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Halyomorpha halys
(brown marmorated stink bug)

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Datasheet

Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Halyomorpha halys
  • Preferred Common Name
  • brown marmorated stink bug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Following the accidental introduction and initial discovery of H. halys in Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA, this species has been detected in 41 states and the District of Columbia in the USA. Isolated populations also exist in Switzerland...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); adult feeding on a cherry.
TitleAdult
CaptionHalyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); adult feeding on a cherry.
Copyright©CABI Switzerland - 2012
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); adult feeding on a cherry.
AdultHalyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); adult feeding on a cherry.©CABI Switzerland - 2012
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); adult feeding on cherries.
TitleAdults
CaptionHalyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); adult feeding on cherries.
Copyright©CABI Switzerland - 2012
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); adult feeding on cherries.
AdultsHalyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); adult feeding on cherries.©CABI Switzerland - 2012
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); egg mass.
TitleEgg mass
CaptionHalyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); egg mass.
Copyright©CABI Switzerland - 2012
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); egg mass.
Egg massHalyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); egg mass.©CABI Switzerland - 2012
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); newly emerged nymphs around egg mass.
TitleNymphs
CaptionHalyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); newly emerged nymphs around egg mass.
Copyright©CABI Switzerland - 2012
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); newly emerged nymphs around egg mass.
NymphsHalyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); newly emerged nymphs around egg mass.©CABI Switzerland - 2012
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); various nymphal instars.
TitleNymphs
CaptionHalyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); various nymphal instars.
Copyright©CABI Switzerland - 2012
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); various nymphal instars.
NymphsHalyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); various nymphal instars.©CABI Switzerland - 2012
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); natural enemy - parasitoid wasps (Trissolcus japonicus) parasitizing eggs of the brown marmorated stink bug.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionHalyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); natural enemy - parasitoid wasps (Trissolcus japonicus) parasitizing eggs of the brown marmorated stink bug.
Copyright©CABI Switzerland - 2012
Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); natural enemy - parasitoid wasps (Trissolcus japonicus) parasitizing eggs of the brown marmorated stink bug.
Natural enemyHalyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); natural enemy - parasitoid wasps (Trissolcus japonicus) parasitizing eggs of the brown marmorated stink bug.©CABI Switzerland - 2012

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Halyomorpha halys (Stål)

Preferred Common Name

  • brown marmorated stink bug

Other Scientific Names

  • Halyomorpha brevis
  • Halyomorpha mista
  • Halyomorpha remota
  • Pentatoma halys Stål

International Common Names

  • English: yellow-brown marmorated stink bug; yellow-brown stink bug
  • French: punaise diabolique

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Marmorierte Baumwanze

English acronym

  • BMSB

EPPO code

  • HALYHA (Halyomorpha halys)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Following the accidental introduction and initial discovery of H. halys in Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA, this species has been detected in 41 states and the District of Columbia in the USA. Isolated populations also exist in Switzerland, France, Italy and Canada. Recent detections also have been reported in Germany and Liechtenstein. BMSB has become a major nuisance pest in the mid-Atlantic region and Pacific Northwest, USA, due to its overwintering behaviour of entering human-made structures in large numbers. BMSB also feeds on numerous tree fruits, vegetables, field crops, ornamental plants, and native vegetation in its native and invaded ranges. In the mid-Atlantic region, serious crop losses have been reported for apples, peaches, sweetcorn, peppers, tomatoes and row crops such as field maize and soyabeans since 2010. Crop damage has also been detected in other states recently including Oregon, Ohio, New York, North Carolina and Tennessee.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Heteroptera
  •                             Family: Pentatomidae
  •                                 Genus: Halyomorpha
  •                                     Species: Halyomorpha halys

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Considerable confusion regarding the systematics of Halyomorpha halys has existed since its original description as Pentatoma halys by Stål in 1855 (Rider, 2005). Distant (1880, 1893, 1899) considered H. halys as a junior synonym of H. picus (Fabricius). Since then H. halys was determined to be distinct from H. picus and has been referred to as H. mista, H. brevis, and H. remota (Rider et al., 2002; Rider, 2005). Josifov and Kerzhner (1978) determined that only one species of Halyomorpha, H. halys, is present in eastern China, Japan and Korea and all references to Halyomorpha spp. from these locations are considered synonymous with H. halys (Rider et al., 2002). Common names in Asia include the yellow-brown stink bug and the brown marmorated stink bug, but the latter is the recognized common name in the USA or abbreviated as BMSB.

Description

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Although somewhat variable in size and coloration, adult specimens of H. halys range from 12 to 17 mm in length, and in humeral width of 7 to 10 mm. The common name brown marmorated stink bug is a reference to its generally brownish and marbled or mottled dorsal coloration, with dense punctation. Detailed redescriptions and diagnoses of adults are provided by Hoebeke and Carter (2003) and Wyniger and Kment (2010). Eggs are smooth and pale in colour, approximately 1.3 mm in diameter by 1.6 mm in length, and are laid in clusters of 20-30. The brightly coloured, black and reddish-orange first instars remain clustered about the egg mass after hatching and move away once moulting to second instars has occurred. There are five nymphal instars, which are described in Hoebeke and Carter (2003) with a key and illustrated with colour photos.

Distribution

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The brown marmorated stink bug, H. halys, is native to China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan (Hoebeke and Carter 2003; Lee et al., 2013a). The first USA populations were discovered in the mid-1990s in or near Allentown, Pennsylvania. In 2001, Karen Bernhardt with Penn State Cooperative Extension recognized that the insect invading homes was probably not native and sent a specimen to Richard Hoebeke at Cornell University who identified it as H. halys (Hoebeke and Carter, 2003). As of 2013, H. halys has been detected in 41 states and the District of Columbia in the USA though Colorado is still considered an unofficial find. In Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia, H. halys has become a severe agricultural and nuisance pest, is considered an agricultural/nuisance pest in New York, North Carolina, Ohio and Tennessee, and a nuisance only pest in 10 additional states (Leskey and Hamilton, 2012).

Detections also have been reported in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (Fogain and Graff, 2011), Switzerland (Wermelinger et al., 2008), Liechtenstein (Arnold, 2009), Germany (Heckmann, 2012), Italy (Pansa et al., 2013), France (Callot and Brua, 2013) and Hungary (Vétek et al., 2014).

