Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Hylocereus undatus
(dragon fruit)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hylocereus undatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dragon fruit
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Originating in Central and northern South America, Hylocereus undatus is grown as a night-flowering ornamental plant and as a fruit crop. The fruit is highly decorative, with a bright red skin, studded with g...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); habit, in its invasive form, scrambling over a wall and into a tree canopy. Haleakala Ranch, Makawao, Hawaii. February 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); habit, in its invasive form, scrambling over a wall and into a tree canopy. Haleakala Ranch, Makawao, Hawaii. February 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); habit, in its invasive form, scrambling over a wall and into a tree canopy. Haleakala Ranch, Makawao, Hawaii. February 2012.
HabitHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); habit, in its invasive form, scrambling over a wall and into a tree canopy. Haleakala Ranch, Makawao, Hawaii. February 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); habit, in its invasive form, scrambling over a wall. Keokea, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); habit, in its invasive form, scrambling over a wall. Keokea, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); habit, in its invasive form, scrambling over a wall. Keokea, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
HabitHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); habit, in its invasive form, scrambling over a wall. Keokea, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); habit, in its invasive form, scrambling over a wall. Keokea, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); habit, in its invasive form, scrambling over a wall. Keokea, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); habit, in its invasive form, scrambling over a wall. Keokea, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.
HabitHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); habit, in its invasive form, scrambling over a wall. Keokea, Hawaii, USA. March, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); foliage. Kula Agriculture Park, Hawaii, USA. June, 2012.
TitleFoliage
CaptionHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); foliage. Kula Agriculture Park, Hawaii, USA. June, 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); foliage. Kula Agriculture Park, Hawaii, USA. June, 2012.
FoliageHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); foliage. Kula Agriculture Park, Hawaii, USA. June, 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); flower and foliage. Hawaii, USA. February, 2002.
TitleFlower
CaptionHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); flower and foliage. Hawaii, USA. February, 2002.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); flower and foliage. Hawaii, USA. February, 2002.
FlowerHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); flower and foliage. Hawaii, USA. February, 2002.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); edge of leaflet, showing groups of three, short, spines. Hawaii, USA. February, 2002.
TitleEdge of leaflet
CaptionHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); edge of leaflet, showing groups of three, short, spines. Hawaii, USA. February, 2002.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); edge of leaflet, showing groups of three, short, spines. Hawaii, USA. February, 2002.
Edge of leafletHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); edge of leaflet, showing groups of three, short, spines. Hawaii, USA. February, 2002.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); spent flower and foliage. Hawaii, USA. February, 2002.
TitleFlower
CaptionHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); spent flower and foliage. Hawaii, USA. February, 2002.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); spent flower and foliage. Hawaii, USA. February, 2002.
FlowerHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); spent flower and foliage. Hawaii, USA. February, 2002.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); remnants of flower, with developing fruit. Kula Agriculture Park, Hawaii, USA. June, 2012.
TitleDeveloping fruit
CaptionHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); remnants of flower, with developing fruit. Kula Agriculture Park, Hawaii, USA. June, 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); remnants of flower, with developing fruit. Kula Agriculture Park, Hawaii, USA. June, 2012.
Developing fruitHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); remnants of flower, with developing fruit. Kula Agriculture Park, Hawaii, USA. June, 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); fruit and leaf. Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2012.
TitleFruit
CaptionHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); fruit and leaf. Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); fruit and leaf. Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2012.
FruitHylocereus undatus (dragon fruit); fruit and leaf. Maui, Hawaii, USA. September, 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton & Rose

Preferred Common Name

  • dragon fruit

Other Scientific Names

  • Cactus triangularis aphyllus Jacquin (1763)
  • Cereus triangularis major de Candolle (1828)
  • Cereus tricostatus Gosselin (1907)
  • Cereus undatus Haworth (1830)
  • Hylocereus tricostatus Gosselin (Britton & Rose (1909)

International Common Names

  • English: belle of the night; night-blooming cereus; pitahaya; queen of the night; red pitahaya; strawberry pear
  • Spanish: pitahaya blanca; pitahaya dulce; pitahaya roja
  • French: fruit du dragon; pitahaya rouge; pitaya
  • Chinese: liang tian chi
  • Portuguese: cardo-ananaz; cato-barse

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: pitaya vermelha de polpa branca
  • Cuba: flor de cáliz; pitahaya
  • Germany: Distelbirne; Drachenfrucht; Konigin der nacht; Rotepitahaya
  • Mexico: junco tapatio; pitahaya de cardo; pitahaya orejona
  • Puerto Rico: flor de caliz; pitajava
  • Sweden: rod pitahaya; skogskaktus
  • USA/Hawaii: paninniokapunahou; papipi pua
  • Vietnam: thanh long

