Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Thlaspi arvense
(field pennycress)



Thlaspi arvense (field pennycress)


  • Last modified
  • 28 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Thlaspi arvense
  • Preferred Common Name
  • field pennycress
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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T. arvense plant with flowers and fruit.
TitleFlowers and fruits
CaptionT. arvense plant with flowers and fruit.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
T. arvense plant with flowers and fruit.
Flowers and fruitsT. arvense plant with flowers and fruit.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Thlaspi arvense L. (1753)

Preferred Common Name

  • field pennycress

International Common Names

  • English: bastard cress; fanweed; pennycress; stinkweed; THLAR (Thlaspi arvense)
  • Spanish: carrapisque; telaspio
  • French: tabouret des champs; tabouret perfolie
  • Portuguese: thlaspio

Local Common Names

  • Belgium: boerekers; witte krodde
  • Denmark: almindelig pengeurt
  • Finland: peltotaskuruoho
  • Germany: Ackerhellerkraut; Ackertaschelkraut; Herzschotchen; Pfennigkraut
  • Italy: erba storna
  • Japan: gunbainazuna
  • Netherlands: krodde, witte
  • Norway: pengeurt
  • Sweden: penningort

EPPO code

  • THLAR (Thlaspi arvense)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Capparidales
  •                         Family: Brassicaceae
  •                             Genus: Thlaspi
  •                                 Species: Thlaspi arvense

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Thlaspi arvense is the universally accepted name for this common and widespread annual weed. Chromosome number (2n) = 14 (Best and McIntyre, 1975).


Top of page T. arvense is an annual or winter annual. The entire plant is glabrous and bright green, with an unpleasant odour when bruised. Stems are erect, 18 to 80 cm tall, simple or branched above. The leaves are alternate, with basal leaves narrowly obovate, petioled and soon withering, the middle and upper leaves are oblong, entire or irregularly toothed and clasp the stem by two ear-lobes, 1 to 1.5 mm long. The flowers are initially in a small, flat cluster at the top of the leafy stem with racemes becoming elongated when in fruit, perfect, regular with four sepals, four white petals, 3 to 4 mm long; six stamens, two shorter than others. The silicule is pod-like, borne on slender, upward curving stalks, bright green to yellowish to greenish-orange. As the seeds ripen they are easily seen in crop fields, almost circular, 1.25 cm across, strongly flattened and winged. The very short style persists in a deep, narrow notch at the top of the wings, dehiscent, the two-winged locules each with 4 to 16 seeds. The seeds are ovoid, 1.2 to 2.3 mm long and 1 to 1.5 mm wide, reddish or purplish-brown to black, unsymmetrically oval in outline, somewhat flattened with several concentric ridges resembling a finger print, each face with a narrow groove extending from the hilum to the centre of the seed.


Top of page T. arvense occurs at an extreme range of latitudes (80°N to 45°S). It behaves as a weed in most temperate crops, but is seldom a problem in tropical crops (Holm et al., 1997). It is present on every continent, but its distribution is limited in Africa and South America. In the Rocky mountains of the USA, it grows in moist valleys to an altitude of 2700 m (Polunin, 1959). In the Himalayas, it has been recorded at 4200 m (Mani, 1979).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanPresentHolm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
ArmeniaPresentUSDA et al., 1998
AzerbaijanPresentUSDA et al., 1998
BhutanPresentParker, 1992
ChinaWidespreadWang, 1990; Holm et al., 1991
Georgia (Republic of)PresentUSDA et al., 1998
IranWidespreadHolm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
IsraelPresentHolm et al., 1997
JapanPresentHolm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
JordanPresentHolm et al., 1991
KazakhstanPresentUSDA et al., 1998
Korea, DPRWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
Korea, Republic ofWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
KyrgyzstanPresentUSDA et al., 1998
LebanonPresentHolm et al., 1991
MongoliaPresentHolm et al., 1997
PakistanPresentHolm et al., 1991
TajikistanPresentUSDA et al., 1998
TurkeyPresentHolm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
TurkmenistanPresentUSDA et al., 1998


South AfricaPresentWells et al., 1986
TunisiaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991

