan MayenPresentIntroduced1897
SwedenPresentBarley production (2008) 1,801,000 MT
SwitzerlandPresentBarley production (2008) 202,700 MT
UkrainePresentBarley production (2008) 1,261,1500 MT
United KingdomPresentBarley production (2008) 6,144,000 MT
-ScotlandPresent

North America

CanadaPresentBarley production (2008) 1,178,1400 MT
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
GuatemalaPresentBarley production (2008) 1,000 MT (F)
MexicoPresentBarley production (2008) 811,358 MT
United StatesPresentBarley production (2008) 5,214,394 MT
-AlaskaPresent
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1935
-IdahoPresent
-MontanaPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OregonPresent
-VirginiaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentBarley production (2008) 6,820,000 MT
-QueenslandPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresentBarley production (2008) 408,730 MT

South America

ArgentinaPresentBarley production (2008) 1,690,085 MT
BoliviaPresentBarley production (2008) 72,589 MT (F)
BrazilPresentBarley production (2008) 236,911 MT
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
ChilePresentBarley production (2008) 95,869 MT
ColombiaPresentBarley production (2008) 11,042 MT
EcuadorPresentBarley production (2008) 17,954 MT
PeruPresentBarley production (2008) 177,479 MT (F)
UruguayPresentBarley production (2008) 405,500 MT

References

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Babadoost M, 1995. Incidence of seed-borne fungal diseases of barley in East Azerbaijan and Ardebil Provinces. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 31(1/4):31-32(En), 77-87(Pe); 14 ref.

Baden C, 1998. Taxonomy and phylogeny in some perennial genera of the Triticeae. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae-Agraria, 125.

Bowden WM, 1959. The taxonomy and nomenclature of the wheats, barleys, and ryes and their wild relatives. Canadian Journal of Botany, 37:657-684.

Duffus CM; Cochrane MP, 1992. Grain structure and composition. In: Shewry PR (Ed.), Barley: genetics. biochemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 291-318.

Goerke, K., Schönhammer, A., Schulte, M., Gerowitt, B., 2007. Weeds in oilseed rape in Germany - status and assessment of changes. In: European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007 [European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007], [ed. by Fløistad, E.]. Doorwerth, Netherlands: European Weed Research Society. 198. http://www.ewrs-symposium2007.com

Hassannejad, S., Ghafarbi, S. P., Abbasvand, E., Ghisvandi, B., 2014. Quantifying the effects of altitude and soil texture on weed species distribution in wheat fields of Tabriz, Iran. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES), 5(1), 590-596. http://www.innspub.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/JBES-Vol5No1-p590-596.pdf

Hassannejad, S., Ghisvandi, B., 2013. Grasses distribution in wheat fields of Tabriz-Iran and recorded Sclerochloa woronowii (Hack.) Tzvelev as a new weed species for flora of Iran. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3(22), 3119-3124. http://tjeas.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/3119-3124.pdf

Jacobsen N; Bothmer Rvon, 1992. Supraspecific groups in the genus Hordeum. Hereditas (Landskrona), 116(1-2):21-24

Jefferies SP; Barr AR; Hunt C; Wheeler RD, 2000. Agronomic and breeding value of genes for resistance to leaf scald (Rhynchosporium secalis) in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 51(8):955-960; 24 ref.

Lisowicz F, 2000. Wystepowanie i znaczenie gospodarcze niezmiarki paskowanej na zbozach uprawianych na Podkarpaciu. [Occurrence and economic importance of the gout fly on cereals in the Podkarpacie region.] Ochrona Roslin, 44:12-12.

Mathre DE, ed. , 1982. Compendium of barley diseases. Compendium of barley diseases. American Phytopathological Society St. Paul, Minnesota USA, v + 78 pp.

Nevo E, 1992. Origin, evolution, population genetics and resources for breeding of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, in the Fertile Crescent. In: Shewry PR, Ed., Barley: genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 19-44.

Poehlman JM, 1985. Adaptation and distribution. In: Rasmusson DC Ed., Barley. American Society of Agronomy, 2-18.

Surkus J; Metspalu L, 2000. Pests on spring barley and their control measures in Lithuania. In: Mitt S, ed. Proceedings of the International Conference: Development of environmentally friendly plant protection in the Baltic Region, Tartu, Estonia, September 28-29, 2000. Transactions of the Estonian Agricultural University, Agronomy, No. 209, 194-196.