EPPO code

  • HCRUN (Hylocereus undatus)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Originating in Central and northern South America, Hylocereus undatus is grown as a night-flowering ornamental plant and as a fruit crop. The fruit is highly decorative, with a bright red skin, studded with green scales. The flesh is white, juicy and delicious in flavour, with tiny black seeds. Since the late twentieth century H. undatus has been widely planted on a commercial scale as a fruit crop in many tropical regions, particularly in Vietnam and other South-East Asian countries, but has escaped widely from cultivation where grown for fruit or ornamental purposes, become naturalized and in many instances has become an invasive weed, sometimes threatening native plants and habitats.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Cactaceae
  •                             Genus: Hylocereus
  •                                 Species: Hylocereus undatus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The name Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton & Rose was originally published in Britton’s Flora of Bermuda in 1918. H. undatus is a climbing vine cactus species of the family Cactaceae. It is one of 15 accepted Hylocereus species native to Central and South America. While many of these species have ornamental value for their beautiful flowers that open at night, only five are important as fruit producers. H. undatus has several common synonyms, including Cereus guatemalensis, C. tricostatus, C. trigonus var. guatemalensis, C. undatus, C. undulatus, H. guatemalensis and H. tricostatus (The Plant List, 2013).

The names of numerous genera in the Cactaceae end with the suffix ‘cereus’ as the genus Cereus was one of the first cactus genera to be described. Its name is derived from the Greek word keros or Latin cereus meaning wax taper, referring to the columnar habit of species in the genus. The name Hylocereus was subsequently given to the genus of similar cacti growing in woodlands, the prefix deriving from the Greek word hyle meaning a wood or forest. The specific epithet undatus is from the Latin for wavy, referring to the margins of the ribs of the plant’s stem (Eggli and Newton, 2004).

Common names such as dragon fruit, pitaya and pitahaya are a generic term which includes several species of columnar and climbing cacti belonging to the Cactaceae family and is often applied to species other than H. undatus, and usually refer to the fruits rather than the plant.

Description

Top of page

H. undatus is a fast growing, epiphytic or xerophytic, vine-like cactus. Stems are triangular, 3-sided, although sometimes 4- or 5-sided, green, fleshy, jointed, many branched. Each stem segment has 3 flat wavy ribs and corneous margins may be spineless or have 1-3 small spines. Stems scandent, creeping, sprawling or clambering, up to 10 m long. Aerial roots, which are able to absorb water, are produced on the underside of stems and provide anchorage for stems on vertical surfaces. Flowers are 25-30 cm long, 15-17 cm wide, nocturnal, scented and hermaphroditic; however, some cultivars are self-compatible. Flowers are typically white in colour and bell shaped, stamens and lobed stigmas are cream coloured. Fruit is a fleshy berry, oblong to ovoid, up to 6-12 cm long, 4-9 cm thick, red with large bracteoles, pulp white, edible, embedded with many small black seeds. Average fruit weight is 350-400 g, although may weigh up to 900 g (Merten, 2002). 

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Succulent
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

Top of page

H. undatus, commonly known as dragon fruit, is native to Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curacao, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela and Uruguay. Although native to the Central and South American regions, it is now commercially cultivated and widely distributed in many countries with tropical and subtropical climates, including the USA (south Florida, California and Hawaii), Australia, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia and Israel.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaLocalisedIntroduced1645Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated as an ornamental and for fruit, but has also become invasive
-FujianLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated as an ornamental and for fruit, but has also become invasive in the south
-GuangdongLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated as an ornamental and for fruit, but has also become invasive in the south
-GuangxiLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated as an ornamental and for fruit, but has also become invasive in the south-west
-HainanPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated as an ornamental and for fruit, but has also become invasive
IsraelPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Nerd et al., 2002
JapanPresent
PhilippinesPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced16th century Not invasive Nobel, 2002
South East AsiaPresent
Sri LankaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1997 Not invasive Gunasena et al., 2007Introduced as a fruit crop
TaiwanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Naturalized
VietnamPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1860 Not invasive Nobel, 2002

Africa

Cape VerdePresent
RéunionPresentIntroduced Invasive Lavergne, 2006
South AfricaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Invasive Species South Africa, 2015Category 2 invasive in KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga and Eastern Cape
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedGlobal Compendium of Weeds, 2015Naturalized

North America

MexicoPresentNative Not invasive Ortiz-Hernandez, 1999
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive
-FloridaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Tarnowski et al., 2010Listed as category II invasive in the Florida Keys
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroduced1830 Invasive Morton, 1987; Wagner et al., 1999Present as invasive on Hawaii, Kahoolawe, Kauai, Lanai, Maui, Molokai, Niihau and Oahu

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
CuraçaoPresentNative
El SalvadorPresentNative
GuatemalaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative

