Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Hoplolaimus indicus
(lance nematode)

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Datasheet

Hoplolaimus indicus (lance nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hoplolaimus indicus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lance nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •         Genus: Hoplolaimus
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    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hoplolaimus indicus Sher, 1963

Preferred Common Name

  • lance nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Basirolaimus arachidis (Maharaju & Das, 1982) Siddiqi, 1986
  • Basirolaimus indicus (Sher, 1963) Shamsi, 1979
  • Hoplolaimus arachidis Maharaju & Das, 1982

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •                 Genus: Hoplolaimus
  •                     Species: Hoplolaimus indicus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 19 May 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

GhanaPresent
LibyaPresent

Asia

BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresent, LocalizedNative
-FujianPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TripuraPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent
IranPresent
NepalPresent
PakistanPresent

Growth Stages

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Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Catenaria anguillulae Pathogen
Mononchus aquaticus Parasite

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Land vehiclesWith soil. Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Anon., 1984. Annual Report, ICAR Research Complex for North Eastern Hills Region, 1983, 147-150.

Banerji SN; Banerji DK, 1966. Occurrence of the nematode Hoplolaimus indicus in W. Bengal. Current Science, 35:597-598.

Baqri QH, 1991. Contribution to the fauna of Sikkim. Nematodes associated with citrus from Sikkim, India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, No. 128 (occasional paper):103 pp.; 38 ref.

Bhattacharya C; Dasgupta MK; Mukherjee B, 2012. Biodiversity of plant parasitic nematodes of cashew plantations in Tripura, India. Nematologia Mediterranea, 40(2):163-168. http://www.edizioniets.com

Birat RSS, 1965. New records of parasitic nematodes on rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Bihar. Sci. Cult., 31:494.

Chang SS, 1993. The occurrence of nematodes on citrus in Fujian. Fujian Fruit Tree, No. 3:55-57.

Darekar KS; Shelke SS; Mhase NL, 1992. Plant nematodes associated with cotton in Maharashtra State, India. Current Nematology, 3(1):97-98; 2 ref.

Das SN; Sahu H; Ramana KV, 1970. Indian Phytopathology Society Bulletin, 6:43-51.

Datta S; Trivedi PC; Tiagi B, 1987. Nematodes of guar and mung in some areas of Rajasthan, India. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 4:12-16.

Gill JS; Krishnananda N, 1977. Plant nematodes and potato cultivation. Nagaich, B.B. (Editor) Recent technology in potato improvement and production. (Lectures delivered during the Summer Institute, held at the Central Potato Research Institute, Simla from June 21 to July 20, 1976.). Central Potato Research Institute. Simla India, 277-289

Gupta JC; Atwal AS, 1971. Biology and ecology of Hoplolaimus indicus (Hoplolaiminae: Nematoda). I. The life stages and the feeding behaviour. Nematologica, 17:69-74.

Gupta NK; Gupta JC, 1967. On a nematode species of the genus Hoplolaimus Daday, 1905, from a citrus plant in the Punjab. Res. Bull. Panjab Univ. Sci. Year 1966, 17:215-217.

Hasan A; Rashid A; Khan AM, 1976. An abnormal male of Hoplolaimus indicus Sher, 1963. Indian Journal of Nematology, 6(2):167-169

Hazarika BP, 1994. Effect of nematode and fungus inoculation on germination of rice seeds var. I.R. 8. Orissa Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(1/2):38-40; 6 ref.

Khan E; Chawla ML, 1975. Hoplolaimus indicus. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 5(No. 66):4 pp.

Krishnappa K; Prasad KSK; Reddy BMR, 1980. A preliminary note on the plant parasitic nematodes associated with ornamental plants at Hebbal Campus of University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore. Current Research, 9(6):101-103

Laha SK; Srivastava RK; Singh RK; Tewari AK, 2009. Incidence of nematodes in mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus). Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 17(2):524. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Maafi ZT; Kheiri A, 1993. Plant parasitic nematodes on banana from Hormozgan Province. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 29(1/2):21-23; 21 ref.

Maharaju D; Das VM, 1982. Hoplolaimus arachidis n.sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchidae) from Andhra Pradesh. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Parasitology, 3(1/2):30-32

Mian IH; Tsuno K, 1988. Nematode parasites of sugarcane cultivated for production of molasses in Bangladesh. Bulletin of the Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kyushu University, 11:1-13; 11 ref.