North America

CanadaWidespreadBest and McIntyre, 1975; Holm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
GreenlandPresentHolm et al., 1997
USAWidespreadHolm et al., 1991; EPPO, 2014
-AlaskaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991

South America

ArgentinaPresentHolm et al., 1991
ColombiaPresentHolm et al., 1991


AlbaniaPresentUSDA et al., 1998
AustriaWidespreadHolm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
BelarusPresentUSDA et al., 1998
BelgiumWidespreadClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
BulgariaPresentClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1997; USDA et al., 1998
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
DenmarkPresentClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1997; USDA et al., 1998
EstoniaPresentUSDA et al., 1998
FinlandPresentHolm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
FrancePresentClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1997; USDA et al., 1998
GermanyWidespreadClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
GreecePresentUSDA et al., 1998
HungaryWidespreadClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
IcelandPresentHolm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
IrelandPresentClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1997; USDA et al., 1998
ItalyPresentClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
LatviaPresentUSDA et al., 1998
LithuaniaPresentUSDA et al., 1998
LuxembourgPresentClapham, 1972
NetherlandsPresentClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
NorwayPresentClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
PolandWidespreadClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
PortugalPresentClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1997
-MadeiraPresentUSDA et al., 1998
RomaniaPresentClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1997; USDA et al., 1998
Russian FederationPresentClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
SpainPresentHolm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
-Balearic IslandsPresentClapham, 1972
SwedenWidespreadClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
SwitzerlandPresentClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1997; USDA et al., 1998
UKPresentClapham, 1972; Holm et al., 1991; USDA et al., 1998
-Channel IslandsPresentClapham, 1972
Yugoslavia (former)PresentClapham, 1972; USDA et al., 1998


AustraliaPresentHolm et al., 1991
-New South WalesPresentLazarides et al., 1997
-QueenslandPresentHolm et al., 1997
-TasmaniaPresentHolm et al., 1997
-VictoriaPresentLazarides et al., 1997
New ZealandWidespreadHolm et al., 1991


Top of page T. arvense is a mainly temperate species which thrives on cultivated and disturbed ground. It may also be found in gardens and waste places. It grows on wet or dry ground and a range of soil types, but prefers fertile sites.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page T. arvense has been described as a serious weed of cereals, rape, vegetable crops, pasture and beets (Holm et al., 1997). It is likely to behave as a weed in any crop within its geographical range.

Biology and Ecology

Top of page T. arvense is an annual or winter annual species which reproduces solely by seed. The species exhibits a high degree of ecotypic variation and the many biotypes recorded mean that differences in the species phenology have been reported from various parts of its geographic range. In Nebraska, USA (41°N), McCarty (1986) reported the average date for seedling emergence as March 10, and for the production of the first mature seeds as between May 7 and 23. In Canada (50°N), the average date for emergence of 50% of seedlings was April 30 and July 7 for the shedding of the first mature seeds. In both cases mature seeds were shed long before crop harvest. The phenotypic plasticity of T. arvense is demonstrated by the morphological responses of individual plants to soil and environmental conditions. In shallow, dry and infertile soils, plants may be unbranched and as small as 1 cm tall, whereas in favourable sites, many flowering lateral branches are formed and individuals may reach 80 cm (Best and McIntyre, 1975).

T. arvense is a prolific seed producer, with yields as high as 20,000 seeds/plant (Holm et al., 1997). In Finland, Paatela and Ervio (1971) reported 20 to 450 seeds/m² in the upper layers of soil, whilst in Canada, Batho (1939) found 1300 seeds/m². The large soil seed bank of T. arvense and hence the potential for serious weed infestations have led to a large volume of research into the species germination biology. No doubt due in part to the genetic variability of this species many of the findings have been contradictory. Chepil (1946a) and McIntyre and Best (1975) reported that fresh seed was non-dormant, giving almost 100% germination in light and an alternating temperature regime of 10/25°C. Salisbury (1964) reported good germination of fresh seed, but also that a proportion were firmly dormant. Baskin and Baskin (1988, 1989) found that in May most freshly-matured seeds were dormant. Holm et al. (1997) suggest that seeds produced by winter annual populations are initially non-dormant in autumn, becoming dormant in winter, and that those produced by summer annual populations are dormant in autumn, becoming non-dormant during winter. Physical and chemical stimulants have been widely reported to break the dormancy of T. arvense seeds. Koch (1967) showed that seeds responded well at pHs of between 4 and 7. Germination decreases as atmospheric oxygen falls from 20 to 12% and no germination was observed at carbon dioxide levels above 9% (Chepil, 1946a; Bibbey, 1948). Germination is also stimulated by giberellic acid (Corns, 1960a, b), sodium hypochlorite (Hsiao, 1980) and seed coat removal or scarification (Pelton, 1956; Salisbury, 1964).