South America

BrazilWidespreadNative Invasive Taylor and Zappi, 2004Invades roadsides and maritime scrub as a garden escape
-AlagoasPresentNative Invasive Taylor and Zappi, 2004Grown as an ornamental but has escaped into surrounding roadsides and scrublands
-BahiaPresentNative Invasive Taylor and Zappi, 2004Grown as an ornamental but has escaped into surrounding roadsides and scrublands
-Espirito SantoPresentNative Invasive Taylor and Zappi, 2004Grown as an ornamental but has escaped into surrounding roadsides and scrublands
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeTaylor and Zappi, 2004Grown as an ornamental but has escaped into surrounding roadsides and scrublands
-PernambucoPresentNative Invasive Taylor and Zappi, 2004Grown as an ornamental but has escaped into surrounding roadsides and scrublands
ChilePresentIntroduced Invasive Invasive on Robinson Crusoe Island in the Juan Fernández Islands off the coast of Chile
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
UruguayPresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

Europe

SpainPresentIntroducedDana et al., 2005Naturalized in Andalusia

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Queensland Government, 2011Naturalized in coastal districts of northern New South Wales and regarded as an environmental weed
-QueenslandWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Queensland Government, 2011Naturalized in south-eastern and central Queensland and regarded as an environmental weed
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive MacKee, 1994Invasive on island of Île Grand Terre
NiuePresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2004

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

In pre-Columbian times, H. undatus became widespread in many tropical regions of the Americas and the Caribbean through dispersal by birds and by people propagating and cultivating the species for its edible fruits. It was introduced into the Philippines by the Spanish in the sixteenth century and into Indochina by the French in the nineteenth century (around 1860); it later became an important fruit crop throughout South-East Asia and is now cultivated widely in the tropics and subtropics (Ortiz-Hernández, 1999; Nerd et al., 2002b; Nobel, 2002). Indeed, it and related species are raised commercially for fruit in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Mexico, the USA, some Caribbean islands, Spain, Israel, Australia, New Zealand, Reunion, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, the Philippines, Japan and Taiwan. It is the second most important commercial cactus species with respect to fruit production after Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear). Annual production generally varies from 4 to 20 t fresh fruit/ha. Some 6000 ha of H. undatus are cultivated in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam and 2000 ha in Mexico, about half being in the Yucatan peninsula (Janick and Paull, 2008; Paull and Duarte, 2012).

In many situations where it has been planted it has escaped from cultivation to become a weed and in some regions an invasive.

In South Africa, particularly in mesic, low-lying areas of KwaZulu-Natal, but also Mpumalanga and the Eastern Cape, H. undatus, which was originally introduced into the country as an ornamental, has category 2 invasive status, i.e., it can be grown in gardens but only with a permit (which is granted under very few circumstances). Infestations, which tend to be limited and localized, and originate mainly from escapes from homestead gardens, impact native plant communities and the local ecology (Walters et al., 2011; Invasive Species South Africa, 2015).

In Brazil, it was introduced as a garden plant and sometimes escaped into roadside areas and maritime scrub, occurring in Pernambuco, Alagoas, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo (Taylor and Zappi, 2004).

In Hawaii, H. undatus was introduced in 1830 apparently in a shipment from Mexico of plants bound for China; most of the plants were being discarded because they were dead, but as the H. undatus plants were still alive they were planted out. These flourished and were soon commonly cultivated throughout the islands as ornamentals (Morton, 1987). Nowadays, H. undatus is regarded as invasive on the islands of Hawaii, Kahoolawe, Kauai, Lanai, Maui, Molokai, Niihau and Oahu (Wagner et al., 1999). Naturalized populations are well established in leeward areas of Oahu and Kauai (Staples and Herbst, 2005).

In Florida, USA, H. undatus has become a weed of disturbed areas in the south and centre of the state. Although the earliest specimen was vouchered in 1962, the species was probably introduced much earlier. In the Florida Keys it is classed as a category II invasive (increasing in abundance but has not yet altered plant communities by displacing native species). Manual removal is the only control method mentioned (Hadden et al., 2005).

H. undatus is becoming widely naturalized in eastern Australia where it is regarded as an environmental weed of open woodlands, dry rainforest, riparian areas and coastal vegetation in the warmer areas. It has been recorded in south-eastern and central Queensland and in the coastal districts of northern New South Wales; it appears on local weed lists in Byron Shire in northern New South Wales and Redland Shire in south-eastern Queensland. It is usually found growing on trees as a climber or epiphyte, and can even climb up into the canopy of very tall trees where it can form massive colonies; the weight of its succulent stems can eventually bring trees down (Queensland Government, 2011).

H. undatus is cited as invasive in numerous other regions throughout the world, including: Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) off the coast of Chile (Rachel Atkinson and John Sawyer, pers. observation, 2011); Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012); the island of Île Grand Terre in New Caledonia (MacKee, 1994); the island of Niue (Space et al., 2004); and Reunion in the Indian Ocean (Lavergne, 2006). It has been found naturalized on the Canary Islands (Global Compendium of Weeds, 2015), as well as in Andalusia in mainland Spain (Dana et al., 2005), and also Taiwan and China, where it was introduced in 1645; it is cultivated there as a hedge and for its fruit but has also been found invading woods, rocky areas and maritime scrub in south Fujian, south Guangdong, south-west Guangxi and Hainan (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Dragon fruit continues to be introduced as a commercial fruit crop; for example, it was only introduced to Sri Lanka in 1997 (Gunasena et al., 2007). Wherever it is grown as a fruit crop or ornamental there is the likelihood of escape from cultivation, either through seed dispersal by birds or, because of its ability to reproduce vegetatively, through distribution or disposal of plant material. On Niue, for example, H. undatus infestations were observed mainly along roadsides, apparently planted for ornamental purposes or resulting from the dumping of viable plant material (Space et al., 2004).