Ecological niche modelling indicates that the area of invasion suitable for H. halys is quite extensive worldwide. H. halys could become established in northern Europe, north-eastern North America, portions of southern Australia and much of New Zealand, areas of South America (Uruguay, southern Brazil and northern Argentina) and parts of Africa (northern Angola and adjacent areas of Congo and Zambia) (Zhu et al., 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 26 Nov 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ChinaPresent, WidespreadNative
-AnhuiPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-TibetPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent, Few occurrences
IndiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
JapanPresentNative
-HonshuPresent
KazakhstanPresent
North KoreaPresent
South KoreaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
TurkeyPresent, Few occurrences

Europe

AlbaniaPresent, Few occurrences
AustriaPresent, Localized
BelgiumPresent, Few occurrences
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent, Few occurrences
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent, Few occurrences
CzechiaPresent, Localized
FrancePresent, LocalizedIntroduced
GermanyPresent, LocalizedSingle specimen found.
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent, Localized
IcelandAbsent, Intercepted only
ItalyPresent, WidespreadIntroducedEmilia-Romagna, Lombardy, Piedmont
-SardiniaPresent, Localized
-SicilyPresent
LiechtensteinPresent, Few occurrences
MaltaPresent, Localized
NorwayAbsent, Intercepted only
PolandPresent, Few occurrences
RomaniaPresent, Localized
RussiaPresent, Localized
-Southern RussiaPresent, Localized
SerbiaPresent, Localized
SlovakiaPresent, Few occurrences
SloveniaPresent, Few occurrences
SpainPresent, Localized
SwedenAbsent, Intercepted only
SwitzerlandPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
UkrainePresent, Few occurrences
United KingdomAbsent, Intercepted only

North America

CanadaPresent, Localized
-AlbertaAbsent, Intercepted only
-British ColumbiaPresent, Localized
-ManitobaPresent, Few occurrences
-OntarioPresent, Few occurrences
-QuebecAbsent, Intercepted only
United StatesPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
-AlabamaPresent, Few occurrences
-ArizonaPresent, Few occurrences
-ArkansasPresent, Few occurrences
-CaliforniaPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-DelawarePresentIntroducedInvasive
-District of ColumbiaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent, Few occurrences
-HawaiiPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-MainePresent
-MarylandPresentIntroducedInvasive
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent, Few occurrences
-NevadaPresent
-New HampshirePresent
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedInvasive
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OregonPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedInvasive
-PennsylvaniaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedFirst reported: mid 1990s
-Rhode IslandPresent
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-South DakotaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent
-VermontPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

GuamPresent, Few occurrences
New ZealandAbsent, Intercepted only

South America

ChilePresent, Few occurrences

History of Introduction and Spread

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H. halys is native to China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan (Hoebeke and Carter 2003; Lee et al., 2013a). The first USA populations were discovered in the mid-1990s in or near Allentown, Pennsylvania. In 2001, Karen Bernhard with Penn State Cooperative Extension recognized that the insect invading homes was probably not native and sent a specimen to Richard Hoebeke at Cornell University who identified it as H. halys (Hoebeke and Carter, 2003). As of 2013, H. halys has been detected in 41 states and the District of Columbia in the USA, though Colorado is still considered an unofficial find. H. halys has become a severe agricultural and nuisance pest in Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia, is considered an agricultural/nuisance pest in New York, North Carolina, Ohio and Tennessee, and a nuisance only pest in 10 additional states (Leskey and Hamilton 2012). Genetic studies of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CO) subunit II gene, COI and 12S ribosomal RNA gene have revealed that H. halys populations in the USA originated from a single introduction from the region of Beijing, China (Xu et al., 2013). 

In Canada, interceptions of H. halys at various ports of entry across the country began in 1993 from countries including China, Japan, Korea and the USA, with reports of homeowner finds beginning in the Province of Ontario as of 2010 (Fogain and Graff, 2011) and established breeding populations in the field confirmed as of July 2012 (Fraser and Gariepy, unpublished). On the basis of molecular data and interception records it appears likely that H. halys in Canada is derived from the movement of established US populations (Gariepy et al., 2013).

In Europe BMSB was first officially reported from the canton of Zurich in Switzerland in 2007 (Wermelinger et al., 2008). However, later investigations showed that it was already present in Zurich in 2004 (Gariepy et al., 2013). In the same year, a single individual was found near Balzers in Liechtenstein, which probably originated from nearby founder populations in Zurich (Arnold, 2009). In Switzerland three haplotypes were found, which were not identical with haploytypes found in North America. The dominant haplotype in Switzerland was consistent with Asian samples collected in the Hebei and Beijing provinces; however, it was not the dominant haplotype in these regions. The remaining two haplotypes were unique to Switzerland and their origin in Asia remains unknown (Gariepy et al., 2013). Outside Switzerland, a single individual was found near Konstanz in southern Germany (Heckmann, 2012) and most recently breeding populations established in the Alsace region of France (Callot and Brua, 2013) and northern Italy (EPPO, 2013; Pansa et al., 2013).

Ecological niche modelling indicates that the area of invasion suitable for H. halys is quite extensive worldwide. H. halys could become established in northern Europe, north-eastern North America, portions of southern Australia and much of New Zealand, areas of South America (Uruguay, southern Brazil and northern Argentina) and parts of Africa (northern Angola and adjacent areas of Congo and Zambia) (Zhu et al., 2012).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Canada North America 2010 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes No Fogain and Graff (2011); Gariepy et al. (2013) Accidental introduction.
France 2012 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes No Callot and Brua (2013) Accidental introduction.
Germany 2011 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) No No Heckmann (2012) Accidental introduction.
Italy 2012-2013 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) No No Haye and Wyniger (2013) Accidental introduction.
Liechtenstein Switzerland 2007 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) No No Arnold (2009); Gariepy et al. (2013) Accidental introduction.
Switzerland 2007 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) Yes No Gariepy et al. (2013); Wermelinger et al. (2008) Accidental introduction.
USA China  2001 Hitchhiker (pathway cause) No No Hoebeke and Carter (2003); Xu et al. (2013) Specimens collected in 1998. Accidental introduction.

Risk of Introduction

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Most interceptions of Halyomorpha halys during quarantine inspections or surveys have been adults, and the entry pathways for eggs and nymphs are considered to be much lower risk (Holtz and Kamminga, 2010; Duthie et al., 2012; Gariepy et al., 2013). This is because adults have more interaction with inanimate objects, making use of various structures and materials for their winter aggregations. Immature stages are not present in aggregations and are more closely associated with host plant material. It is possible that egg masses and nymphs could be transported on fresh fruits, vegetables and nursery stock. However, eggs are sensitive to temperature and may not survive well under the cool temperatures that would be typical in produce shipments. Moreover, eggs typically hatch within a few days, and transport could potentially disrupt first-instar nymphs from feeding on the egg mass after emergence, causing increased mortality. Risk for introduction is slightly higher for second- through to fifth-instar nymphs on fresh host material, but the likelihood of survival and establishment is low on produce destined for market. Transport of nursery stock is a potential mechanism for the introduction of nymphs, but strict regulations governing transport and treatment of nursery plants greatly reduce this possibility for trans-oceanic, inter-state or long distance introductions (Duthie et al., 2012).