Distribution References

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Abkhoo J, 2015. Powdery mildews causing fungi in Iran. Mycopath. 13 (1), 51-55. http://111.68.103.26/journals/index.php/mycopath/article/viewFile/673/354

Achon M A, Ratti C, Rubies-Autonell C, 2003. Occurrence of Barley mild mosaic virus on barley in Spain. Plant Disease. 87 (8), 1004. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.8.1004C

Achon M A, Serrano L, Ratti C, Rubies-Autonell C, 2006. First detection of Wheat dwarf virus in barley in Spain associated with an outbreak of Barley yellow dwarf. Plant Disease. 90 (7), 970. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0970A

Agostinetto L, Casa R T, Bogo A, Alves Neto L, Vieira Junior J de A L, Fingstag M D, Rosa J M da, 2020. Viability of seed-borne fungi Alternaria alternata, Bipolaris sorokiniana and Drechslera teres in barley seeds in the south of Brazil. Summa Phytopathologica. 46 (1), 26-30. DOI:10.1590/0100-5405/219259

Ahmadi A R, Maafi Z T, 2009. Occurrence and distribution of two species of cereal cyst nematodes Heterodera avenae and H. filipjevi in Khuzestan Province, Iran. In: Cereal cyst nematodes: status, research and outlook. Proceedings of the First Workshop of the International Cereal Cyst Nematode Initiative, Antalya, Turkey, 21-23 October 2009 [Cereal cyst nematodes: status, research and outlook. Proceedings of the First Workshop of the International Cereal Cyst Nematode Initiative, Antalya, Turkey, 21-23 October 2009.], [ed. by Riley I T, Nicol J M, Dababat A A]. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). 79-81. http://www.spipm.cgiar.org/c/document_library/get_file?p_1_id=17828&folderId=18430&name=DLFE-139.pdf

Alavi J, Strassen R zur, Bagherani N, 2007. Thrips (Thysanoptera) species associated with wheat and barley in Golestan province, Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran. 27 (1), 1-28.

Al-Sadi A M, Deadman M L, 2010. Influence of seed-borne Cochliobolus sativus (anamorph Bipolaris sorokiniana) on crown rot and root rot of barley and wheat. Journal of Phytopathology. 158 (10), 683-690. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2010.01684.x

Anfoka G, Edwan H, Ahmad F H, Odeh W, 2011. Detection and identification of cereal viruses in Jordan. Journal of Plant Pathology. 93 (4, Supplement), S4.73. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/118

Arabi M I E, Jawhar M, 2003. Pathotypes of Cochliobolus sativus (spot blotch) on barley in Syria. Journal of Plant Pathology. 85 (3), 193-196.

Bellé C, Balardin R R, Nora D dalla, Schmitt J, Gabriel M, Ramos R F, Antoniolli Z I, 2019. First report of Meloidogyne graminicola (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) in Brazil. Plant Disease. 103 (5), 1045-1045. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-18-2010-PDN

Beukes I, Jensen T, Coertze S, 2016. First report of Ramularia collo-cygni infecting barley in South Africa. Journal of Plant Pathology. 98 (2), 376. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3579/2246

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Bouallegue M, Mezghani-Khemakhem M, Makni H, Makni M, 2014. First report of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus infecting barley in Tunisia. Plant Disease. 98 (7), 1016. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-13-1269-PDN

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Ficsor A, Bakonyi J, Tóth B, Tomcsányi A, Palágyi A, Csösz M, Károlyi-Cséplö M, Mészáros K, Vida G, 2010. First report of spot form of net blotch of barley caused by Pyrenophora teres f. maculata in Hungary. Plant Disease. 94 (8), 1062-1063. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-8-1062C

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Hajihassani A, Maafi Z T, Ahmadi A, Taji M, 2011. Survey and biology of cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera latipons, in rain-fed wheat in Markazi Province, Iran. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 13 (4), 576-580. http://www.fspublishers.org/ijab/past-issues/IJABVOL_13_NO_4/19.pdf

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Hariri D, Meyer M, Prud'homme H, 2003. Characterization of a new barley mild mosaic virus pathotype in France. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 109 (9), 921-928. DOI:10.1023/B:EJPP.0000003663.32298.f4

Hassannejad S, Ghafarbi S P, Abbasvand E, Ghisvandi B, 2014. Quantifying the effects of altitude and soil texture on weed species distribution in wheat fields of Tabriz, Iran. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES). 5 (1), 590-596. http://www.innspub.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/JBES-Vol5No1-p590-596.pdf

Hassannejad S, Ghisvandi B, 2013. Grasses distribution in wheat fields of Tabriz-Iran and recorded Sclerochloa woronowii (Hack.) Tzvelev as a new weed species for flora of Iran. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 3 (22), 3119-3124. http://tjeas.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/3119-3124.pdf