The success of T. arvense as a weed, due in part to the large volume of seed it produces, is increased by its ability to survive in the soil seed bank for periods of between 20 and 30 years (Duvel, 1905; Smith, 1917). Seed longevity increases with depth of burial; after 3 years burial at 6 and 15 cm, Chepil (1946b) recorded 5 and 15% survival of T. arvense seeds, respectively. The species is not able to emerge from great depths and Kolk (1947) found that greatest germination occurred in the top 2 cm of the soil.

Seed is dispersed by a number of agents. Over short distances it may be spread by grain harvesters and other farm machinery, in soil on the feet or fur of humans or animals. The seeds are winged and wind dispersal may carry the seed for distances of up to 1 km or more (Ridley, 1930). The seed may also travel as a contaminant of crop seed.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Meloidogyne hapla Parasite

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Shurovenkov (1984) carried out a survey to discover potential natural enemies for a number of cruciferous weeds and reported on 12 which significantly reduced their competitive ability.


Top of page T. arvense is a weed of 30 crops in 45 countries (Holm et al., 1997), and is classified as a serious or principal weed in 12 (Holm et al., 1991). A number of morphological and life history characteristics make the species a formidable competitor: it is a prolific seed producer, capable of building up large reserves of seed in the soil; it has an extensive root system that surrounds those of neighbouring plants; it has a short life cycle and is able to produce a number of generations in a single growing season; its seed may be viable even when mature, and it exhibits long-term dormancy; it is tolerant of some herbicides; seed is set before crop harvest and early resource allocation enables early development of the root system (Hume, 1987, 1988; Holm et al., 1997). In Canada, it has been shown that a light infestation can reduce wheat yields by 35% and a heavy infestation by 50% (Best and McIntyre, 1975). Klaassen (1995) observed an increase in the abundance of T. arvense and other cruciferous weeds following a five-fold increase in the area of rape in the preceding 5 years.

T. arvense acts as an alternative host to a range of crop pests and diseases which include the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) (Kmec and Weiss, 1997), Lygus lineolaris (Gerber and Wise, 1995), Meloidogyne hapla (Belair and Benoit, 1996), Leptosphaeria maculans (Pedras et al., 1996), Heterodera schachtii (Gleiss and Bachthaler, 1988), Pieris napi, Pontia daplidice (Forsberg, 1987), Heterodera glycines (Manuel, 1984), Delia radicum (cabbage root fly) (Finch and Ackley, 1977) and Leptosphaeria maculans (Best and McIntyre, 1975).

T. arvense has been reported as a contaminant of commercial oilseed rape seed stocks in the USA (Davis et al., 1996) and may be toxic to cattle (Smith and Crowe, 1987). Best and McIntyre (1975) note that the plant contains oil glucosides which may be converted to mustard oils. Also the content of allyl isothiocyanate (the probable reason for the name 'stinkweed') can cause gastric distress in livestock. Its also contain chemicals which produce an allelopathic effect, inhibiting the germination of wheat (Stefureac and Fratilescu-Sesan, 1979).