Although interceptions of individual H. halys are more common, aggregations clearly represent the biggest risk for establishment with multiple insects of both sexes represented. Transported aggregations by people relocating from the eastern to the western USA have been the source of potential introductions into the states of California, Washington and Idaho. Introduction pathways involving adults are most likely to occur with non-plant material and are associated with adults exhibiting aggregation behaviour. These adults are sexually immature, so the introduction of isolated individuals may represent relatively little risk compared to aggregations. In exporting countries that can be regarded as major source populations of H. halys including China, Korea, Japan and the USA, aggregations begin forming in August and September (Hoebeke and Carter, 2003; Hamilton, 2009). Interceptions of H. halys tend to increase during these times in quarantine inspections, and may correlate with transport of goods stored outside during these periods in the source country (Duthie et al., 2012). Individuals are more likely to be incidentally transported by personal items such as luggage, and aggregations are more likely to occur in larger cargos. Large items that have been left in place for extended periods of time while winter aggregations of H. halys are forming have the highest risk for harbouring aggregations. Ocean-going cargo containers or packing crates appear to be one of the most common pathways of introduction, and may have been responsible for the initial introduction of H. halys into the USA in the mid 1990s (Hoebeke and Carter, 2003; Hamilton, 2009). However, H. halys has also been intercepted from ship decks and other cargo including transported machinery, furniture and cars (Holtz and Kamminga, 2010; Duthie et al., 2012).

The risk of introduction of adults on produce or other plant material is considered low or moderate, but may have been the mechanism of introduction of H. halys into Switzerland (Wermelinger et al., 2008). However, transport packaging for plant materials, particularly if stored outside, are always a potential source of introduction. Once established, continental spread is likely to follow paths of human activity, including highways and railways. Cars, tractor-trailers, recreational vehicles and moving trucks are all known pathways of introduction over land. Deliberate introductions are unlikely as H. halys is regarded as a pest under every circumstance and has no known unintended uses.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedBuildings Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedBuildings Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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H. halys has over 100 reported host plants. It is widely considered to be an arboreal species and can frequently be found among woodlots. Such host plants are important for development as well as supporting populations, particularly during the initial spread into a region. In Canada for example, established populations of H. halys have only been recorded in the Province of Ontario. Homeowner finds have previously been identified in the City of Hamilton (Fogain and Graff, 2011) as well as the Greater Toronto Area, the City of Windsor, Newboro and Cedar Springs (Ontario) (Fraser and Gariepy, unpublished data). However, preliminary surveys confirmed an established breeding population in Hamilton, Ontario, as of July 2012 (Fraser and Gariepy, unpublished data). At present, these populations are localized along the top of the Niagara escarpment in urban/natural habitats within Hamilton, and have not yet been recorded in agricultural crops. Reproductive hosts from which H. halys eggs, nymphs and adults have been collected on in Ontario include: ash, buckthorn, catalpa, choke cherry, crabapple, dogwood, high bush cranberry, honeysuckle, lilac, linden, Manitoba maple, mulberry, rose, tree of heaven, walnut and wild grape (Gariepy et al., unpublished data).

The list of host plants in Europe contains 51 species in 32 families, including many exotic and native plants. High densities of nymphs and adults were observed on Catalpa bignonioides, Sorbus aucuparia, Cornus sanguinea, Fraxinus excelsior and Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Haye et al., unpublished data).

Multiple host plants seem to be important for development and survival of H. halys. This species can complete its development entirely on paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima), English holly and peach. More details on host plants and host plant utilization can be found at http://www.stopbmsb.org/where-is-bmsb/host-plants/ as well as http://www.halyomorphahalys.comPanizzi (1997), Nielsen and Hamilton (2009b) and Lee et al. (2013a).

