Hylurgus ligniperda (red-haired pine bark beetle)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Impact Summary
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Hylurgus ligniperda (Fabricius, 1787)
Preferred Common Name
- red-haired pine bark beetle
Other Scientific Names
- Bostrichus elongatus Herbst, 1793
- Bostrichus ligniperda Fabricius, 1787
- Hylesinus flavipes Panzer, 1795
- Hylesinus ligniperda (Fabricius, 1792)
- Hylurgus elongatus (Herbst, 1793)
- Hylurgus flavipes (Panzer, 1795)
- Hylurgus longulus Kolenati, 1846
International Common Names
- English: bark beetle, golden haired; golden haired bark beetle
- Russian: volosatyi luboed
Local Common Names
- Estonia: karusürask
- Germany: Bastkaefer, Holzzerstoerender Kiefern-; Bastkaefer, Rothaariger Kiefern-; Holzzerstörender Kiefernbastkäfer; Rothaariger Kiefernbastkäfer
- Latvia: matainais priezu luksngrauzis
- Lithuania: plaukuotasis karnagrauzis
- HYLGLI (Hylurgus ligniperda)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page H. ligniperda is an exotic, invasive species in pine forests and plantations in many regions outside Europe, including Australia, South Africa, North and South America.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Coleoptera
- Family: Scolytidae
- Genus: Hylurgus
- Species: Hylurgus ligniperda
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Fabricius described Hylurgus ligniperda in 1787 as Bostrichus ligniperda. The following synonyms were used: Hylesinus ligniperda, Bostrichus elongatus, Hylesinus flavipes, Hylurgus elongatus, Hylurgus flavipes and Hylurgus longulus (Postner, 1974; Grüne, 1979; Pfeffer, 1989, 1995).
DescriptionTop of page H. ligniperda is a small beetle about 2 mm wide by 4-6 mm long, black and covered with rather long reddish hairs. The hairs are particularly noticeable on the posterior slope of the wing covers (elytra). The distinctive, dense hairs are quite thick and they appear notched at magnifications under x80. The elytral apex is convex with a slight indentation and has no teeth or other armature (Cavey et al., 1994).
DistributionTop of page H. ligniperda is present in a wide range of climates throughout the world. It is native to central and southern Europe, Crimea (Ukraine), Caucasus, Asia Minor and Algeria (Pfeffer, 1995). It has been introduced to South Africa, Asia (Japan and Sri Lanka), Australasia, the South Pacific (Australia and New Zealand), North America (infestation in New York, USA) and South America (Brazil and Chile). It could potentially survive in all regions of the USA.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|India||Absent, intercepted only||CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Japan||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-Honshu||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Schedl, 1959; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Sri Lanka||Present||Introduced||Invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Turkey||Present||Native||Not invasive||Serez, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2010; Sarikaya and Avci, 2011|
|Morocco||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Saint Helena||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Schedl, 1959; Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|South Africa||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Tribe, 1991a; Tribe, 1991b; Tribe, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-Canary Islands||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1959; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Tunisia||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-New York||Present||Petrice et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Brazil||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Chile||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Schedl, 1959; Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Uruguay||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Austria||Present||Native||Not invasive||Eichhoff, 1881; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Belarus||Present||Native||Not invasive||Rudnev and Vasechko, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Belgium||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Czech Republic||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Czechoslovakia (former)||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Denmark||Present||Native||Not invasive||Lekander et al., 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Estonia||Present||Native||Not invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|France||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-Corsica||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-France (mainland)||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Germany||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Greece||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-Greece (mainland)||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Hungary||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Italy||Present||Native||Not invasive||Russo, 1946; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-Italy (mainland)||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Latvia||Present||Native||Not invasive||Ozols, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Lithuania||Present||Native||Not invasive||Pileckis and Monsevicius, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Moldova||Present||Native||Not invasive||Rudnev and Vasechko, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Netherlands||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Poland||Present||Native||Not invasive||Burakowski et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Portugal||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-Azores||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-Madeira||Present||Native||Not invasive||Schedl, 1959; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-Portugal (mainland)||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Russian Federation||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-Central Russia||Present||Native||Not invasive||Petrov and Nikitskii, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-Northern Russia||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-Southern Russia||Present||Native||Not invasive||Stark, 1952; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-Western Siberia||Present||Native||Not invasive||Yanovskij, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Spain||Present||Native||Not invasive||CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-Balearic Islands||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-Spain (mainland)||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Sweden||Present||Native||Not invasive||Lekander et al., 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Switzerland||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|UK||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-England and Wales||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Ukraine||Present||Native||Not invasive||Rudnev and Vasechko, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|Yugoslavia (former)||Present||Native||Not invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992|
|Australia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Wood and Bright, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|-New South Wales||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010|
|New Zealand||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Hosking, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2010|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page H. ligniperda is occasionally intercepted at USA ports in association with solid wood packing materials from Europe.