Nath RC; Mukherjee B; Dasgupta MK, 1995. Distribution and importance of major plant parasitic nematodes affecting vegetable crops in Tripura. Current Nematology, 6(2):117-127; 14 ref.

Phukan PN; Sanwal KC, 1980. Survey of plant parasitic and soil inhabiting nematodes of Assam. Journal of Research, Assam Agricultural University, 1(1):68-71

Qaiser Shakeel; Anwar SA; Nazir Javed; Shahid M, 2009. Incidence of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica infecting sugarcane, Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 21(1):66-70.

Ramakrishnan S; Mohandas C, 1996. Density and frequency of various plant parasitic nematodes in sweet potato growing areas of Kerala. Journal of Root Crops, 22:112-114.

Ramana KV; Das SN, 1969. Pathogenicity of Hoplolaimus indicus Sher, 1963 on ragi (Eleusine coracana Gaertn). All India Nematology Symposium, New Delhi.

Rao YS, 1970. Study of plant parasitic nematodes affecting rice production in the vicinity of Cuttack (Orissa) India. USPL 480 project, Final Technical Report. Cuttack, India: IACR.

Shamsi MA, 1979. Basirolaimus gen.n. (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) with the description of Basirolaimus sacchari n.sp. from India. Nematologia Mediterranea, 7(1):15-19

Sharma SB; Ali SS, 1993. Distribution and importance of plant parasitic nematodes associated with pigeonpea in Gujarat State, India. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 3:55-59.

Sher SA, 1963. Revision of the Hoplolaiminae (Nematoda) II. Hoplolaimus Daday, 1905 and Aorolaimus n. gen. Nematologica, 9:267-295.

Siddiqi MR, 1986. Tylenchida: parasites of plants and insects. Farnham Royal, UK: CAB International, (ix)+ 646pp.

Sundararaj P; Mehta UK, 1993. Patterns of interspecific associations in plant parasitic nematodes of sugarcane ecosystems. Nematologia Mediterranea, 21(2):275-277; 12 ref.

Zoological Survey of India, 1983. Annual report for the year 1980-1981. Annual report for the year 1980-1981., ii + 116pp.; [Parasitology pp.1-4, 26, 35, 36, 38, 42, 46].

Distribution References

Afshar F J, Pourjam E, Kheiri A, 2006. Tylenchs associated with Jiroft orchards and a description of four newly found species for the nematode fauna of Iran. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 37 (3), Pe529-Pe543, en18.

Anju Kamra, Pankaj, Sharma H K, Mishra S D, 2001. Community analysis of plant-parasitic nematodes in Yamuna Khadar region of Delhi. Indian Journal of Nematology. 31 (1), 72-74.

Arun A, Shanthi A, Poornima K, Arumugam T, 2019. Occurrence and distribution of plant parasitic nematodes in cabbage growing regions of Tamil Nadu. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 27 (2), 289-294. DOI:10.5958/0974-0163.2019.00060.0

BANERJI S N, BANERJI D K, 1966. Occurrence of the nematode Hoplolaimus indicus in W. Bengal. Current Science, 35 (23), 597-598.

Bappaditya Chandra, Khan M R, 2011. Dynamics of soil nematodes in vegetable based crop sequences in West Bengal, India. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 51 (1), 7-13. DOI:10.2478/v10045-011-0002-3

Baqri Q H, 1991. Contribution to the fauna of Sikkim. Nematodes associated with citrus from Sikkim, India. In: Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, India: Zoological Survey of India. 103 pp.

Bhattacharya C, Dasgupta M K, Mukherjee B, 2012. Biodiversity of plant parasitic nematodes of cashew plantations in Tripura, India. Nematologia Mediterranea. 40 (2), 163-168. http://www.edizioniets.com

Bhosle B B, Mukesh Sehgal, Puri S N, Suvasish Das, 2004. Prevalence of phytophagous nematodes in rhizosphere of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) in Parbhani District, Maharashtra, India. Indian Journal of Nematology. 34 (1), 56-59.

BIRAT R S S, 1965. New records of parasitic nematodes on rice (Oryza sativus L.) in Bihar. Sdi. Cult. 31 (9), 494.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chang S S, 1993. The occurrence of nematodes on citrus in Fujian. Fujian Fruit Tree. 55-57.

Chaubey A K, Charul Sharma, 2005. Estimates of amino acids in phytonematodes of various altitudes. Journal of Applied Bioscience. 31 (1), 25-29.