In Asia, H. halys is an occasional outbreak pest of tree fruit (Funayama, 2002). Damage to apples and pears in the USA was first detected in Allentown, Pennsylvania, and Pittstown, New Jersey (Nielsen and Hamilton, 2009a). In orchards where H. halys is established in the USA, it quickly becomes the predominant stink bug species and, unlike native stink bugs, is a season-long pest of tree fruit (Nielsen and Hamilton, 2009a; Leskey et al., 2012a). In particular, peaches, nectarines, apples and Asian pears are heavily attacked. Feeding injury causes depressed or sunken areas that may become cat-faced as fruit develops. Late season injury causes corky spots on the fruit. Feeding may also cause fruiting structures to abort prematurely. Similar damage occurs in fruiting vegetables such as tomatoes and peppers, although frequently later in the season. Feeding can cause failure of seeds to develop in crops such as maize or soyabean. There is frequently a distinct edge effect in crop plots as H. halys an aggregated dispersion and moves between crops or woodlots. In soyabeans, this can result in a 'stay green' effect where pods fail to senesce at the edges due to H. halys feeding injury.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelia grandiflora (Glossy abelia)CaprifoliaceaeOther
    Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeOther
      Acer campestre (field maple)AceraceaeOther
        Acer circinatumAceraceaeOther
          Acer japonicum (full-moon maple)AceraceaeWild host
            Acer macrophyllum (broadleaf maple)AceraceaeOther
              Acer negundo (box elder)AceraceaeOther
              Acer palmatum (Japanese maple)AceraceaeOther
                Acer pensylvanicum (striped maple)AceraceaeOther
                  Acer platanoides (Norway maple)AceraceaeOther
                    Acer rubrum (red maple)AceraceaeOther
                      Acer saccharinum (silver maple)AceraceaeOther
                        Acer saccharum (sugar maple)AceraceaeWild host
                          Acer tegmentosumAceraceaeOther
                            Actinidia chinensis (Chinese gooseberry)ActinidiaceaeUnknown
                            Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)ActinidiaceaeOther
                              Aesculus glabra (Texas buckeye)HippocastanaceaeOther
                                Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven)SimaroubaceaeOther
                                  Amaranthus caudatus (Love-lies-bleeding)AmaranthaceaeOther
                                    Amelanchier laevis (Allegheny serviceberry)RosaceaeOther
                                      Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo-bush)FabaceaeUnknown
                                      Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon)ScrophulariaceaeOther
                                        Arctium minus (common burdock)AsteraceaeOther
                                          Armoracia rusticana (horseradish)BrassicaceaeOther
                                            Asimina triloba (Pawpaw-apple)AnnonaceaeWild host
                                              Basella alba (malabar spinach)BasellaceaeOther
                                                Betula nigra (river birch)BetulaceaeOther
                                                  Betula papyrifera (paper birch)BetulaceaeOther
                                                    Betula pendula (common silver birch)BetulaceaeOther
                                                      Brassica oleracea (cabbages, cauliflowers)BrassicaceaeOther
                                                        Cannabis sativa (hemp)CannabaceaeUnknown
                                                        Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeOther
                                                          Caragana arborescens (Siberian pea-tree)FabaceaeOther
                                                          • Nielsen and Hamilton (2009)
                                                          Carpinus betulus (hornbeam)BetulaceaeOther
                                                          Carya illinoinensis (pecan)JuglandaceaeOther
                                                            Carya ovata (shagbark hickory)JuglandaceaeOther
                                                              CatalpaBignoniaceaeOther
                                                                Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)SalaciaOther
                                                                  CelosiaAmaranthaceaeOther
                                                                    Celosia argentea (celosia)AmaranthaceaeOther
                                                                      Celtis (nettle tree)UlmaceaeOther
                                                                        Celtis occidentalis (hackberry)UlmaceaeOther
                                                                          Cephalanthus occidentalis (common buttonbush)RubiaceaeOther
                                                                            Cercidiphyllum japonicum (katsura)CercidiphyllaceaeOther
                                                                              Cercis canadensis (eastern redbud)FabaceaeWild host
                                                                                Chenopodium (Goosefoot)ChenopodiaceaeWild host
                                                                                  CitrusRutaceaeOther
                                                                                    Citrus junos (yuzu)RutaceaeMain
                                                                                      Cladrastis kentukea (American yellowwood)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                        Cornus (Dogwood)CornaceaeOther
                                                                                          Cornus florida (Flowering dogwood)CornaceaeWild host
                                                                                            Cornus officinalisCornaceaeOther
                                                                                              Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)CornaceaeOther
                                                                                                Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood)CornaceaeOther
                                                                                                  CorylusBetulaceaeOther
                                                                                                    Crataegus laevigataRosaceaeOther
                                                                                                      Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn)RosaceaeWild host
                                                                                                        Crataegus viridisRosaceaeOther
                                                                                                          Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                            Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                                                                                              Diospyros (malabar ebony)EbenaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                              Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeMain
                                                                                                                Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive)ElaeagnaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                • Nielsen and Hamilton (2009)
                                                                                                                Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)ElaeagnaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                  FicusMoraceaeOther
                                                                                                                    Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeOther
                                                                                                                      Forsythia suspensaOleaceaeOther
                                                                                                                        Fraxinus americana (white ash)OleaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                        • Nielsen and Hamilton (2009)
                                                                                                                        Fraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash)OleaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                          Ginkgo biloba (kew tree)GinkgoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                            Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                              Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                              • Nielsen and Hamilton (2009)
                                                                                                                              Hamamelis virginiana (Virginian witch-hazel)HamamelidaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                Helianthus (sunflower)AsteraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                  Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                    Humulus lupulus (hop)CannabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                      Ilex aquifolium (holly)AquifoliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                        Juglans nigra (black walnut)JuglandaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                          Juniperus virginiana (eastern redcedar)CupressaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                            Koelreuteria paniculata (golden rain tree)SapindaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                              Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)LythraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                Larix kaempferi (Japanese larch)PinaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                  Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet)OleaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                    Liquidambar styraciflua (Sweet gum)HamamelidaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                      Liriodendron tulipifera (tuliptree)MagnoliaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                        Lonicera (honeysuckles)CaprifoliaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                          Lonicera tatarica (Tatarian honeysuckle)CaprifoliaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                            Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)LythraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                              Magnolia grandiflora (Southern magnolia)MagnoliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                Mahonia aquifolium (Oregongrape)BerberidaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                  Malus baccata (siberian crab apple)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                    Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                    • Nielsen and Hamilton (2009)
                                                                                                                                                                    Malus zumiRosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                      Mimosa (sensitive plants)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                        Morus (mulberrytree)MoraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                          Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                            Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                            Paulownia tomentosa (paulownia)ScrophulariaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                            • Nielsen and Hamilton (2009)
                                                                                                                                                                            PhalaenopsisOrchidaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                              Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                  Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                    Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                      Prunus avium (sweet cherry)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                        Prunus cerasifera (myrobalan plum)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                          Prunus laurocerasus (cherry laurel)Other
                                                                                                                                                                                            Prunus mume (Japanese apricot tree)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                              Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                                                                                                                Prunus serotina (black cherry)RosaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Prunus serrulata (Japanese flowering cherry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Prunus subhirtella (weeping Japanese cherry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pyracantha (Firethorn)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pyrus (pears)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pyrus calleryana (bradford pear)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pyrus pyrifolia (Oriental pear tree)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Nielsen and Hamilton (2009)
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Quercus alba (white oak)FagaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Quercus coccinea (scarlet oak)FagaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Quercus robur (common oak)FagaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Quercus rubra (northern red oak)FagaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Rhamnus cathartica (buckthorn)RhamnaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust)FabaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Rosa canina (Dog rose)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)RosaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Nielsen and Hamilton (2009)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Rubus idaeus (raspberry)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Rubus phoenicolasiusRosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Salix (willows)SalicaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sassafras albidum (common sassafras)LauraceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sorbus americana (American mountainash)RosaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sorbus aria (whitebeam)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                SpiraeaRosaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Styrax japonicaStyracaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Syringa pekinensisOleaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Tilia americana (basswood)TiliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Tilia cordata (small-leaf lime)TiliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Tilia tomentosa (silver lime)TiliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)PinaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ulmus americana (American elm)UlmaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ulmus parvifolia (lacebark elm)UlmaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ulmus procera (english elm)UlmaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Vaccinium corymbosum (blueberry)EricaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ViburnumCaprifoliaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Viburnum prunifolium (blackhaw viburnum)CaprifoliaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nielsen and Hamilton (2009)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Viburnum trilobumCaprifoliaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Nielsen and Hamilton (2009)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Vitis riparia (riverbank grape (USA))VitaceaeWild host
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Zea mays subsp. mays (sweetcorn)PoaceaeOther
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ziziphus sativaRhamnaceaeMain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Growth Stages

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Flowering stage, Fruiting stage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Symptoms

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Adults and nymphs cause feeding damage. On tree fruits, feeding injury causes depressed or sunken areas that may become 'cat-faced' as the fruit develops. Late season injury causes corky spots on the fruit. Feeding may also cause fruiting structures to abort prematurely. Similar damage occurs in fruiting vegetables such as tomatoes and peppers, although frequently later in the season. Feeding can cause failure of seeds to develop in crops such as maize or soyabean. There is frequently a distinct edge effect in crop plots as H. halys has an aggregated dispersion and moves between crops or woodlots. In soyabeans, this can result in a 'stay green' effect where pods fail to senesce at the edges due to H. halys feeding injury.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  SignLife StagesType
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fruit / abnormal shape
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fruit / discoloration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fruit / external feeding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Leaves / external feeding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Leaves / necrotic areas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Whole plant / external feeding

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Biology and Ecology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  H. halys is a multivoltine species with up to five generations reported in southern China (Hoffman, 1931). In the mid-Atlantic region of the USA, it has one or two generations per year (Nielsen et al., 2008). In Switzerland H. halys has one generation per year (Haye et al., 2014). Non-reproductive adults overwinter and gradually emerge from overwintering sites beginning around March or April. There are few host plant resources available at this time and individuals are difficult to find in the field. Termination of diapause is probably driven by photoperiod ( > 14.75 h light per d (Yanagi and Hagihara 1980)); however, there is an interaction between photoperiod and temperature, and when the daylength threshold of H. halys has been reached, sexual development begins. This results in a delay between the initial adult dispersal from diapause and reproductive maturity, as females need an additional 148 DD prior to first oviposition (Nielsen et al., 2008). It is during this time period when the first movement to crops, specifically peaches, occurs. Hardwood trees and shrubs are also important early season hosts. Adults mate, with females being polyandrous, and eggs are oviposited in clusters on the underside of leaves in groups of 28 (Kawada and Kitamura, 1992). H. halys has five nymphal instars. Development from egg to adult takes 538 DD with a minimum temperature threshold of 14.14°C and a maximum temperature threshold of 35°C (Nielsen et al., 2008). At 30°C, this takes 32-35 days. H. halys can complete development on peaches, but more than 100 host plants including tree fruits, small fruits, vegetables, ornamentals and field crops (Leskey et al., 2012a) have been recorded.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Overwintering Ecology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  H. halys is well-known for being a nuisance problem, as massive numbers of adults often invade human-made structures to overwinter inside protected environments (Inkley, 2012). This behaviour is generally uncommon among Pentatomidae and has been estimated to give H. halys an increased overwintering survivorship relative to other species such as Nezara viridula (Yanagi and Hagihara, 1980). Similar to other pentatomid species, H. halys will also overwinter in natural landscapes, at least in the mid-Atlantic region (Lee and Leskey, unpublished data). Overwintering H. halys were recovered from dry crevices in dead, standing trees with thick bark, particularly oak (Quercus spp.) and locust (Robinia spp.). For those trees with overwintering H. halys present, ~6 adults/tree were recovered when 20% of the total above-ground tree area was sampled.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Associations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  H. halys is a vector of Paulownia witches' broom (Yuan, 1984).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Climate