It was initially detected and intercepted in the USA at Newcomb Estate, Monroe County, and 3.5 miles from the port of Rochester, New York, on 31 May 1994. This was by a Lindgren funnel (CAPS [Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey] Pheromone Trap Survey) with alpha-pinene, located near 75 acres of conifers (Picea abies, Larix decidua, Pinus resinosa, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus strobus). It was collected by C Conrow, New York Department of Agriculture and Marketing.
An overwintering colony of adult H. ligniperda was discovered in November 2000 near Rochester, New York, USA. These European beetles were found during an evaluation of white pine root decline in a Christmas tree plantation (Hoebeke, 2001).
H. ligniperda was intercepted 217 times at ports of entry in the USA between 1985 and 2000 (Haack, 2002). Excluding these interceptions, individual beetles had only been caught in detection traps in 1994 and 1995 approximately 15 miles west of the current infestation. The positive trap catch in 1994 occurred in a pine stand damaged by a winter storm in 1991. The lag time between the first detections and the discovery of an overwintering colony may reflect how long it takes a recent introduction to reach a damage-detectable threshold. The surveys conducted in the spring and summer of 2001, detected small numbers of adult H. ligniperda at single locations in two adjacent counties (Wayne and Ontario), as well as two locations in Monroe County. Surveys in five other adjacent counties were negative.
In recent years, this European beetle has successfully established itself in South Africa (Tribe, 1991a, b), Japan, Australia (Neumann, 1987), New Zealand, Brazil, Uruguay and Chile (Ciesla, 1988). Much of this recent spread is attributed to the increased global trade in conifer logs.
In New Zealand, H. ligniperda was found for the first time near Whitford, South Auckland, in April 1974 (New Zealand Forest Service, 1974). It has since been found in plantations of pine at five other places in the Auckland district. It is suggested that it may have been introduced in sawn timber from South Australia.
Risk of IntroductionTop of page Many forest managers consider bark beetles to be the most economically important group of forest insects (Ciesla, 1993). Interceptions of H. ligniperda are common. Pine cargo crates containing strips of bark, which harbour small numbers of adults, pupae or larvae have spread the beetle to various countries of the world (Ciesla, 1988, 1993). Infested logs have also spread the beetle (Sato, 1975).
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page This beetle has been found exclusively in pines (Family Pinaceae) (Browne, 1968).
As far as we know, the beetle breeds exclusively in the bark of unhealthy Pinus, usually in the thick bark near the base of the stem or in large exposed roots (Brown and Laurie, 1968). Fresh stumps, slash and logging debris are also used for breeding.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Pinus brutia (brutian pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus canariensis (Canary pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus elliottii (slash pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus montezumae (montezuma pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus nigra (black pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus nigra var. pallasiana||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus patula (Mexican weeping pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus pinaster (maritime pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus pinea (stone pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus radiata (radiata pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine)||Pinaceae||Main|
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Roots / internal feeding|
|Stems / internal feeding|
Biology and EcologyTop of page Physiology and Phenology
The biology and ecology of H. ligniperda is briefly described by Eichhoff (1881), Stark (1952) and Postner (1974). It usually has one generation per year and up to three generations in southern Europe (Postner, 1974).
The flight time for the adults occurs from March to April in southern Europe (Grüne, 1979). Adult H. ligniperda are good fliers and can disperse over several kilometres in response to host volatiles. In south-eastern France, where two generations occur, the major activity peak is in the spring followed by a shorter peak in the autumn. The peak in the autumn coincides with the second generation and the adult beetles then enter winter hibernation.
Tribe (1991a, b) studied the phenology of Orthotomicus erosus, Hylastes angustatus and H. ligniperda colonizing Pinus radiata logs in South Africa. Weekly log trapping in 1981-1986 showed that the activity peak occurred in April and May. Although H. ligniperda was present in every month of the year, it was mainly active in the cooler months, with the fewest captured in the summer. H. ligniperda was said to be the most variable and found in every month of the year, although an autumn peak occurred in April/May. Beetle activity was lowest in mid-winter.
In 2001, H. ligniperda appeared to complete two generations in New York, USA, with the first developing from May to mid-July and the second from mid-July to September. The adult flight activity was highest from September to November, corresponding with the second generation's emergence. However, there was no similar increase in July, suggesting that the brood adults continued to breed in the same stumps in which they developed (Phytosanitary Alert System, 2002).
