Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton & Rose
Preferred Common Name
- dragon fruit
Other Scientific Names
- Cactus triangularis aphyllus Jacquin (1763)
- Cereus triangularis major de Candolle (1828)
- Cereus tricostatus Gosselin (1907)
- Cereus undatus Haworth (1830)
- Hylocereus tricostatus Gosselin (Britton & Rose (1909)
International Common Names
- English: belle of the night; night-blooming cereus; pitahaya; queen of the night; red pitahaya; strawberry pear
- Spanish: pitahaya blanca; pitahaya dulce; pitahaya roja
- French: fruit du dragon; pitahaya rouge; pitaya
- Chinese: liang tian chi
- Portuguese: cardo-ananaz; cato-barse
Local Common Names
- Brazil: pitaya vermelha de polpa branca
- Cuba: flor de cáliz; pitahaya
- Germany: Distelbirne; Drachenfrucht; Konigin der nacht; Rotepitahaya
- Mexico: junco tapatio; pitahaya de cardo; pitahaya orejona
- Puerto Rico: flor de caliz; pitajava
- Sweden: rod pitahaya; skogskaktus
- USA/Hawaii: paninniokapunahou; papipi pua
- Vietnam: thanh long
- HCRUN (Hylocereus undatus)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Originating in Central and northern South America, Hylocereus undatus is grown as a night-flowering ornamental plant and as a fruit crop. The fruit is highly decorative, with a bright red skin, studded with green scales. The flesh is white, juicy and delicious in flavour, with tiny black seeds. Since the late twentieth century H. undatus has been widely planted on a commercial scale as a fruit crop in many tropical regions, particularly in Vietnam and other South-East Asian countries, but has escaped widely from cultivation where grown for fruit or ornamental purposes, become naturalized and in many instances has become an invasive weed, sometimes threatening native plants and habitats. It is recorded as invasive in Kenya and as present/naturalized in Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Caryophyllales
- Family: Cactaceae
- Genus: Hylocereus
- Species: Hylocereus undatus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The name Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britton & Rose was originally published in Britton’s Flora of Bermuda in 1918. H. undatus is a climbing vine cactus species of the family Cactaceae. It is one of 15 accepted Hylocereus species native to Central and South America. While many of these species have ornamental value for their beautiful flowers that open at night, only five are important as fruit producers. H. undatus has several common synonyms, including Cereus guatemalensis, C. tricostatus, C. trigonus var. guatemalensis, C. undatus, C. undulatus, H. guatemalensis and H. tricostatus (The Plant List, 2013).
The names of numerous genera in the Cactaceae end with the suffix ‘cereus’ as the genus Cereus was one of the first cactus genera to be described. Its name is derived from the Greek word keros or Latin cereus meaning wax taper, referring to the columnar habit of species in the genus. The name Hylocereus was subsequently given to the genus of similar cacti growing in woodlands, the prefix deriving from the Greek word hyle meaning a wood or forest. The specific epithet undatus is from the Latin for wavy, referring to the margins of the ribs of the plant’s stem (Eggli and Newton, 2004).
Common names such as dragon fruit, pitaya and pitahaya are a generic term which includes several species of columnar and climbing cacti belonging to the Cactaceae family and is often applied to species other than H. undatus, and usually refer to the fruits rather than the plant.
DescriptionTop of page
H. undatus is a fast growing, epiphytic or xerophytic, vine-like cactus. Stems are triangular, 3-sided, although sometimes 4- or 5-sided, green, fleshy, jointed, many branched. Each stem segment has 3 flat wavy ribs and corneous margins may be spineless or have 1-3 small spines. Stems scandent, creeping, sprawling or clambering, up to 10 m long. Aerial roots, which are able to absorb water, are produced on the underside of stems and provide anchorage for stems on vertical surfaces. Flowers are 25-30 cm long, 15-17 cm wide, nocturnal, scented and hermaphroditic; however, some cultivars are self-compatible. Flowers are typically white in colour and bell shaped, stamens and lobed stigmas are cream coloured. Fruit is a fleshy berry, oblong to ovoid, up to 6-12 cm long, 4-9 cm thick, red with large bracteoles, pulp white, edible, embedded with many small black seeds. Average fruit weight is 350-400 g, although may weigh up to 900 g (Merten, 2002).