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Hong S K, Choi H W, Lee Y K, Ham H H, 2019. First report of Ophiosphaerella korrae causing root rot of Hordeum vulgare in Korea. Plant Disease. 103 (1), 158-159. DOI:10.1094/pdis-07-18-1125-pdn

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Imren M, Koca A S, Dababat A A, 2019. Identification of Heterodera latipons using PCR with sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) primers. Uluslararasi Tarim ve Yaban Hayati Bilimleri Dergisi. 5 (1), 90-95. DOI:10.24180/ijaws.512967

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Jayasena K W, George E, Loughman R, Hardy G, 2004. First record of the teleomorph stage of Drechslera teres f. maculata in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 33 (3), 455-456. DOI:10.1071/AP04032

Jeżewska M, Trzmiel K, 2009. First report of Barley yellow mosaic virus infecting barley in Poland. Plant Pathology. 58 (4), 784. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02129.x

Jin Y, 2005. Races of Puccinia graminis identified in the United States during 2003. Plant Disease. 89 (10), 1125-1127. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-1125

Karakaya A, Mert Z, Oğuz A Ç, Çetİn L, 2016. Distribution of barley stripe disease in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Selcuk Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences. 30 (2), 59-61. http://sjafs.selcuk.edu.tr/sjafs/article/view/818/670

Kareem K H, Ahmed N H, Gürkan T, Akbay N G, Salaİ S A F, Çetİntaș R, 2017. Diagnosis of nematode populations found in chard, barley and onion grown in north of Iraq and south of Turkey. Kahramanmaraș Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi. 20 (1), 28-34. http://dergi.ksu.edu.tr/article/view/5000198183/5000176851

Kavak H, 2003. First record of leaf scald caused by Rhynchosporium secalis in a natural population of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in Turkey. Plant Pathology. 52 (6), 805. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2003.00914.x

Kavak H, 2004. First record of leaf rust caused by Puccinia hordei on Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in Turkey. Plant Pathology. 53 (2), 258. DOI:10.1111/j.0032-0862.2004.00966.x

Khudhair M W, Aboud H M, Dheyab N S, Shbar A K, Khalaf H S, 2014. The first record of Alternaria triticina the causative agent of Alternaria leaf blight in wheat and barley in Iraq. International Journal of Phytopathology. 3 (3), 133-138. http://escijournals.net/index.php/phytopath/article/view/862/pdf_35

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Kumari S G, Muharram I, Makkouk K M, Al-Ansi A, El-Pasha R, Al-Motwkel W A, Kassem A H, 2006. Identification of viral diseases affecting barley and bread wheat crops in Yemen. Australasian Plant Pathology. 35 (5), 563-568. http://publish.csiro.au/nid/39/paper/AP06061.htm DOI:10.1071/AP06061

Kundu J K, 2008. First report of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAS in wheat and barley grown in the Czech Republic. Plant Disease. 92 (11), 1587. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-11-1587B

Kundu J K, 2009. First report of Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV in oat, wheat, and barley grown in the Czech Republic. Plant Disease. 93 (9), 964. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-9-0964B

Lim HyoJin, Seo EunYoung, Kim HyunSeung, Kim JungKyu, Park ChanHwan, Gong JunSu, Kim IkHyun, Han SangHuk, Kilcrease J P, Furuya N, Tsuchiya K, Hammond J, Lim HyounSub, 2016. 2015 nationwide survey revealed Barley stripe mosaic virus in Korean barley fields. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University. 61 (1), 71-77.

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Makkouk K M, Ghulam W, Kumari S G, 2001. First report of Barley yellow striate mosaic virus infecting barley and wheat in Lebanon. Plant Disease. 85 (4), 446. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.4.446A

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Milanova S, Boneva P, Grigorova P, Valkova M, 2007. Weed survey in central north Bulgaria. In: European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007 [European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007.], [ed. by Fløistad E]. Doorwerth, Netherlands: European Weed Research Society. 217. http://www.ewrs-symposium2007.com

Mokrini F, Andaloussi F A, Alaoui Y, Troccoli A, 2009. Importance and distribution of the main cereal nematodes in Morocco. In: Cereal cyst nematodes: status, research and outlook. Proceedings of the First Workshop of the International Cereal Cyst Nematode Initiative, Antalya, Turkey, 21-23 October 2009 [Cereal cyst nematodes: status, research and outlook. Proceedings of the First Workshop of the International Cereal Cyst Nematode Initiative, Antalya, Turkey, 21-23 October 2009.], [ed. by Riley I T, Nicol J M, Dababat A A]. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). 45-50. http://www.spipm.cgiar.org/c/document_library/get_file?p_1_id=17828&folderId=18430&name=DLFE-139.pdf

Najar A, Makkouk K M, Boudhir H, Kumari S G, Zarouk R, Bessai R, Othman F B, 2000. Viral diseases of cultivated legume and cereal crops in Tunisia. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 39 (3), 423-432.