Top of page Wood et al. (1958) concluded that the seeds of T. arvense may provide a suitable food source for ruminants and monogastric animals. Carr et al. (1993) considered the potential of T. arvense as a novel oilseed crop.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page T. arvense resembles Lepidium densiflorum, but flowers of the latter are much smaller and pods contain only two seeds. L. densiflorum is restricted as a weedy species to North America and New Zealand (Holm et al., 1991). Other related species with flattened fruits include Lepidium virginicum and Cardaria draba (See separate datasheet), but the fruits in these are smaller, 2-3 mm across and the latter species is perennial. In Capsella bursa-pastoris (See separate datasheet), the fruits are heart-shaped.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

Because of its large seedbank, tillage practices may have a great bearing on the emergence and population density of T. arvense in cropping systems. Optimal germination of this species occurs from soil depths of about 2 cm, and burial increases the longevity of seed in the soil. Cultivation and seed bed preparation brings viable buried seed to the surface and stimulates germination (Roberts and Feast, 1972, 1973; Zwerger and Hurle, 1986). In trials on the Canadian prairies, Blackshaw et al. (1994) demonstrated that populations of T. arvense decreased under zero tillage. In field trials in the USA, the effects of post-emergence harrowing were evaluated for weed control in spring cereal crops. T. arvense was one of the most resilient weeds, and harrowing achieved only 0-34% control, compared with 100% for herbicide treatments (Wilson et al., 1992). A number of authors have reported large reductions in the emergence of T. arvense when cultivation and seed bed preparation have been practiced at night (Hartmann and Nezadal, 1990; Kuhbauch et al., 1992; Pallczynski et al., 1996).

Wahl (1988) in Germany compared the weed floras of conventional cropping systems and integrated cropping systems which consisted of shallow tillage, reduced N fertilization, paired row-drilling and pesticide applications as economic thresholds dictated. He reported that the emergence and soil seed reserves of T. arvense increased compared with conventional systems.

T. arvense is a poor competitor with certain forage crops, including Agropyron cristatum and Bromus inermis. Kirk et al. (1941) showed that densities of this weed could be reduced from 2000 plants/m² at 24 days after emergence to none at 82 days after emergence when grown with these crops. These results suggest that a break year where forage crops are introduced into the rotation may be effective where infestations of T. arvense are particularly severe. In the USA, Burnside et al. (1984) showed that a number of competitive wheat varieties effectively reduced the vigour of T. arvense individuals.

Chemical Control

A number of herbicides are effective for controlling T. arvense. Best and McIntyre (1975) comment that T. thlaspi is very susceptible to 2,4-D and MCPA but less susceptible to dicamba and bromoxynil when used alone.
Other effective herbicides include tribenuron-methyl (Andersson, 1994a, 1994b) These include MCPA and tribenuron-methyl (Andersson, 1994a, 1994b), tribenuron in sugarbeet (Simonteit, 1992), 2,4-D + dicamba (Savchuk and Gamanyuk, 1991), metazochlor (Stratil, 1987), chlorsulfuron applied pre-emergence in autumn or post-emergence in spring (Kang, 1983) and metribuzin (Kirkland, 1980).

Mamarot and Rodriguez (1997) provide suggestions for use of herbicides and herbicide mixtures in a wide range of crops in France.

Biological Control

There are no reports in the literature of attempts at biological control of T. arvense.


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Andersson L, 1994. Effects of MCPA and tribenuron-methyl on seed production and seed size of annual weeds. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research, 24(2):49-56

Andersson L, 1994. Seed production and seed weight of six weed species treated with MCPA. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research, 24(3):95-100

Baskin CC; Baskin JM, 1988. Germination ecophysiology of herbaceous plant species in a temperate region. American Journal of Botany, 75(2):286-305

Baskin JM; Baskin CC, 1989. Role of temperature in regulating timing of germination in soil seed reserves of Thlaspi arvense L. Weed Research (Oxford), 29(5):317-326

Batho G, 1939. Stinkweed and common mustard. Manitoba Department of Agriculture Immigration Circulation, 129:8.

Bélair G; Benôit DL, 1996. Host suitability of 32 common weeds to Meloidogyne hapla in organic soils of southwestern Quebec. Journal of Nematology, 28(4 Suppl.):643-647; 13 ref.

Best KF; McIntyre GI, 1975. The biology of Canadian weeds. 9. Thlaspi arvense L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 55(1):279-292

Bibbey R, 1948. Physiological studies of weed seed germination. Plant Physiology, 23:467-484.

Blackshaw RE; Larney FO; Lindwall CW; Kozub GC, 1994. Crop rotation and tillage effects on weed populations on the semi-arid Canadian prairies. Weed Technology, 8(2):231-237

Burnside O; Wicks G; Johnson V, 1984. Identification of competitive wheat Triticum aestivum selections to field pennycress Thlaspi arvense and downy brome Bromus tectorum. Abstracts of the 24th Weed Science Society of America Conference, 24:55.