Fabre and Carle (1975) described the morphology, biology, life history and oviposition of H. ligniperda in south-eastern France. H. ligniperda attacks trees that are already very weak and develops in the root collar, main roots and large logs. Adult H. ligniperda are attracted to fresh stumps, slash and logging debris for breeding. In unhealthy Pinus spp., the beetle usually breeds in thick bark near the base of the stem or in large exposed roots.
H. ligniperda is monogamous. The sex ratio of H. ligniperda in Chile was analysed using baited funnel traps located at four sample points. At all localities the male: female ratio was 1:1 (Lanfranco et al., 2001).
The female beetle enters the bark and constructs a short entrance tunnel and an oblique nuptial chamber cut in the phloem. After mating in this chamber, the female constructs a single, long egg gallery. The gallery may wander and even double-back on itself, but generally follows the wood grain and may be over a metre long. The eggs are laid in individual notches along the single gallery. After laying the first batch of eggs, the female may extend the gallery for another 10 to 20 cm and lay a second batch of eggs. The larval galleries, initially at right angles to the egg gallery, soon become random and thus do not create a distinctive gallery pattern. There are four larval stages. When the larvae are fully grown, they pupate at the end of their tunnels.
A fully developed nest is comprised of a single, longitudinal or more often oblique egg gallery and long, individual larval feeding tunnels that end in pupal cells (Brown and Laurie, 1968).
Modifications in the shape of the egg galleries made by the bark beetles are determined not only by the need to facilitate the ejection of bore dust, but also by the degree of unthriftiness of the tree and by such factors as temperature, humidity and population density. Occasionally H. ligniperda has to make galleries that extend vertically downwards and clear them of debris. In such circumstances, the females may bore extra holes while members of other species may alter the pattern of the galleries. When mass-breeding occurs, the bark beetles can extend their usual range. In general, in narrow stems with thin bark, the galleries are closely associated with the sapwood and the larvae pupate in the wood. However, in thick bark the pupation takes place between the bark and the wood, or in the bark itself (Rudnev and Kozak, 1974).
The newly emerged adults may attack seedlings and stressed, pole-sized trees. Usually, the emerging adults feed on the root collars and roots of 1- to 2-year-old seedlings and can cause seedling mortality (Ciesla, 1993). The adult beetles often overwinter gregariously in tunnels in the bark of the root collars or larger roots (Brown and Laurie, 1968). For example, a piece of a white pine stump from Rochester, New York, USA, which was 7.62 cm long by 8.89 cm diameter yielded 83 overwintering adult beetles.
There has been one report of overwintering adults girdling and killing young trees in Spain and another from Chile (Anon., 2002). However, in most countries where this beetle has established itself, there has been no tree mortality attributed to it.
H. ligniperda usually has one generation per year in Europe, although up to three generations may occur in the southern regions. In the Mediterranean region of France, H. ligniperda has two generations a year; the first generation has two successive periods of oviposition and the second generation has two periods of oviposition that only occur in ideal conditions (Fabre and Carle, 1975). In New Zealand, the development from initiation of the brood galleries to the first appearance of recently moulted adults takes 10 to 11 weeks. At 25°C in southern France, the beetle requires 45 days to develop from egg to adult (Tribe, 1991a).
The adults invade freshly cut stumps, logs and slash following timber harvesting; the adults use this material for breeding sites (Ciesla, 1988, 1993). Infestations of dead, dying and fallen trees are often heavy and conspicuous (Brown and Laurie, 1968). Attacks along the root zone of residual trees occur locally, generally in trees weakened by nutrient deficiencies, mechanical injury, disease or insect attack. Of particular interest are the localized secondary attacks in the root zone of trees infected with a root pathogen, Verticicladiella sp. (Ciesla, 1988).
In South Africa, H. ligniperda is predominately a root-dwelling species that tunnels directly through the soil to its food source. The colonization sites of O. erosus, H. ligniperda and H. angustatus were determined in South Africa in 1983-1984, 1986 and 1990 using buried and partially buried Pinus radiata logs placed vertically in the soil (Tribe, 1992). Almost all (98%) O. erosus were found in the protruding part of the log, whereas 86 and 64% of H. ligniperda and H. angustatus, respectively, occurred below soil level. Both of the latter species were able to detect and colonize logs buried horizontally at depths of down to 400 mm. Where the logs are in contact with the soil, the beetles may colonize the immediate aerial parts, but only infrequently and in small numbers. The beetles were evenly distributed in all buried sections of the vertically and horizontally buried logs. Because the beetles are active throughout the year in South Africa and because they require high moisture levels, they are confined to subterranean habitats where there is adequate moisture and the environmental conditions are more stable (Tribe, 1992).