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  50 30

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Air Temperature

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -17

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Natural enemies

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Anastatus Parasite Eggs not specific Hou et al., 2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Anastatus mirabilis Parasite Eggs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Anastatus pearsalli Parasite Eggs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Anastatus reduvii Parasite Eggs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Arilus cristatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Arma chinensis Predator not specific
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Astata bicolor Predator Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Astata unicolor Predator Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Astochia virgatipes Predator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bicyrtes quadrifasciatus Predator Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bogosia Parasite Adults Kawada and Kitamura, 1992
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Geocoris Predator Eggs/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Gryon japonicum Parasite Eggs not specific
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Gryon obesum Parasite
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Harmonia axyridis Predator Eggs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Isyndus obscurus Predator Kawada and Kitamura, 1992; Oda et al., 1982
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Misumenops tricuspidatus Predator not specific Qiu, 2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ooencyrtus Parasite Eggs not specific
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ophiocordyceps nutans Pathogen Sasaki et al., 2012
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Orius Predator Eggs not specific
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Telenomus podisi Parasite Eggs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Trichopoda pennipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Trissolcus brochymenae Parasite Eggs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Trissolcus edessae Parasite Eggs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Trissolcus euschisti Parasite Eggs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Trissolcus flavipes Parasite Qiu, 2007; Qiu et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 1993
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Trissolcus itoi Parasite not specific Arakawa and Namura, 2002
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Trissolcus japonicus Parasite to species Kawada and Kitamura, 1992; Li and Liu, 2004; Talamas et al., 2013; Yang et al., 2009
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Trissolcus mitsukurii Parasite not specific Arakawa and Namura, 2002
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Trissolcus thyantae Parasite Eggs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Trissolcus utahensis Parasite Eggs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Among hymenopterous natural enemies, a number of egg parasitoids have been recorded in Asia including the generalist parasitoids Anastatus spp. (Eupelmidae) (Kawada and Kitamura, 1992; Arakawa and Namura, 2002; Hou et al., 2009) and Ooencyrtus spp. (Encyrtidae) (Kawada and Kitamura, 1992; Arakawa and Namura, 2002; Qiu 2007). A pteromalid, Acroclisoides sp., has been reported (Qiu, 2007) but it is probably a hyperparasitoid, as it has been documented from other pentatomids. More common and more host-specific are telenomines (Platygastridae) in the genus Trissolcus, including T. japonicus (= T. halyomorphae) (Kawada and Kitamura, 1992; Li and Liu, 2004; Talamas et al., 2013; Yang et al., 2009), T. flavipes (Zhang et al., 1993; Qiu, 2007; Qiu et al., 2007), T. mitsukurii and T. itoi (Arakawa and Namura, 2002). The platygastrids Gryon japonicum (Noda, 1990) and G. obesum (Buffington, unpublished data) also have been recorded. A tachinid fly, Bogosia sp., is known to attack adult H. halys (Kawada and Kitamura 1992). No nymphal parasitoids are known. The highest levels of parasitism, ranging from 63 to 85%, have been attributed to Trissolcus (Zhang et al., 1993; Qiu, 2007; Yang et al., 2009) and to Anastatus (Hou et al., 2009). Predatory arthropods reported in Asia include the pentatomid Arma chinensis, the asilid Astochia virgatipes, an anthocorid, Orius sp., and the thomisid spiders Misumena tricuspidata [Misumenops tricuspidatus] (Qiu, 2007) and Isyndus obscurus (Oda et al., 1982; Kawada and Kitamura, 1992). Several other reports mention the entomopathogen Ophiocordyceps nutans (Sasaki et al., 2012) and the intestinal virus of Plautia stali (Nakashima et al., 1998). In North America, commonly found predators of eggs, nymphs and adults have also been reported in the Anthocoridae, Geocoridae, Reduviidae, Asilidae, Chrysopidae and Melyridae. In crop and ornamental plots surveyed in Maryland, Ooencyrtus sp. and Telenomus podisi were among the most commonly found species emerging from H. halys eggs in soyabean, maize and vegetable plots, while Anastatus reduvii and A. pearsalli were commonly found on ornamental plants, but were absent or rare in maize and soyabean plots (Hooks, unpublished data). In apple orchards surveyed in Pennsylvania, T. podisi was the most common species found to attack H. halys egg masses (Biddinger, unpublished data). In Delaware, successful parasitism by Trissolcus brochymenae, T. euschisti, T. edessae and Anastatus spp. of sentinel H. halys egg masses on Paulownia was typically low  < 1-3%). Parasitism of adult H. halys by tachinid flies in Pennsylvania and Delaware averaged 1-5% (but with up to 20% in some locations) and a negligible emergence rate (Biddinger, unpublished data; Hoelmer, unpublished data). In North America, commonly found predators of eggs, nymphs and adults have also been reported in the Anthocoridae, Geocoridae, Reduviidae, Asilidae, Chrysopidae and Melyridae.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The impact of natural enemies on H. halys populations in Europe is unknown, but laboratory tests with common European pentatomid egg parasitoids, e.g. Trissolcus semistriatus, Trissolcus flavipes and Telenomus chloropus suggest that H. halys is not a suitable host (Haye and Gariepy, unpublished data).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Means of Movement and Dispersal

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  H. halys has a strong capacity to disperse at landscape levels throughout most periods of its lifetime. In laboratory studies where H. halys adults were tethered to a flight mill, wild populations flew on average 2 km over a day (Wiman et al., 2013). Where free flight of H. halys was directly observed and tracked in field studies, the mean flight speed was 3 m/s along a straight line from take-off to landing (Lee et al., 2013b). Adult flight activity also occurs at night as adults seek out mates or alternate food resources. Black light traps are good monitoring tools for landscape-level movement of H. halys. Because a lot of activity occurs at night, adults that are dispersing for new resources (food or mates) may be caught in the trap. This method has demonstrated a 75% annual increase in H. halys' population size in New Jersey from 2004 to 2011. Although activity changes throughout the year, a large peak in flight activity occurs at 685 DD14.17 (Nielsen et al., 2013). Nymphs also actively disperse to host plants. For nymphs, although the first instars tend to remain aggregated around the egg mass, later instars show a strong capacity to disperse in the laboratory and field. In the laboratory, the older instars were capable of climbing 6-8 m in 15 min. In the field, the third and fifth instars walked on average 1.3 and 2.6 m over 30 minutes on a grassy surface (Lee and Leskey, unpublished data).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pathway Causes