Habitat

Top of page

H. undatus is a lithophyte or hemi-epiphyte tolerant of shade and, due to crassulacean acid metabolism, resistant to drought (Andrade et al., 2007a). Nothing is known about its native habitat, but it is most likely to be lowland tropical deciduous forest. Naturalized populations are found in tropical deciduous forest, tropical semideciduous forest, riparian vegetation, thorn scrub and thorn forest (Arias Montes et al., 1997; Pérez-García et al., 2001). It is also found in disturbed areas, rocky areas, roadsides and maritime scrub (Taylor and Zappi, 2004; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). In Mexico it has been found in highly heterogeneous environments, ranging from 2 to 2750 m above sea level, with annual rainfall ranging from 340 to 3500 mm and annual mean temperature ranging from 13° to 29°C (Cálix de Dios, 2004). In eastern Australia it can be found invading open woodlands, dry rainforest, riparian areas and coastal vegetation in the warmer areas (Queensland Government, 2011).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Arid regions Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Natural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rocky areas / lava flows Principal habitat Natural
Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

H. undatus is one of many alien species in Florida threatening the endangered plant species Chromolaena frustrataConsolea corallicola and Harrisia aboriginum (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013).

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Dragon fruit is a fast growing, vine-like, tropical cactus grown for its fleshy, succulent fruit. Dragon fruit is frost and chilling sensitive and is largely produced in areas where temperatures do not exceed 38°C. Optimum temperatures for growth are 18-25°C, with good relative humidity levels. Growing as a climbing cactus in shaded or semi-shaded positions under large canopies, dragon fruit may be injured by extreme sunlight and can tolerate some shade; however, it is considered to be a full sunlight crop in Central and South American countries. When growing naturally, dragon fruit attaches branched stems to trees or rocks via adventitious roots. Under cultivation, the vine-like stems are supported by a post and trellis system. The plant is fairly tolerant of wind when attached to a trellis. Problems can occur with single-post trellises, where the plant forms a fairly bulky canopy, depending on the sturdiness of the trellis. They prefer loamy, sandy or stony moderately saline soils with good drainage. They do best in a loose soil, rich in organic matter, with a pH of 5.5-6.5 and not more than 50% slope. Like many cacti, dragon fruit has a low water demand, which is related to their crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) mode of photosynthesis – uptake of CO2 occurs during the night when the stomata are open, which restricts water loss via transpiration during the heat of the day.

Flowers are pollinated by bats or moths; however, hand pollination is also used with self-incompatible varieties to ensure good fruit set and fruit size. This requires considerable labour input and many new commercial operations are utilising new cultivars which are self-fertile to avoid the cost of hand pollination. Many of the varieties bred in Asia are now self-compatible and will set fruit relatively easily without requiring hand pollination. The main disadvantage with many of the self-compatible varieties of dragon fruit is that the fruit is often smaller than if the flowers were cross-pollinated with pollen from a different clone or different species (Merten, 2002). This may be due to fruit weight, which is positively correlated with the number of viable seeds and dependent on pollination.

Hand pollination is carried out by removing the anthers from one flower and brushing them against the stigma of another or by collecting the pollen and using a small brush to pollinate many flowers. Commercial growers have to determine if it is worthwhile hand pollinating flowers in order to obtain a greater fruit weight, given the cost of labour and returns received for larger fruit. Often the first wave of flowers will not set fruit in self-incompatible varieties; however, a process has been developed for long-term storage of pollen which allows hand pollination whenever it is required. Pollen collected from dragon fruit flowers can be stored after drying to a moisture content of 5-10% and stored at below freezing temperatures. Pollen can be stored in this way for 9 months and used to pollinate the first blooms of the season, resulting in an earlier and larger crop.

Commercial dragon fruit growers in Taiwan use supplemental night break lighting to increase the flowering period after the normal period of flowering has finished. Flowering is induced by breaking the dark period with lighting between 22:00 and 02:00 h, allowing off-season production from November to April. These fruits produced in the off-season often receive premium prices as they are larger and sweeter than those produced from summer crops.