Darekar K S, Shelke S S, Mhase N L, 1992. Plant nematodes associated with cotton in Maharashtra State, India. Current Nematology. 3 (1), 97-98.

Das SN, Sahu H, Ramana KV, 1970. Indian Phytopathology Society Bulletin., 6 43-51.

Deori B B, Debanand Das, 2013. Association of plant parasitic nematodes with medicinal and aromatic plants. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 21 (1), 220-221. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Doullah M A U, Meah M B, Hossain M D, 1998. Influence of soil pH and nematode population on guava wilting and their adjustment through soil amendments. Thai Journal of Agricultural Science. 31 (4), 458-466.

Dwivedi B K, Ruchi Logani, Mishra P K, 2009. Population dynamics study of plant parasitic nematodes of guava in and around Allahabad. Current Nematology. 20 (1/2), 15-19.

Edongali E A, El-Majberi S H, 1988. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with citrus plantations in Libya. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 6 (1), 23-24.

Gaur H S, Singh J, Sharma S N, Chandel S T, 1996. Distribution and community analysis of plant parasitic nematodes in rice growing areas of Haryana, India. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 4 (2), 115-121.

Gill J S, Krishnananda N, 1977. Plant nematodes and potato cultivation. In: Nagaich, B.B. (Editor) Recent technology in potato improvement and production. (Lectures delivered during the Summer Institute, held at the Central Potato Research Institute, Simla from June 21 to July 20, 1976.). Simla, India: Central Potato Research Institute. 277-289.

Gill Z, Firoza K, 2014. Nematodes associated with datepalm orchards of Kairpur district Sindh, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 32 (1), 113-119.

Gupta NK, Gupta JC, 1967. On a nematode species of the genus Hoplolaimus Daday, 1905, from a citrus plant in the Punjab. In: Res. Bull. Panjab Univ. Sci. Year 1966, 17 215-217.

Haidar M G, Kumkum Dutta, 2004. Integrated management of nematodes and their effects on the yield and juice quality of sugarcane. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 12 (1), 143-146.

Harish Siag, Jaspreet Singh, Kaur D J, 2015. Distribution of important plant parasitic nematodes associated with wheat in Punjab. Plant Disease Research. 30 (2), 169-176. http://insopp.org.in/

Hasan A, Rashid A, Khan A M, 1976. An abnormal male of Hoplolaimus indicus Sher, 1963. Indian Journal of Nematology. 6 (2), 167-169.

Hazarika B P, 1994. Effect of nematode and fungus inoculation on germination of rice seeds var. I.R. 8. Orissa Journal of Agricultural Research. 7 (1/2), 38-40.

Kesava K H, Khan R M, 2015. Community analysis of plant parasitic nematodes associated with mango orchards in four districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. Indian Journal of Nematology. 45 (1), 43-47. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijn&volume=45&issue=1&article=007

Keshari A K, Ranjana Gupta, 2016. Five species of plant parasitic nematodes (Order: Tylenchidae) affecting vegetable crops of Nepal. International Journal of Life Sciences. 10 (1), 10-16. DOI:10.3126/ijls.v10i1.14515

Khan A, Shaukat S S, Siddiqui I A, 2005. A survey of nematodes of pomegranate orchards in Balochistan Province, Pakistan. Nematologia Mediterranea. 33 (1), 25-28.

Khan E, Chawla M L, 1975. Hoplolaimus indicus. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 5 (No. 66), 4 pp.

Khan G A, Mian I H, Ahmed M, Kawser-e-Jahan, 2006. Parasitic nematodes associated with root-zone soils of tea gardens. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Pathology. 22 (1/2), 41-44.

Khan M R, Hassan A, Ghosh B, Das B, Ghosh S, Ray S K, 2007. Diversity and community analyses of soil nematodes associated with guava from West Bengal, India. Acta Horticulturae. 483-487. http://www.actahort.org

Krishna Kant, Balraj Singh, Sharma Y K, Meena S R, Solanki R K, Mishra B K, Meena N K, Siddiqui A U, 2017. Diversity of nematodes population in cumin (Cuminum cyminum) crop in semi arid regions of Rajasthan, India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 87 (12), 1664-1667. http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/IJAgS/article/view/76500/31942

Krishnappa K, Prasad K S K, Reddy B M R, 1980. A preliminary note on the plant parasitic nematodes associated with ornamental plants at Hebbal Campus of University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore. Current Research, 9 (6), 101-103.