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Crop productionDeliberate dispersal during search for host plant resources. Moves between agricultural crops throug Yes Yes Nielsen et al., 2013; Wiman et al., 2013b
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DisturbanceAssociation with distrurbed habitat and population hot spots. Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ForestryDeliberate dispersal during search for overwintering sites. Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  HitchhikerFrequently occurs due to H. halys seeking sheltered overwintering sites. Yes Yes Hoebeke and Carter, 2003
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Self-propelledDeliberate dispersal to seek host plants or overwintering sites. Yes Yes Wiman et al., 2013b

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pathway Vectors

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  AircraftAccidentally transported by aircraft. Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bulk freight or cargoFrequently can occur accidentally due to H. halys seeking sheltered overwintering sites. Yes Yes Hoebeke and Carter, 2003
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Clothing, footwear and possessionsWintering adults are often found in clothing and other possessions that may be transported. Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Containers and packaging - non-woodFrequently can occur accidentally due to H. halys seeking sheltered overwintering sites. Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Land vehiclesAdults found in vehicles, especially when seeking shelter in the autumn. Yes Yes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LuggageOverwintering adults are sometimes found in clothing or other possessions in luggage and transported Yes Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Plant Trade

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bark adults Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Leaves adults; eggs; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Fruits (inc. pods)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Growing medium accompanying plants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Roots
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  True seeds (inc. grain)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wood

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wood Packaging

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transportTimber typeUsed as packing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Solid wood packing material with bark cardboard, plywood boards Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Impact Summary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  CategoryImpact
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cultural/amenity Negative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Economic/livelihood Negative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Environment (generally) Negative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Human health Negative

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Impact

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In 2008-2009, increasing H. halys populations in the mid-Atlantic region of the USA caused late-season problems to tree fruit (Leskey and Hamilton, 2010a) though H. halys was not a widely recognized pest until late in the 2010 season. To date, H. halys has been recorded in many important USA agricultural production regions. H. halys distribution has continued to spread in the USA and has recently been recorded in orchard crop production regions in Oregon (Wiman et al., 2013) and could spread to other major production regions of similar crops throughout much of North America (Zhu et al., 2012). Susceptible crops in the USA where the bug is present are worth > $40 billion (NASS, 2013).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Nuisance impacts are especially problematic in rural areas, and have been reported in many urban and metropolitan regions. In the autumn, H. halys moves to structures, often by the thousands, generating numerous complaints (Inkley, 2012). Similar to the impacts on commercial growers, homeowners are also experiencing damage to backyard fruit and vegetable gardens.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  H. halys attacks tree fruit (Nielsen and Hamilton, 2009a; Leskey et al., 2012a), small fruit, vegetables (Kuhar et al., 2012a), tree nuts (Hedstrom et al., 2013), ornamentals (Martinson et al., 2013) and row crops (Nielsen et al., 2011; Owens et al., 2013). In tree fruit, economic damage due to H. halys has resulted in increased production inputs and secondary pest outbreaks (Leskey et al., 2012a). In some cases, up to four-fold more pesticides were applied in affected fruit orchards (Leskey et al., 2012a). An outbreak in 2010 in the mid-Atlantic region resulted in > $37 million losses to apple alone and some stone fruit growers lost 90% of their crop (Leskey and Hamilton, 2010 a, b). Even unnoticeable populations in tree fruit may cause significant crop losses of up to 25% (Nielsen and Hamilton, 2009a). Tuncer and Ecevit (1997) and Tuncer et al. (2005) found that indigenous stink bugs in Turkey cause up to 3% direct crop loss to hazelnut. Should a similar scenario unfold in nut production areas in the USA, this may result in $200 million losses to tree nuts annually. Vegetables most at risk are sweetcorn, peppers, tomato, okra, aubergine, asparagus, cucurbits, crucifers and edible beans. Damage exceeding 50% is common under heavy infestations. With the exception of early sweetcorn, which may be damaged in early July, most vegetable crops are attacked from late July to September (Kuhar et al., 2012a). Taint and contamination of harvested fruit may also be an issue, particularly for small fruit and grapes. In wine made from H. halys-contaminated grapes, trans-2-decenal was the main taint compound (Mohekar et al., 2013) associated with H. halys. In some cases taint from stink bugs is transient and does not survive the fermentation/bottling process (Fiola 2012). Nevertheless, wines containing certain levels of this compound were perceived to be inferior compared to uncontaminated wines (Tomasino et al., 2013a, b). H. halys has been successfully removed from clusters just before harvest in order to prevent 'stink bug taint' (Pfeiffer et al., 2012).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  To date only a single incidence of economic damage on pepper crops has been reported in Europe from the Canton Aargau in Switzerland (Sauer, 2012).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Social Impact

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Top of page

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Large numbers of H. halys can become a nuisance when they seek shelter in houses during autumn and winter months.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Risk and Impact Factors

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Invasiveness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Proved invasive outside its native range
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Has a broad native range
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Is a habitat generalist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Tolerant of shade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Highly mobile locally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Has high reproductive potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Gregarious
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Impact outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Host damage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Negatively impacts agriculture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Reduced amenity values
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Damages animal/plant products
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Impact mechanisms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Causes allergic responses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Competition - monopolizing resources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Pest and disease transmission
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Likelihood of entry/control
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Difficult/costly to control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Detection and Inspection

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  H. halys adults can be detected throughout the active growing season using blacklight traps and baited pheromone traps and nymphal populations can be detected with pheromone traps. However, each trap has limitations. Blacklight traps are attractive from early spring through September with reduced attractiveness as adults begin seeking overwintering sites. Baited pheromone trap effectiveness depends on the lure deployed. The use of methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate only provides late season adult attractivess, whereas the use of (3S,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol and (3R,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol alone or in combination with methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate provides season-long adult attractiveness.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In cropping systems, H. halys adults and nymphs can be detected through the use of timed visual counts, whole plant inspections, beat sheets counts and sweep netting.  Timed visual counts are effective in field maize, nursery, nut, tree fruit and vegetable crops. Whole plant inspections are possible in various vegetables, field and sweetcorn by inspecting a specified number of plants per field or through the use of counts per linear foot of row. Beat sheet counts can be employed in nursery, nut and tree fruit; however, they are discouraged in nuts and tree fruit after thinning or June drop has occurred due to the potential removal of fruit. Sweep netting can be used in soyabeans but should be confined to field borders.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  H. halys adults seek concealed, cool, tight and dry locations to overwinter. Because of this overwintering behaviour and need for specific microhabitats, many suitable sites can be generated by human-made materials and used by this insect as an overwintering sites such as inside cardboard boxes, other shipping containers and luggage, between wooden boards, within layers of folded tarps, and within machinery motors and vehicles. Thus, inspection for H. halys in shipments of goods from areas where it is present will require thorough visual inspections.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The superficial similarity in colour and overall appearance of H. halys to a number of other pentatomids requires that accurate identifications be based on sound morphological characters. This is particularly true for species that are found in the same habitats or utilize the same host plants, or which exhibit similar aggregation and overwintering behaviours. Rhaphigaster nebulosa is a prime example of a common European species often misidentified as H. halys because of its similar appearance, habitat preference and behaviour. Although adult H. halys present among invasive populations in Europe and North America are rather uniform in appearance, notable colour variations exist among different geographic populations in China (Hoelmer, unpublished observations of museum specimens). For North America, Hoebeke and Carter (2003) discuss possible confusion of adult H. halys with species of Brochymena in tribe Halyini and Euschistus, Holcostethus and Thyanta among members of tribe Pentatomini. For each genus, they give appropriate diagnostic characters distinguishing species from H. halys. Paiero et al. (2013) can also be used to distinguish H. halys from similar North American species. Wyniger and Kment (2010) provide an excellent dichotomous key, well illustrated with colour photographs, to distinguish H. halys from a number of native European pentatomids in the subfamily Asopine genera Arma, Picromerus, Pinthaeus and Troilus and the Pentatomine subfamily genera Carpocapsis, Dolycoris, Holcostethus, Peribalus, Pentatoma and Rhaphigaster, that are similar in appearance to H. halys