Dragon fruit, while being a type of cactus, perform poorly under extremes of temperature and cannot tolerate high light and temperature. Dragon fruit plantations must be sighted in frost-free areas or incorporate some form of frost protection such as greenhouse production for cooler winter climates. Dragon fruit plants will show damage at temperatures of below 0°C and also above 40-45°C as they were originally adapted to shade canopy environments. In high radiation areas, overhead shading is often installed which also helps reduce extremely high temperatures which can limit flowering and fruit set. High radiation levels cause the plants to become bleached in appearance caused by the destruction of chlorophyll in the stems, growth will also be retarded and plants may eventually die. However, under heavy shade the plants may become etiolated with reduced flowering and production levels. Recommendations for shading are to apply the minimal amount of shade required to prevent bleaching of the stems and ensure the plants are not water stressed as this reduces the crop’s resistance to high light damage.

 

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aecidium Pathogen Leaves not specific Invasiveorg, 2015
Anastrepha Herbivore Fruits/pods not specific Invasiveorg, 2015
Bactrocera correcta Herbivore Fruits/pods not specific Lo Waddell, 2001
Bactrocera dorsalis Herbivore Fruits/pods not specific Lo Waddell, 2001
Cactus virus X Pathogen Whole plant not specific Liao et al., 2003
Ceratitis Herbivore Fruits/pods not specific Invasiveorg, 2015
Dothiorella Pathogen Fruits/pods not specific Zee et al., 2004
Fusicoccum Pathogen Stems not specific Valencia-Botin et al., 2005
Xanthomonas campestris Pathogen Stems not specific Zee et al., 2004

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

In Vietnam and many other dragon fruit cultivation regions, fruit flies are a major pest affecting fruit quality. Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) and guava fruit fly (B. correcta) are species that both lay eggs in fruits and the larvae can develop successfully even when the fruits are too green to eat (Lo and Waddell, 2001). H. undatus is also a host for Anastrepha and Ceratitis spp. fruit flies (Invasive.org, 2015). Aphids may infest flowers or fruits in some regions and young plants can be prone to slugs and snails under damp conditions. Rabbits, squirrels, possums and similar pests have been known to feed on the lower stems and mice, rats and birds will eat ripe fruits (Merten, 2002). 

Few diseases are reported on H. undatus, although stem rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris and brown spots on fruits caused by Dothiorella occur in some production areas (Zee et al., 2004). Viruses such as Cactus virus X (CVX) have been reported on dragon fruit plants, causing symptoms such as stunted, malformed and mottled growth (Fudi-Allah et al., 1983). In Taiwan, CVX is widespread in dragon fruit orchards, with infection rates of 60-90% in many regions (Liao et al., 2003). A strain of Fusicoccum has been isolated from stems (Valencia-Botin et al., 2005), and H. undatus is also a host to a quarantine-significant rust, Aecidium sp., known from Mexico (Invasive.org, 2015).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

H. undatus seed is dispersed by birds which have fed on the fruits (Invasive Species South Africa, 2015).

Accidental Introduction

As H. undatus propagates easily vegetatively, the disposal of plant material from the species can result in establishment of populations.

Intentional Introduction

The main means of introduction and dispersal is planting of H. undatus by people as a garden ornamental or for fruit production in gardens and plantations.

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
Garden waste disposal Yes
Horticulture Yes Yes
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activities Yes
Host and vector organismsSeed dispersed by frugivorous birds Yes Yes

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Impact on Habitats

In South Africa, naturalized H. undatus is believed to impact the local ecology (Invasive Species South Africa, 2015), whereas in the Florida Keys it has not altered plant communities by displacing native species, although it has the potential to do so (Hadden et al., 2005). In eastern Australia it has invaded open woodlands, dry rainforest, riparian areas and coastal vegetation in the warmer areas (Queensland Government, 2011).

Impact on Biodiversity

In parts of Florida, USA, non-native invasive plants, including H. undatus, pose a threat to native plant species, notably the endangered Chromolaena frustrata (Cape Sable thoroughwort), Consolea corallicola (Florida semaphore cactus) and Harrisia aboriginum (aboriginal prickly-apple). Invasives compete with native plants for space, light, water and nutrients, and they have caused population declines in all three species. C. frustrata and C. corallicola have been extirpated from half of the islands where they occurred in the Florida Keys, and threats of competition from non-native plants and habitat loss still exist in the remaining populations. H. aboriginum has been extirpated from the northern extent of its range in Manatee County, and threats of poaching, competition from non-native plant species and habitat loss still exist in the remaining populations. Plans are proposed to remove invasives from habitats and develop plant communities of predominately native vegetation with either no or few competitive non-native, invasive plant species (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012, 2013).