Laha S K, Srivastava R K, Singh R K, Tewari A K, 2009. Incidence of nematodes in mesta (Hibiscus cannabinus). Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 17 (2), 524. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Lizanne A C M, Pai I K, 2014. A preliminary survey on soil and plant parasitic nematodes of southern Goa, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 6 (1), 5400-5412. DOI:10.11609/JoTT.o3568.5400-12

Luqman Khan M, Makhnotra A K, 1998. Occurrence and distribution of plant nematodes in ginger in Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Nematology. 28 (1), 87-89.

Maafi Z T, Kheiri A, 1993. Plant parasitic nematodes on banana from Hormozgan Province. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 29 (1/2), 21-23.

Mahalik J K, Sahoo N K, 2017. Occurrence, distribution and community analysis of plant parasitic nematodes associated with Okra in Odisha, India. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 25 (1), 210-214. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Mansourabad M A, Ghaderi R, Kashi L, Karegar A, 2016. Observations on Hoplolaimus indicus Sher, 1963 and Hoplolaimus seinhorsti Luc, 1958 (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) from southern Iran. Journal of Crop Protection. 5 (2), 189-201. http://jcp.modares.ac.ir/article_14047.html

Mehta U K, Raj D M, Devi S R R, 1994. Interaction among Pratylenchus zeae Graham, 1951 and Hoplolaimus indicus Sher, 1963 and wilt fungi on sugarcane. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 2 (2), 33-36.

Mian I H, Tsuno K, 1988. Nematode parasites of sugarcane cultivated for production of molasses in Bangladesh. Bulletin of the Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kyushu University. 1-13.

Mohammad Munib, Wani A R, Khan S H, Arshad Abass, 2016. Pest complex of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with special reference to management of white grub in northern districts of Kashmir Valley. Journal of Agricultural Science (Toronto). 8 (3), 151-161. DOI:10.5539/jas.v8n3p151

Nath R C, Mukherjee B, Dasgupta M K, 1995. Distribution and importance of major plant parasitic nematodes affecting vegetable crops in Tripura. Current Nematology. 6 (2), 117-127.

Nath R C, Sinha B C, Mukherjee B, Dasgupta M K, 2008. Occurrence, distribution and importance of plant parasitic nematodes associated with litchi plantations in North Tripura district. Indian Journal of Nematology. 38 (1), 75-80.

Neelam Thakur, Harpreet Kaur, Khan M L, 2014. Morphometric variations in Hoplolaimus indicus Sher, 1963 in relation to different host plants and different localities in Malwa region of Punjab. Trends in Biosciences. 7 (2), 143-147. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:tbs&volume=7&issue=2&article=020

Nimisha A M, Nisha M S, 2019. Community analysis of nematodes associated with different varieties of banana in Kerala, India. Indian Journal of Nematology. 49 (2), 165-172. https://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijn&volume=49&issue=2&article=008

Osei K, Osei M K, Mochiah M B, Lamptey J N L, Bolfrey-Arku G, Berchie J N, 2012. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with tomato in Ghana. Nematologia Mediterranea. 40 (1), 33-37. http://www.edizioniets.com

Phukan P N, Saikia D K, 1983. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with citrus in Assam. Journal of Research, Assam Agricultural University. 4 (2), 173-175.

Phukan P N, Sanwal K C, 1980. Survey of plant parasitic and soil inhabiting nematodes of Assam. Journal of Research, Assam Agricultural University. 1 (1), 68-71.

Prasad D, Rangappa T, 1994. Distribution and estimation of avoidable loss due to nematodes associated with Kalahasti malady of groundnut, Arachis hypogaea. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 2 (2), 37-42.

Qaiser Shakeel, Anwar S A, Nazir Javed, Shahid M, 2009. Incidence of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica infecting sugarcane, Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology. 21 (1), 66-70.

RAMANA K V, DAS S N, 1969. Pathogenicity of Hoplolaimus indiens Sher, 1963 on ragi (Eleusine coracana Gaertn). In: All India Nematology Symposium, New Delhi, August 21-22 1969. [All India Nematology Symposium, New Delhi, August 21-22 1969.], 1-2 pp.

Rashid Pervez, Eapen S J, 2015. Distribution of plant parasitic nematodes associated with black pepper in Idukki district, India. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 23 (1), 192-194. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Rathour K S, Jola Dubey, Sudershan Ganguly, 2010. Documentation of plant parasitic and beneficial soil nematodes and their communities in Madhya Pradesh, India. Indian Journal of Nematology. 40 (1), 66-73.