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Prevention and Control

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Susceptible Crops

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Soyabean. Research has revealed three H. halys characteristics that are allowing for development of better management practices in soyabean: H. halys tends to invade soyabean fields during the R4 plant growth stage (fully elongated pods) to R6 (fully developed seed) and does the most crop injury by feeding on developing seed during R5; feeding injury is similar to that caused by native stink bug species; and populations typically infest only field edges, especially those bordering maize fields, woody edges or farm structures. While still under development, tentative thresholds are 1-2 H. halys/row foot, or 5 per 15 sweep-net sweeps. Scouting field edges is recommended during R4-R6 and making field edge-only treatments if populations exceed tentative thresholds. Several insecticides provide control, and a single field edge-only treatment is effective, if applied at the right time.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Maize. H. halys populations are highest ( > 3 per ear) during ear formation, the milk (R3) and soft dough (R3-R4) stages. Populations are typically highest within 12 m of field edges and decrease significantly toward the centres of fields. The highest populations are in maize fields bordering woods, followed by alfalfa, buildings and sorghum with the fewest in fields adjacent to open areas. Economic thresholds are under development.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Vegetables. Research shows that the vegetables most at risk to H. halys damage are sweetcorn, most varieties of pepper, tomato, okra, aubergine and edible beans. Plants are typically attacked in late summer when fruiting structures are present. Several foliar-applied insecticides provide effective control including pyrethroids (i.e., bifenthrin, permethrin and fenpropathrin); neonicotinoids (dinotefuran) and acephate (on peppers) (Kuhar et al., 2012 b, c, d, e). Neonicotinoids applied as a soil drench or via drip chemigation provide control for up to 14 days after treatment in vegetables such as pepper and tomato.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tree fruit. H. halys adults can move into orchards at any time. Stone fruit, particularly peaches and nectarines are vulnerable in the early season, but the majority of fruit injury to pome fruit occurs later in the season. It takes several weeks for feeding injury on apple to appear; injury close to harvest can be expressed after harvest in cold storage. Issues with PHI (pre-harvest intervals) in mixed apple blocks severely restrict the availability of most insecticides used for control in the USA. Effective control can be achieved with applications of neonicotinoids and pyrethroids (Leskey et al., 2012b). Field and laboratory assays indicate that residual activity is limited. In general, damage in orchard crops has been mitigated by increases in insecticide applications against H. halys (Leskey et al., 2012a). This practice can disrupt IPM programmes, causing outbreaks of secondary pests such as European red mites, woolly apple aphids and San Jose scale. In general, overwintered H. halys populations are easier to kill with insecticide applications than the new generation adults present later in the season.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Biological Control

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The egg parasitoid Anastatus has been mass-reared in the laboratory for experimental field trials in China (Hou et al., 2009) but is not yet widely applied. The role of indigenous natural enemies, primarily invertebrate predators and hymenopterous parasitoids, in the control of H. halys in crops, orchards and ornamentals surveyed in North America in Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania is highly variable. In Maryland, predators contributed ~40-70% of H. halys egg mortality found in some maize and soyabean plots, respectively. In Pennsylvania orchards, an estimated 25% of H. halys egg mortality is due to predation by Coccinellidae, particularly Harmonia axyridis, and earwigs (Forficulidae). In addition, late H. halys instars comprise the majority of nest provisioning by sand wasps (Crabronidae), up to 96% of discovered nests in orchards (Biddinger, unpublished data). Thus, species composition and attack rates of H. halys egg masses by native egg parasitoids appear to be highly variable depending on the crop or ecosystem studied. On the basis of the considerably higher rates of parasitism reported for Trissolcus spp. in Asia, these species are currently being evaluated in quarantine facilities in the USA as candidate agents for possible field releases.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Monitoring and Surveillance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Black light traps have been used to track H. halys activity in Japan (e.g., Moriya et al., 1987) and New Jersey. Relative pest pressure and spread of H. halys throughout New Jersey have been successfully tracked and documented using a network of black lights (Nielsen et al., 2013). In addition, baited black pyramid traps can be used to monitor H. halys (Leskey et al., 2012a). Khrimian et al. (2008) confirmed that the aggregation pheromone of Plautia stali, methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate (Sugie et al., 1996), is cross-attractive to H. halys, as reported in Asia (Tada et al., 2001a, b). However, adults are reliably attracted only late in the season, though nymphs are attracted season-long. In addition, the aggregation pheromone has been identified for H. halys and includes (3S,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol and (3R,6S,7R,10S)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol (Zhang et al., 2013). These stimuli can be used in combination with pyramid-style traps to monitor presence, abundance and seasonal activity of H. halys.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Host use patterns and preferences and related movement of H. halys need to be elucidated during the period between dispersal from overwintering sites and invasion into cultivated crops. Some wild host plant species, particularly hardwood trees, could play a key role in supporting overwintered and new generation H. halys populations. However, little is known regarding host plant selection factors, including specific visual, olfactory and host quality cues, host plant preferences including wild and cultivated throughout the season and movement patterns at landscape levels. A greater understanding of these factors will provide many opportunities to manage H. halys as their temporal movement patterns and associated at-risk crops would be known.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The impact of abiotic conditions on population dynamics of H. halys during the active growing season and the overwintering period is poorly understood. In the USA, populations have fluctuated dramatically from year to year in areas in the mid-Atlantic with well-established populations since 2010, but key factors promoting or reducing survivorship remain unknown.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Similarly, the overall impact of native natural enemies on H. halys populations in invaded regions is also poorly understood. Although there are some climatic models predicting where H. halys can become established, more precise models could be used to better predict where H. halys poses a significant risk to agriculture. Furthermore, the taxonomy of many natural enemies, particularly Trissolcus spp., is presently in a confused state; efforts are presently underway to resolve not only East Asian species, but also provide updated identification tools for native North American species.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Dispersal capacity of adults and nymphs is not well established. The impact of factors such a mating status, age and feeding state on behaviour and dispersal are not known. How adult H. halys select overwintering sites is unknown. H. halys will overwinter in human-made structures and in dead, standing trees in forests, but how H. halys selects particular locations and why the density of adults at particular locations varies greatly is unknown.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Attractants for H. halys are available including methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate and its aggregation pheromone. However, optimal dose, distance of response at a particular concentration, physiological status of adults and nymphs that respond to olfactory stimuli are all factors that still require further study. Furthermore, why adults are responsive to methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate in the late summer while nymphs respond season-long is unknown. Similarly, the distance of response to light traps is unknown.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Management tools have been developed but revolve around the use of a select number of materials applied frequently. This level of use may not be sustainable due to outbreaks of secondary pests, impacts on natural enemies and pollinators, and the increasing potential for the development of resistance. Effective tools are also not available to organic growers. The development of economic thresholds and new classes of insecticides, resistance monitoring programs, and the use of trap, barrier and repellent crops need further investigation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  References