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Chromolaena frustrataUSA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesFloridaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013
Consolea corallicola (Florida semaphore cactus)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesFloridaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013
Harrisia aboriginum (Aboriginal prickly-apple)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesFloridaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

Dragon fruit has been consumed in its native countries since pre-Columbian times and is grown specifically for its fruit, the flesh of which is eaten raw and is mildly sweet and succulent; the yellow type is sweeter than the red. The fruit has a texture similar to that of the prickly pear and kiwi fruit. Chilled fruit are preferred. The flesh has high nutritional value, including high contents of vitamin C, calcium, potassium and fibre. Eating the fruits is claimed to reduce cholesterol, help the digestive system and prevent cancer (FAO, 2004). The outer skin is not eaten. The pulp, especially of the red or purple types, can be blended as a drink or used for sherbets and salads or to make syrup and can be used for making juice or wine. Frozen pulp is used to flavour ice cream, yoghurt, jelly, preserves, candy and pastries. The flowers are edible and can be eaten steamed or cooked as a vegetable or steeped as a tea. The tiny black seeds are eaten with the fruit; however, these are indigestible and have a mild laxative effect. Fruit is usually eaten chilled for improved flavour. The unopened flower buds are edible and can be cooked and eaten as a vegetable.

The peel can be used to produce betacyanin and colouring pigments, and the mucilage in the food or cosmetics industries. Dragon fruit plants are grown as ornamentals for their large, attractive flowers and as bonsai specimens. H. undatus has also been used as a rootstock for other species of ornamental cactus because of its rapid growth and tolerance to humid substrates (Wright et al., 2007). The fruit is also used as an ornament on banquet or buffet tables, either entire or in slices.

The stems and flowers of Hylocereus species have been used for medicinal purposes to treat diabetes, as a diuretic and to help wound healing. The fruit has been found to have a preventive effect on cardiovascular disease.

From an ecological point of view, the species is an important source in Mexico of nectar for bats, including the lesser long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris curasoae) and the Mexican long-tongued bat (Choeronycteris mexicana), which visit flowers during the night, and for honey bees (Apis mellifera), which visit during the day (Valiente-Banuet et al., 1996).

 

Uses List

Top of page

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Fruits
  • Vegetable

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

H. ocamponis (Salm-Dyck) Britton & Rose is a similar cactus to H. undatus and is cultivated in Guatemala, Colombia, Bolivia and Puerto Rico. It has more deeply undulate wings bordered with brown and longer spines. The fruit is wine-red outside and inside, and the flesh is sweet (Morton, 1987). Other dragon fruit-type Hylocereus species producing sweet fruits include H. costaricensis (red skin, red flesh) and H. megalanthus (yellow skin, white flesh).

Other climbing cactus species grown for the edible fruit include H. lemairei, producing fruits with red skin and red flesh dotted with edible black seeds, and Selenicereus megalanthus, the pitaya amarillo or yellow pitaya, producing fruits with yellow skin and clear to white flesh containing edible black seeds (Luders and McMahon, 2006).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Public Awareness

On Niue, where weedy H. undatus has not been easy to eliminate, particularly when plants become established in rocky areas, public education is recommended in order to prevent the dumping of garden waste which contains H. undatus plant material and to discourage further planting of the species (Space et al., 2004).

Physical/Mechanical Control

Manual removal is the only control method mentioned in the literature (Hadden et al., 2005).

References

Top of page

Andrade JL, Barrera Ede la, Reyes-Garcia C, Fernandez-Ricalde M, Vargas-Soto G, Cervera JC, 2007. Crassulacean acid metabolism: diversity, environmental physiology and productivity. (El metabolismo acido de las crasulaceas: diversidad, fisiologia ambiental y productividad.) Boletin de la Sociedad Botanica de Mexico, 81:37-50.

Andrade RA, Martins ABG, Silva MTH, 2007. Influence of the material source and the cicatrize time in vegetative propagation of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 29(1):183-186.

Arias Montes S, Gama Lopez S, Guzman Cruz LU, 1997. Flora of the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Valley. Part 14. Cactaceae A. Juss (Flora del Valle de Tehuacan-Cuicatlan. Fasciculo 14. Cactaceae A. Juss). Mexico DF, Mexico: Instituto de Biologia, UNAM, 146 pp.

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Cálix de Dios H, 2004. Geographical distribution of pitahayas (Hylocereus) in Mexico. (Distribución geográfica de las pitahayas (Hylocereus) en la República Mexicana.) Cactáceas y Suculentas Mexicanas, 49(1):4-23.

Camara MA, Vargas VL, Perez VM, Tamayo CJ, Sauri DE, Centurion YA, 2004. Alternative technologies for conservation of Hylocereus undatus. Revista Chapingo. Serie Ingenieria Agropecuaria, 7(1/2):85-88.

ChunXiang Z, GuiZhen Z, ZhaoLu H, MingZhen L, 2005. Effects of media and IBA on stem cutting rooting of Hylocereus undatus cv. Vietnam. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 18(3):370-372.

Crane JH, Balerdi CF, 2005. Pitaya growing in the Florida home landscape. University of Florida IFAS Extension document HS1068.

Dana ED, Sobrino D, Sanz M, 2005. Cuatro neofitos interesantes para la flora de Andalucia. (Cuatro neofitos interesantes para la flora de Andalucia.) Lagascalia, 25:170-175.

Eggli U, Newton LE, 2004. Etymological dictionary of succulent plant names. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.