In trapping experiments in Poland, the smoke from small bonfires of thin shoots and needles was slightly attractive to Hylobius abietis and some bark beetles, including H. ligniperda, were also attracted to smoke (Dominik and Litwiniak, 1983).
The adult beetles are efficient vectors of Leptographium spp. fungi, which have been implicated in pine root decline diseases. Two species of the forest pathogen, Leptographium, have previously been associated with this bark beetle. Both Leptographium truncatum and Leptographium procerum have been isolated from New Zealand populations of H. ligniperda. L. procerum is the cause of procera root disease, found in white pines (Pinus strobus) in the eastern USA. L. truncatum has been reported from Canada and L. procerum has been implicated in white pine root decline in the USA. Inoculation studies indicate that both of these fungi are not particularly virulent pathogens. However, in combination with an attacking bark beetle, these fungi could cause significant tree decline. These fungi should be described as weak pathogens that have the potential to be destructive if linked with a suitable bark beetle attacking stressed conifers. The frequency with which Leptographium spp. have been recovered from H. ligniperda beetles would suggest that in other countries at least, such a partnership has already developed. Initial isolations from the recently discovered Hylurgus population have yielded Leptographium sp. The adults overwintering gregariously in tunnels in the bark of the root collars or larger roots could easily cross contaminate each other with fungal spores.
In a survey of fungi associated with H. ligniperda, 106 of 112 flying beetles were found to carry Leptographium [Ophiostoma] when they landed on freshly-peeled pine logs (Anon., 1994). A few beetles may transmit fungi such as Ceratocystis spp. and Leptographium spp. (Wingfield et al., 1985).
Ophiostoma wageneri is a virulent American pathogen, which causes black stain root disease, and is currently present in the western USA. There is concern that H. ligniperda could be an efficient vector of this fungus if the range of the beetle and the fungus were ever to overlap. If H. ligniperda reached the conifer forests of western North America and began to vector O. wageneri, the forest disease dynamics would shift dramatically and a bark beetle seen as a tolerable nuisance in the east, could become a serious pest in the west.
Ophiostomatoid fungi associated with H. ligniperda in pine plantations (Pinus patula and Pinus elliottii) were studied in South Africa (Zhou XuDong et al., 2001). Nine different ophiostomatoid fungi species were identified. Among these, Leptographium serpens [Ophiostoma serpens], Leptographium lundbergii and Ophiostoma ips, were most frequently encountered. Ophiostoma galeiformis [Ophiostoma galeiforme], Ophiostoma piceae and L. procerum are newly recorded from South Africa.
Pine pitch canker caused by Fusarium subglutinans f.sp. pini [Gibberella circinata] is a serious disease of many species of pine and has severely affected Pinus radiata in California, USA, since its discovery in 1986. Hylastes ater, H. ligniperda and Pineus laevis would be the most likely vectors of the disease (Dick, 1998).
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Rhizophagus bipustulatus||Predator||New Zealand||Pinus|
|Rhizophagus ferrugineus||Predator||New Zealand||Pinus|
|Rhopalicus tutele||Parasite||New Zealand||Pinus|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page H. ligniperda has natural enemies. However, the natural enemies may affect too few bark beetles to prevent loss (Tribe, 1991b). Some species of native parasitoids and predators of H. ligniperda are listed in Eichhoff (1881), Nikitski (1980) and Michalski and Mazur (1999).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page Natural Dispersal
Adult H. ligniperda are good fliers and can disperse over several kilometres.
Movement in Trade
All stages of H. ligniperda would be transported with infested timber. Much of the recent spread is attributed to the increased global trade in conifer logs.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bark||adults; eggs; larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Roots||adults; eggs; larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||adults; eggs; larvae; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Timber type||Used as packing|
|Solid wood packing material with bark||Pinus||No|
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page In Chile, there was great concern that the presence of this and other bark beetles could adversely affect the establishment of new Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) plantations. However, the levels of damage have remained low.
In Chile, H. ligniperda has been observed feeding on the root collars of 1- to 2-year-old seedlings. The damage tends to be more severe in natural regeneration, although planted trees are also damaged. Most planted trees that have been killed thus far have either malformed roots caused by poor planting or bark injury caused by other insects or small mammals (Ciesla, 1988).
H. ligniperda is a minor pest of Pinus in South Africa (Tribe, 1991a). It introduces blue stain fungi, Ceratocystis spp. to wood via its tunnels and transmits the root pathogens Leptographium spp. (Tribe, 1991a, b).