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Oregon Department of Agriculture, 2005. Pest Alert: Brown Marmorated Stink Bug., Oregon, USA: http://egov.oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/docs/pdf/ippm_halyomorpha.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pansa M G, Asteggiano L, Costamagna C, Vittone G, Tavella L, 2013. First discovery of Halyomorpha halys in peach orchards in Piedmont. (Primo ritrovamento di Halyomorpha halys nei pescheti piemontesi.). Informatore Agrario. 69 (37), 60-61. http://www.informatoreagrario.it

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Papp V, Redei D, Haltrich A, Vétek G, 2014. Brown marmorated stink bug [Halyomorpha halys (St?l, 1855)] (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Hungary. (Az ázsiai márványospoloska [Halyomorpha halys (Stǻl, 1855)] (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Magyarországon.). Növényvédelem. 50 (11), 489-495.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Penca C, Hodges A, 2018. First report of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) reproduction and localized establishment in Florida. Florida Entomologist. 101 (4), 708-711.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Roca-Cusachs M, Fernandez D, Colomar L A E, Goula M, 2018. New records of the invasive alien plant pest Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855) in the Iberian Peninsula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). In: Butlletí de la Institució Catalana d'Història Natural. 82 73-77. https://www.raco.cat/index.php/ButlletiICHN/article/viewFile/351590/442801

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Šapina I, Jelaska L Š, 2018. First report of invasive brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855) in Croatia. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 48 (1), 138-143. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/13652338

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Šeat J, 2015. Halyomorpha halys (St?l, 1855) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) a new invasive species in Serbia. Acta Entomologica Serbica. 20 (1), 167-171. http://aes.bio.bg.ac.rs/index.php/aes/article/view/63/pdf_23

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Song H W, Wang C M, 1993. Damage by Halyomorpha halys (Stal) and Erthesina fullo (Thunberg) to jujube trees and their control. Entomological Knowledge. 30 (4), 225-228.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tindall K V, Fothergill K, McCormack B, 2012. Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): a first Kansas record. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 85 (2), 169. http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-current-issue DOI:10.2317/JKES120129.1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Vétek G, Papp V, Haltrich A, Rédei D, 2014. First record of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), in Hungary, with description of the genitalia of both sexes. Zootaxa. 3780 (1), 194-200. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2014/f/z03780p200f.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wyniger D, Kment P, 2010. Key for the separation of Halyomorpha halys (St?l) from similar-appearing pentatomids (Insecta: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) occurring in Central Europe, with new Swiss records. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft. 83 (3/4), 261-270.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Zovko M, Ostojić I, Jurković D, Karić N, 2019. First report of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (St?l, 1855) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. (Prvi nalaz smeđe mramoraste stjenice Halyomorpha halys (Stǻl, 1855) u Bosni I Hercegovini.). Radovi Poljoprivredno Prehrambenog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu\Works of the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences University of Sarajevo. 64 (69 Part 1), 68-78.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Links to Websites

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Top of page
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  WebsiteURLComment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Die Marmorierte Baumwanze, Halyomorpha halyshttp://www.halyomorphahalys.comBiology, ecology and current distribution of brown marmorated stink bug in Europe.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Northeastern IPM Center: Brown marmorated stink bug IPM working grouphttp://www.northeastipm.org/working-groups/bmsb-working-group/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Stop BMSBwww.stopbmsb.orgBiology, ecology and management of brown marmorated stink bug in speciality crops.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Contributors

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23/08/13 Original text by:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tracey C. Leskey, USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit Research Station, 2217 Wiltshire Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  George C. Hamilton, Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, 93 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  David J. Biddinger, Department of Entomology, Penn State University, Fruit Research and Extension Center, 290 University Drive, Biglerville, PA 17307, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Matthew L. Buffington,Systematic Entomology Laboratory, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C 20013-7012, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Christine Dieckhoff, USDA-ARS, Beneficial Insects Introduction Research Unit, Newark, DE 19713-3814, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Galen P. Dively, Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, 4112 Plant Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hannah Fraser, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food and Ministry of Rural Affairs, 4890 Victoria Ave North, Vineland, Ontario, Canada L0R 2E0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Tara Gariepy, Agriculture and Agri-Foods Canada, 1391 Sandford St, London, Ontario, Canada N5V 4T3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Christopher Hedstrom, Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, 4017 Ag and Life Sciences Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331-7304, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  D. Ames Herbert, Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech, Tidewater AREC, 6321 Holland Road, Suffolk, VA 23437, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kim A. Hoelmer, USDA-ARS, European Biological Control Laboratory, CS90013 Montferrier-sur-Lez, 34988 St. Gély du Fesc CEDEX, France
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cerruti R.R. Hooks, Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, 4112 Plant Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Douglas Inkley, National Wildlife Federation, 11100 Wildlife Center Drive, Reston, VA 20190, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Greg Krawczyk, Department of Entomology, Penn State University, Fruit Research and Extension Center, 290 University Drive, Biglerville, PA 17307, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Thomas P. Kuhar, Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech, 216 Price Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Doo-Hyung Lee, USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit Research Station, 2217 Wiltshire Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 and Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, 93 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Anne L. Nielsen, Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, 93 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Douglas G. Pfeiffer, Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech, 216 Price Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, 93 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Peter W. Shearer, Mid-Columbia Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Oregon State University, 3005 Experiment Station Drive, Hood River, OR 97031-9512, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Elijah Talamas, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C 20013-7012, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Elizabeth Tomasino, Department of Food Science and Technology, Oregon State University, 100 Wiegand Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331-7304, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  John Tooker, Department of Entomology, Penn State University, 506 ASI Bldg, University Park, PA 16802, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  P. Dilip Venugopal, Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, 4112 Plant Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Joanne Whalen, Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology, University of Delaware, 250 Townsend Hall, Newark, DE 19716-2160, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Vaughn Walton, Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, 4017 Ag and Life Sciences Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331-7304, USA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Nik Wiman, Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, 4017 Ag and Life Sciences Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331-7304, USA

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