El-Obeidy AA, 2006. Mass propagation of pitaya (Dragon fruit). Fruits (Paris), 61(5):313-319.

FAO, 2004. Fruits of Vietnam. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, 52 pp.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Fudi-Allah AESA, Weathers LG, Greer FC, 1983. Characterisation of a potyxvirus isolated from night-blooming cactus. Plant Disease, 67(4):438-440.

Global Compendium of Weeds, 2015. Hylocereus undatus (Cactaceae). http://www.hear.org/gcw/species/hylocereus_undatus/

Goldman G, Vinokur Y, Horev B, Lurie S, Rodov V, Liguori G, 2005. Fresh-cut products from cactus species. Acta Horticulturae, 682(3):1961-1966.

Gongora JM, Gonzalez NS, Perez VM, Tamayo CJ, Sauri DE, Centurion YA, 2004. Reduction of damage by cold in dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) using intermittent heating. Revista Chapingo. Serie Ingenieria Agropecuaria, 7(1/2):69-72.

Gunasena HPM, Pushpakumara DKNG, Kariyawasam M, 2007. Dragon fruit, Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton and Rose. In: Underutilized fruit trees in Sri Lanka. Volume 1: Asia [ed. by Pushpakumara, D. K. N. G. \Gunasena, H. P. M. \Singh, V. P.]. New Delhi, India: World Agroforestry Centre, 110-141.

Hadden K, Frank K, Byrd C, 2005. Identification guide for invasive exotic plants of the Florida Keys 2005-2006. Florida, USA: Florida Keys Invasive Exotics Task Force, 74 pp. http://bugwoodcloud.org/CDN/floridainvasives/workinggroups/InvasivePlants_KeysIDGuide2005.pdf

Hoa TT, Clark CJ, Waddell BC, Woolf AB, 2006. Postharvest quality of Dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) following disinfesting hot air treatments. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 41(1):62-69.

Invasive Species South Africa, 2015. Night blooming cereus. http://www.invasives.org.za/invasive-species/item/671-night-blooming-cereus-hylocereus-undatus.html

Invasiveorg, 2015. Nightblooming cactus, Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britt. & Rose. http://www.invasive.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=0019025

Jacobs D, 1999. Pitaya (Hylocereus undatus), a potential new crop for Australia. The Australian New Crops Newsletter, 29(16:3).

Janick J, Paull RE, 2008. The encyclopedia of fruit & nuts [ed. by Janick, J.\Paull, R. E.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, xviii + 954 pp.

Khaimov A, Mizrahi Y, 2006. Effects of day length, radiation, flower thinning and growth regulators on flowering of the vine cacti Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 81(3):465-470.

Lavergne C, 2006. Liste des espèces exotiques envahissantes à La Réunion (List of invasive introduced species in Réunion).

Liao JY, Chang CA, Yan CR, Chen YC, Deng TC, 2003. Detection and incidence of Cactus virus X in pitaya in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 12(4):225-234.

Lo P, Waddell B, 2001. Dragons in Viet Nam. The Orchardist – New Zealand Fruitgrowers Federation 2001.

Luders L, McMahon G, 2006. The pitaya or dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus). Agnote, D42:4 pp. http://www.nt.gov.au/d/Content/File/p/Fruit/778.pdf

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of plants introduced and cultivated in New Caledonia (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie). Paris, France: Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 164 pp.

Merten S, 2002. A review of Hylocereus production in the United States. Tropi-Cal, California, USA.

Metz C, Merd A, Mixrahi Y, 2000. Viability of pollen of two fruit crop cacti of the genus Hylocereus is affected temperature and duration of storage. HortScience, 35(2):199-201.

MingChang W, ShanChing T, ChungRuey Y, 1997. Studies on the relationship of pH and temperature for quality related enzymes in pitaya flesh. Bulletin of National Pingtung Polytechnic Institute, 6(3):207-215.

Mizrahi Y, Nerd A, 1999. Climbing and columner cacti: New arid land fruit crops. In: J. Janick (ed), Perspectives on new crops and new uses:358-366. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.

Mizrahi Y, Nerd A, Nobel PS, 1997. Cacti as crops. Horticultural Reviews, 18:291-319; [16 col. pl.]; 5 pp. of ref.

Mohamed-Yasseen Y, 2002. Micropropagation of pitaya (Hylocereus undatus Britton et Rose). In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology–Plant, 38(5):427-429.

Morton JF, 1987. Strawberry pear. In: Fruits of warm climates [ed. by Morton, J. F.]. Miami, Florida, USA: Julia F. Morton, 347-348.

Nerd A, Gutman F, Mizrahi Y, 1999. Ripening and postharvest behaviour of fruits of two Hylocereus species (Cactaceae). Postharvest Biology and Technology, 17(1):39-45.

Nerd A, Mizrahi, 1997. Reproductive biology of cactus fruit crops. Horticultural Reviews, 18:321-344.