Carr PM; Janick J; Simon JE, 1993. Potential of fanweed (Thlaspi arvense) and other weeds as novel industrial oilseed crops. In: New crops; presented at the second national symposium on new crops: exploration, research and commercialization, Indianapolis, USA. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons Inc., 384-388.

Chepil W, 1946. Germination of weed seeds. II. The influence of tillage treatments on germination. Scientific Agriculture, 26:347-357.

Chepil W, 1946. Germination of weed seeds: I. Longevity, periodicity of germination and vitality of seeds in cultivated soil. Scientific Agriculture, 26:307-346.

Clapham AR, 1972. Thlaspi L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds., 1972. Flora Europaea. Volume 1. Lycopodiaceae to Plantanaceae. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 318-319.

Corns W, 1960. Combined effects of gibberellin and 2, 4-D on dormant seeds of Thlaspi arvense. Canadian Journal of Botany, 38:871-874.

Corns W, 1960. Effects of gibberellin treatments on germination of various species of weed seeds. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 40:47-51.

Davis JB; Brown J; Brennan JS; Thill DC, 1996. Potential effect of weed seed contamination on the quality of canola produced in the Pacific Northwest region of the U.S.A. Cruciferae Newsletter, No. 18:136-137.

Duvel J, 1905. Vitality of buried seeds. Bureau of Plant Industries, USDA Bulletin No. 83.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Finch S; Ackley CM, 1977. Cultivated and wild host plants supporting populations of the cabbage root fly. Annals of Applied Biology, 85(1):13-22

Forsberg J, 1987. Size discrimination among conspecific hostplants in two pierid butterflies; Pieris napi L. and Pontia daplidice L. Oecologia, 72(1):52-57

Gerber GH; Wise IL, 1995. Seasonal occurrence and number of generations of Lygus lineolaris and L. borealis (Heteroptera: Miridae) in southern Manitoba. Canadian Entomologist, 127(4):543-559; 28 ref.

Gleiss W; Bachthaler G, 1988. The significance of weeds as host plants of the sugar-beet nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmitt in weed control according to thresholds. Angewandte Botanik, 62(3-4):193-201

Hartmann KM; Nezadal W, 1990. Photocontrol of weeds without herbicides. Naturwissenschaften, 77(4):158-163

Holm LG; Doll J; Holm E; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company.

Hsiao A, 1980. The effect of sodium hypochlorite, gibberellic acid and light on seed dormancy and germination of stinkweed, Thlaspi arvense and wild mustard, Brassica kaber. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 60:643-650.

Hume L, 1987. Long-term effects of 2,4-D application on plants. I. Effects on the weed community in a wheat crop. Canadian Journal of Botany, 65(12):2530-2536

Hume L, 1988. Long-term effects of 2,4-D application on plants. II. Herbicide avoidance by Chenopodium album and Thlaspi arvense. Canadian Journal of Botany, 66(2):230-235

Kang BH, 1983. Behaviour, persistence and selectivity of chlorsulfuron in crop plants and weeds. Verhalten und Verbleib sowie Ursachen fur die selektive Wirkung von Chlorsulfuron in Kulturpflanzen und Unkrautern. Univeritat Hohenheim German Federal Republic.

Kirk L; Pavlychenko T; Kossar T; Anderson D, 1941. Report of investigations 1939. Research Laboratory, Plant Ecology. Regina, Canada: University of Saskatchewan.

Kirkland KJ, 1980. Triazine resistance - a new approach to weed control in cultivated rapeseed. Proceedings North Central Weed Control Conference, 1980., 35:29-31

Klaassen H, 1995. Shift in the weed flora of rape? PSP Pflanzenschutz Praxis, No. 3:20-22

Kmec P; Weiss MJ, 1997. Seasonal abundance of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) on Crambe abyssinica. Environmental Entomology, 26(3):483-488; 13 ref.

Koch W, 1967. Germination of weed seeds. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Phytopathologische Vortragsreihe, 16:1005-1015.