Three exotic bark beetles (Ips grandicollis, Hylastes ater and H. ligniperda) are present in the plantations of P. radiata and other exotic conifers in Australia but have not yet caused economically important damage (Neumann and Marks, 1990).
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page H. ligniperda in included as a rare species in the Red List of Swedish Species (Gärdenfors, 2000).
Detection and InspectionTop of page The placement of trap logs and survey of pine cull trees, slash piles and stumps are survey methods that may be of use. Tools should be used for prying open pine wood, branches and stumps.
A recent study by the USDA Forest Service found Lindgren funnel traps with high release alpha-pinene (625 mg/day = 5 standard lures) plus high release ethanol (1000 mg/day) to be the most effective of the trap-lure combinations tested. Intercept panel traps and Theysohn traps may be used in conjunction with high release alpha-pinene plus high release ethanol. Lindgren funnel traps should be hung from a trap rod with the top of the trap approximately 1.83 m from the ground, with the ethanol attractant hung from the top funnel down through the inside of the funnels below. The alpha-pinene should be attached below the ethanol and these attractants should not touch each other.
In Estonia, H. ligniperda was attracted to ground traps baited with turpentine and ethanol in clear-cuttings of a Pinus sylvestris forest (Voolma et al., 2001).
Traps containing 1500 mg Ipslure (a mixture of ipsdienol, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and cis-verbenol), which were used for the control of Orthotomicus erosus, a pest of Pinus brutia in the Mediterranean, Aegean and Marmara regions of Turkey, also caught H. ligniperda (Serez, 1987).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page The genus Hylurgus is most similar to Hylastes, Dendroctonus and Tomicus. H. ligniperda is superficially similar to Hylastes porculus (Cavey et al., 1994). By comparison, H. ligniperda is significantly hairier than the European pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda and lacks the teeth/spines/bumps that line the margins of the posterior abdominal concavity of Ips spp.
Prevention and ControlTop of page Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods
The removal of dead and dying hosts for certain bark beetles is a standard silvicultural practice. Silvicultural techniques, such as sanitation and slash disposal, have been recommended to reduce the number of breeding sites (Ciesla, 1993). However, even if the aerial parts of dead and dying hosts are removed, the beetle could still colonize the subterranean roots. However, the eggs, larvae and pupae of H. ligniperda have been reported in 2- to 3-year-old seedlings in Chile. Delaying the replanting of pine plantations for a year following harvest can reduce damage.
Biological control (e.g. using predatory clerid beetles) may be of some use in light infestations. Experiments to rear the imported clerid beetle, Thanasimus formicarius, were made in New Zealand (Zondag, 1979). In September 1976, 214 adults and 165 larvae of T. formicarius were received in New Zealand from Austria. A successful breeding and rearing technique was developed using Hylastes ater and H. ligniperda as prey in logs of pine (mainly Pinus nigra). By July 1977, 364 adult clerids had been reared and by June 1978 a further 1081. Liberations were made in several forests in the North Island, New Zealand for the biological control of the scolytids (Zondag, 1979).
An improved method of rearing T. formicarius for use in the control of H. ater and H. ligniperda is described by Faulds (1988) in New Zealand and involves the transfer of larvae hatched from eggs laid in vitro in glass jars by adults fed on the two prey species. The technique is particularly useful in quarantine conditions. The efficiency of rearing programmes can be improved by cool storage of T. formicarius adults. This is possible by feeding freshly emerged adults with bark beetles and keeping them individually in 50 x 25 mm glass tubes with ventilated stoppers at 4°C, and removing them every 3 months for feeding. The beetle remains were removed after feeding to prevent fungal growth. Mortality in storage from late March to early December was 4.2%, and no adverse effects on fecundity were apparent. The cold storage of breeding adults has now become routine.
Temnochila virescens [Temnoscheila virescens], a predator of the five-spined engraver beetle (Ips grandicollis) from the south-eastern USA, was imported into Australia in 1981 as part of a biological control programme for I. grandicollis on Pinus spp. In tests of prey acceptability, T. virescens accepted H. ligniperda as prey (Lawson and Morgan, 1993).
Treatment of the stems and boles of seedlings by chemicals is possible. However, this will not affect the beetles, which dig directly through the soil to the roots, although the treatment will protect the stems close to the soil surface. It is recommended that insecticide should be applied to both the stems and roots of young Pinus radiata (Tribe, 1992). Because of the expense and environmental concerns, treatment by chemicals may not be carried out in a field situation.
ReferencesTop of page
Anon., 1994. NPAG Data: Hylurgus ligniperda, red-haired bark beetle. December, 1994. USDA, USA. http://www.pestalert.org/storage/H_ligniperda_ds94.pdf.
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