Nerd A, Sitrit Y, Kaushik RA, Mizrahi Y, 2002. High summer temperatures inhibit flowering in vine pitaya crops (Hylocereus spp.). Scientia Horticulturae, 96(1/4):343-350.

Nerd A, Tel-Zur N, Mizraji Y, 2002. Fruits of vine and columnar cacti. In: Cacti: biology and uses [ed. by Nobel, P. S.]. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press, 185-197.

Nobel PS, 2002. Cacti: Biology and Uses. Berkeley, USA: California University Press, 280 pp.

Nobel PS, 2006. Parenchyma-chlorenchyma water movement during drought for the hemiepiphytic cactus Hylocereus undatus. Annuals of Botany, 97(3):469-474.

Ortiz-Hernandez YD, 1999. Pitahaya: a new crop for Mexico (Pitahaya: un nuevo cultivo para Mexico). Mexico DF, Mexico: Limusa - Grupo Noriega Editores, 111 pp.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Paull RE, Duarte O, 2012. Tropical fruits, 2nd edition, volume II. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 371 pp.

Pérez-García EA, Meave J, Gallardo C, 2001. Vegetation and flora of the region of Nizanda, Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. (Vegetación y flora de la región de Nizanda, Istmo de Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México.) Acta Botanica Mexicana, No.56:19-88.

Queensland Government, 2011. Night-blooming cactus, Hylocereus undatus. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/080c0106-040c-4508-8300-0b0a06060e01/media/html/Hylocereus_undatus.htm

Raveh EJ, Weiss A, Nerd A, Mizrahi Y, 1993. Pitays (genus Hylocereus): A new fruit crop for the Negev desert of Israel. In: J Janick and JE Simon (eds), New Crops: 491-495. Wiley, New York.

Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Newfield M, Bull C, 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. 80 pp. [UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity.] http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/niue_report_2004.htm

Staples GW, Herbst DR, 2005. A tropical garden flora, Plants cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and other tropical places. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press, 908 pp.

Tarnowski TLB, Palmateer AJ, Crane JH, 2010. First report of fruit rot on Hylocereus undatus caused by Bipolaris cactivora in South Florida. Plant Disease, 94(12):1506. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Taylor NP, Zappi DC, 2004. Cacti of eastern Brazil. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, 644 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; endangered species status for Cape Sable thoroughwort, Florida semaphore cactus, and aboriginal prickly-apple, and designation of critical habitat for Cape Sable thoroughwort; proposed rule. Federal Register, 77(197):61836-61894. [50 CFR Part 17, RIN 1018-AY08.] http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-10-11/pdf/2012-24466.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; determination of endangered status for Chromolaena frustrata (Cape Sable thoroughwort), Consolea corallicola (Florida semaphore cactus), and Harrisia aboriginum (aboriginal prickly-apple). Federal Register, 78(206):63796-63821. [50 CFR Part 17, [Docket No. FWS–ES–R4–2012–0076; 4500030113] RIN 1018-AY08.] http://www.fws.gov/policy/library/2013/2013-24177.pdf

Valencia-Botin AJ, Livera-Munoz M, Sandoval-Islas JS, 2005. Characterisation of a strain of Fusicoccum sp. Anamorph of Botryosphaeria dothidea Moung. Fr (Ces and De not.) from pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton and Rose). Rivista Mexicana de Fitopatologia, 23(2):157-161.

Valiente-Banuet A, Coro Arizmendi Mdel, Rojas-Martinez A, Dominguez-Canseco L, 1996. Ecological relationships between columnar cacti and nectar-feeding bats in Mexico. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 12(10):103-119.

Van To L, Ngu N, Duy Duc N, Huong HTT, 2002. Dragon fruit quality and storage life: effect of harvesting time, use of plant growth regulators and modified atmosphere packaging. Acta Horticulturae, 575(2):611-621.

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press, Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Walters M, Figueiredo E, Crouch NR, Winter PJD, Smith GF, Zimmermann HG, Mashope BK, 2011. Naturalised and invasive succulents of southern Africa. Abc Taxa, 11:359 pp.

Weiss J, Nerd A, Mizrahi Y, 1994. Flowering behavior and pollination requirements in climbing cacti with fruit crop potential. HortScience, 29(12):1487-1492; [1 pl., Bc]; 22 ref.

Wright ER, Rivera MC, Ghirlanda A, Lori GA, 2007. Basal rot of Hylocereus undatus caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Plant Disease, 91(3):323.

Wu L, Hsu H, Chen Y, Chiu C, Lin Y, Ho J, 2006. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of red pitaya. Food Chemistry, 95(2):319-327.

Zee F, Yen CR, Nishina M, 2004. Pitaya (Dragon fruit, Strawberry Pear). Fruits and Nuts, 9:1-3.

Contributors

Top of page

10/09/15 Invasive Species Compendium sections added by:

<span "="" style="outline: 0px">Andrew Praciak, CABI, UK

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map