Ravichandra N G, Krishnappa K, 2004. Prevalence and distribution of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with major vegetables crops in Mandya District, Karnataka. Indian Journal of Nematology. 34 (1), 113-116.

Ravichandra N G, Krishnappa K, Reddy B M R, 2003. Occurrence and distribution of phytoparasitic nematodes associated with rice in Mandya District, Karnataka. Indian Journal of Nematology. 33 (2), 178.

Roy K, Roy S, Sarkar S, Rathod A, Pramanik A, 2014. Diversity of migratory nematode endoparasites of banana. Journal of Crop and Weed. 10 (2), 375-391. http://cwssbckv.org/Journal/default.aspx

Satyandra Singh, Sellaperumal C, Singh A P, Pankaj, 2018. Incidence and population density of plant parasitic nematodes infecting vegetable crops and associated yield losses in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Indian Journal of Nematology. 48 (2), 198-202. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:ijn&volume=48&issue=2&article=010

Seenivasan N, 2010. Association of phytonematodes and their pathogenicity on jasmine. Journal of Ornamental Horticulture. 13 (3), 212-215.

Sharma G C, Shalini Sen, 2015. Status of plant parasitic nematodes in apple orchards of Himachal Pradesh. International Journal of Farm Sciences. 5 (3), 171-178. http://www.sadhnahp.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=13&Itemid=21

Sharma S B, Ali S S, Patel D J, Patel H V, Patel B A, Patel S K, 1993. Distribution and importance of plant parasitic nematodes associated with pigeonpea in Gujarat State, India. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology. 3 (1), 55-59.

Sharma S B, Pande S, Saha M, Kaushal K K, Lal M, Singh M, Khajan Singh, Pokharel R, Upreti R P, 2001. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with rice and wheat based cropping systems in Nepal. International Journal of Nematology. 11 (1), 35-38.

SHER S A, 1963. Revision of the Hoplolaiminae (Nematoda). II. Hoplolaimes Daday, 1905 and Aorolaimus n.gen. Nematologica. 9 (2), 267-295.

Singh S S, Haidar M G, Khan A R, Sikka A K, Prasad L K, Gaunt J L, Singh J P, 2005. Biodiversity and management of nematodes associated with rice in Eastern India. International Journal of Nematology. 15 (2), 141-144.

Sundararaj P, Mehta U K, 1993. Patterns of interspecific associations in plant parasitic nematodes of sugarcane ecosystems. Nematologia Mediterranea. 21 (2), 275-277.

Swain R, Nayak D K, 2018. Effects of soil factors and cultivars on population dynamics of major plant parasitic nematodes in banana. Journal of Plant Protection and Environment. 15 (2), 69-74.

Tamoghna Saha, Khan M R, 2016. Plant and soil nematodes associated with tuberose in West Bengal, India. Bangladesh Journal of Botany. 45 (5), 1015-1025. http://www.bdbotsociety.org/journal/journal_issue/2016%20December/08.pdf

Taya A S, Dabur K R, 2004. Nematode scenario in rice-wheat cropping system of North-East Haryana. Indian Journal of Nematology. 34 (2), 233-234.

Tiwari S P, Vadhera I, Dave G S, 2000. Burrowing nematode Radopholus similis associated with banana crop in Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Nematology. 30 (1), 38-41.

USDANC, 1989. Specimen record from the collection in the USDA Nematode Database., USDA. https://nt.ars-grin.gov/nematodes/

Vijayalakshmi Mojumder, Mishra S D, 2000. Management of plant parasitic nematodes infesting cowpea through seed coating with neem products. Current Nematology. 11 (1/2), 1-3.

Vyas N, Kadela P, Nama P, Deepika Y, 2008. Community analysis of plant-parasitic nematodes in and around IGNP region of Jaisalmer, Rajasthan. Journal of Experimental Zoology, India. 11 (2), 415-417.

Waliullah M I S, 2005. Nematodes associated with kiwi (Actinidia deliceous Chev.) in Kashmir Valley, India. Indian Journal of Nematology. 35 (2), 227.

Yadav S M, Sehgal M, 2010. Management of plant-parasitic nematodes through chickpea-groundnut cropping system. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 28 (2), 361-362.

Zoological Survey of India, 1983. Annual report for the year 1980-1981. Calcutta, India: ii + 116pp.

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