Kolk H, 1947. Studies in germination biology in weeds. Vaxtodling, Plant Husbandry, 2:108-164.

Kuhbauch W; Gerhards R; Klumper H, 1992. Weed control by soil cultivation at night? PSP Pflanzenschutz Praxis, No. 1:13-15

Mani M, 1979. Ecology and Phytogeography of High Altitude Plants of the Northwest Himalaya. New Delhi, India: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.

Manuel JS, 1984. Weed hosts of soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, 1952. Dissertation Abstracts International, B, 44(11):3263

McCarty MK, 1986. A fifteen-year phenological record of pasture plants near Lincoln, Nebraska. Weed Science, 34(2):218-224

McIntyre GI; Best KF, 1975. Studies on the flowering of Thlaspi arvense L. 2. A comparative study of early- and late-flowering strains. Botanical Gazette, 136(2):151-158

Paatela J; Erviö L, 1971. Weed seeds in cultivated soils in Finland. Ann. Agric. Finnae, 10:144-152.

Pallczynski J; Dobrzanski A; Anyszka Z, 1996. The influence of seed bed preparation at night on weed infestation and herbicide efficacy in carrots. In: Proceedings of the Second International Weed Control Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark. Slagelse, Denmark: Department of Weed Control and Pesticide Ecology, 1267-1271.

Pedras MSC; Taylor JL; Morales VM, 1996. The blackleg fungus of rapeseed: how many species? In: Dias JS, Crute I, Monteiro AA, eds. International Symposium on Brassicas. Ninth Crucifers Genetic Workshop, 1994, Lisbon, Portugal. Acta Horticulturae, 407:411-446.

Pelton J, 1956. A study of seed dormancy in eighteen species of high altitude Colorado species. Butler University Botanical Studies (Indiana, USA), 13:74-84.

Polunin N, 1959. Circumpolar Arctic Flora. London, UK: Oxford University Press.

Ridley H, 1930. The Dispersal of Plants throughout the World. Kent, UK: Reeve and Ashford.

Roberts H; Feast P, 1973. Emergence and longevity of seeds of annual weeds in cultivated and undisturbed soil. Journal of Applied Ecology, 10:133-143.

Roberts HA; Feast PM, 1972. Fate of seeds of some annual weeds in different depths of cultivated and undisturbed soil. Weed Research, 12(4):316-324.

Salisbury E, 1964. Weeds and Aliens. 2nd Edition. London, UK: Collins.

Savchuk AL; Gamanyuk NI, 1991. Application of KAS with Dialene to winter wheat. Khimizatsiya Sel'skogo Khozyaistva, 9:38-39

Shurovenkov BG, 1984. Natural enemies of cruciferous weeds. Zashchita Rastenii, 11:29-30

Simonteit T, 1992. DPX-66037 - first experiences with the control of weeds in beet. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzzenkrankheiten unf Pfalnzenschutz, 1992, Sonderheft 13, presented at the 16th German conference on weed biology and control, Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Germany, 615-617.

Smith J, 1917. Weeds of Alberta, Canada. Alberta Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 2.

Smith RA; Crowe SP, 1987. Fanweed toxicosis in cattle: case history, analytical method, suggested treatment, and fanweed detoxification. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 29(2):155-156; 5 ref.

Stefureac TI; Fratilescu-Sesan T, 1979. Contributions to the study of the reciprocal action on the seeds of a plant during germination. Studii si Cercetari de Biologie, Biologie Vegetala, 31(1):55-61

Stratil J, 1987. Results of pilot trial studies on herbicides in winter rape. Agrochemia, 27(6):169-171

USDA-ARS, 1999. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

Wahl SA, 1988. Changes in the species composition of the weed flora under differential cropping systems for several years - results of the Lautenbach project. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem, No. 245:132

Wood A; Robertson M; Kitts W, 1958. Studies on nutritive value of refuse screening I. The essential amino acid content of certain weed seeds. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 38:97-102.

Wright JL; Fay PK; Davis ES, 1992. Postemergence harrowing for weed control in spring wheat and barley. Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 10-13 March 1992., 45:56-59.

Zwerger P; Hurle K, 1986. Changes in viability and germination capacity of weed seeds in soil. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 51(2a):325-332

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