Najar A, Makkouk K M, Kumari S G, 2000a. First record of barley yellow striate mosaic virus, barley stripe mosaic virus, and wheat dwarf virus infecting cereal crops in Tunisia. Plant Disease. 84 (9), 1045. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.9.1045C

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Nigussie Seboka Tadesse, Amare Seifu Assefa, Manaye Misganaw Motbaynor, Edget Merawi Betsiha, Ashenafi Ayenew Hailu, Girum Faris Beyene, Tesfaye Bekele Hordofa, 2017. Invasion and impacts of Xanthium strumarium in Borena Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine. 5 (8), 350-355. DOI:10.12980/jclm.5.2017j7-26

Nikolić M, Savić I, Obradović A, Srdić J, Stanković G, Stevanović M, Stanković S, 2020. First report of Aspergillus parasiticus on barley grain in Serbia. Plant Disease. 104 (3), 987-987. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-19-1364-PDN

Owen M J, Powles S B, 2016. The frequency of herbicide-resistant wild oat (Avena spp.) populations remains stable in Western Australian cropping fields. Crop & Pasture Science. 67 (5), 520-527. DOI:10.1071/CP15295

Özarslandan A, Imren M, Özer G, Karaca C, Dababat A, 2020. Identification and genetic diversity of the Mediterranean cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera latipons Franklin, 1969 (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) in cereal production areas of Northern Cyprus. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi. 44 (2), 273-281. DOI:10.16970/entoted.661964

Pala F, 2020. Observation of weed species, frequency and density in common barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) fields of Diyarbakir, Turkey: a case study. Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi. 26 (2), 164-172. DOI:10.15832/ankutbd.500963

Pereyra S A, Germán S E, 2004. First report of spot type of barley net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres f. sp. maculata in Uruguay. Plant Disease. 88 (10), 1162. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.10.1162C

Prashar M, Bhardwaj S C, Gangwar O P, Jain S K, 2014. Virulence distribution and frequency of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, causing stripe rust of barley in northern parts of India. Indian Phytopathology. 67 (1), 38-41. http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/IPPJ/article/view/39584/17833

Rashtra Vardhana, 2017. Plant's diseases of district Ghaziabad and adjacent areas. Plant Archives. 17 (1), 727-732. http://www.plantarchives.org/PDF%2017-1/727-732%20(3511).pdf

Rehman S, Gyawali S, Amri A, Verma R P S, 2020. First report of spot blotch of barley caused by Cochliobolus sativus in Morocco. Plant Disease. 104 (3), 988-988. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-19-1923-PDN

Renčo M, 2005. Current occurrence and geographical distribution of Heterodera avenae Wollenweber 1924 in the Slovak Republic. Plant Protection Science. 41 (2), 80-85. http://www.cazv.cz

Robertson N L, 2003. Luteovirus and polerovirus found in small grains for the first time in the Matanuska-Susitna Region of Alaska. Plant Disease. 87 (4), 446. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.4.446C

Rouse M N, Griffey C A, Brooks W S, 2013. First detection of Puccinia hordei virulence to barley leaf rust resistance gene Rph3 and combination with virulence to Rph7 in North America. Plant Disease. 97 (6), 838. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-12-0785-PDN

Safavi S A, Afshari F, Arzanlou M, 2017. First report of new races of barley yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei) in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology. 99 (3), 799. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3925/2569

Sanjiv Gupta, Loughman R, 2001. Current virulence of Pyrenophora teres on barley in Western Australia. Plant Disease. 85 (9), 960-966. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.9.960

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Shamim Iftikhar, Shahzad Asad, Anjum Munir, Iftikhar Ahmad, Amir Sultan, 2006. Prevalence and distribution of foliar blight pathogens of wheat in different agroecological zones of Pakistan, with special reference to Bipolaris sorokiniana. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 38 (1), 205-210. http://www.pjbot.org

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Shen RuiQing, Zhang Ping, Guo ChengJin, Zhang LiRong, Kang PingZhi, 2012. Study on fungi belonging to Fusarium Link in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Plant Diseases and Pests. 3 (2), 6-8.

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