Plant TypeTop of page Perennial
Vine / climber
DistributionTop of page
H. undatus, commonly known as dragon fruit, is native to Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curacao, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela and Uruguay. Although native to the Central and South American regions, it is now commercially cultivated and widely distributed in many countries with tropical and subtropical climates, including the USA (south Florida, California and Hawaii), Australia, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia and Israel.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Localised||Introduced||1645||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Cultivated as an ornamental and for fruit, but has also become invasive|
|-Fujian||Localised||Introduced||Invasive||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Cultivated as an ornamental and for fruit, but has also become invasive in the south|
|-Guangdong||Localised||Introduced||Invasive||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Cultivated as an ornamental and for fruit, but has also become invasive in the south|
|-Guangxi||Localised||Introduced||Invasive||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Cultivated as an ornamental and for fruit, but has also become invasive in the south-west|
|-Hainan||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Cultivated as an ornamental and for fruit, but has also become invasive|
|Israel||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||Not invasive||Nerd et al., 2002|
|Philippines||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||16th century||Not invasive||Nobel, 2002|
|South East Asia||Present|
|Sri Lanka||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||1997||Not invasive||Gunasena et al., 2007||Introduced as a fruit crop|
|Taiwan||Present||Introduced||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015||Naturalized|
|Vietnam||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||1860||Not invasive||Nobel, 2002|
|Kenya||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Witt and Luke, 2017|
|Malawi||Present||Introduced||Witt and Luke, 2017||Naturalized|
|Rwanda||Present||Introduced||Witt and Luke, 2017||Naturalized|
|South Africa||Localised||Introduced||Invasive||Invasive Species South Africa, 2015||Category 2 invasive in KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga and Eastern Cape|
|-Canary Islands||Present||Introduced||Global Compendium of Weeds, 2015||Naturalized|
|Tanzania||Present||Introduced||Witt and Luke, 2017||Naturalized|
|Uganda||Present||Introduced||Witt and Luke, 2017||Naturalized|
|Zambia||Present||Introduced||Witt and Luke, 2017||Naturalized|
|Mexico||Present||Native||Not invasive||Ortiz-Hernandez, 1999|
|USA||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-California||Present only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||Not invasive|
|-Florida||Localised||Introduced||Invasive||Tarnowski et al., 2010||Listed as category II invasive in the Florida Keys|
|-Hawaii||Widespread||Introduced||1830||Invasive||Morton, 1987; Wagner et al., 1999||Present as invasive on Hawaii, Kahoolawe, Kauai, Lanai, Maui, Molokai, Niihau and Oahu|
Central America and Caribbean
|Cuba||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012|
|Brazil||Widespread||Native||Invasive||Taylor and Zappi, 2004||Invades roadsides and maritime scrub as a garden escape|
|-Alagoas||Present||Native||Invasive||Taylor and Zappi, 2004||Grown as an ornamental but has escaped into surrounding roadsides and scrublands|
|-Bahia||Present||Native||Invasive||Taylor and Zappi, 2004||Grown as an ornamental but has escaped into surrounding roadsides and scrublands|
|-Espirito Santo||Present||Native||Invasive||Taylor and Zappi, 2004||Grown as an ornamental but has escaped into surrounding roadsides and scrublands|
|-Minas Gerais||Present||Native||Taylor and Zappi, 2004||Grown as an ornamental but has escaped into surrounding roadsides and scrublands|
|-Pernambuco||Present||Native||Invasive||Taylor and Zappi, 2004||Grown as an ornamental but has escaped into surrounding roadsides and scrublands|
|Chile||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Invasive on Robinson Crusoe Island in the Juan Fernández Islands off the coast of Chile|
|Spain||Present||Introduced||Dana et al., 2005||Naturalized in Andalusia|
|Australia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-New South Wales||Localised||Introduced||Invasive||Queensland Government, 2011||Naturalized in coastal districts of northern New South Wales and regarded as an environmental weed|
|-Queensland||Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Queensland Government, 2011||Naturalized in south-eastern and central Queensland and regarded as an environmental weed|
|New Caledonia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||MacKee, 1994||Invasive on island of Île Grand Terre|
|Niue||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Space et al., 2004|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
In pre-Columbian times, H. undatus became widespread in many tropical regions of the Americas and the Caribbean through dispersal by birds and by people propagating and cultivating the species for its edible fruits. It was introduced into the Philippines by the Spanish in the sixteenth century and into Indochina by the French in the nineteenth century (around 1860); it later became an important fruit crop throughout South-East Asia and is now cultivated widely in the tropics and subtropics (Ortiz-Hernández, 1999; Nerd et al., 2002b; Nobel, 2002). Indeed, it and related species are raised commercially for fruit in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Mexico, the USA, some Caribbean islands, Spain, Israel, Australia, New Zealand, Reunion, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, the Philippines, Japan and Taiwan. It is the second most important commercial cactus species with respect to fruit production after Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear). Annual production generally varies from 4 to 20 t fresh fruit/ha. Some 6000 ha of H. undatus are cultivated in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam and 2000 ha in Mexico, about half being in the Yucatan peninsula (Janick and Paull, 2008; Paull and Duarte, 2012).
In many situations where it has been planted it has escaped from cultivation to become a weed and in some regions an invasive.
In South Africa, particularly in mesic, low-lying areas of KwaZulu-Natal, but also Mpumalanga and the Eastern Cape, H. undatus, which was originally introduced into the country as an ornamental, has category 2 invasive status, i.e., it can be grown in gardens but only with a permit (which is granted under very few circumstances). Infestations, which tend to be limited and localized, and originate mainly from escapes from homestead gardens, impact native plant communities and the local ecology (Walters et al., 2011; Invasive Species South Africa, 2015).
In Brazil, it was introduced as a garden plant and sometimes escaped into roadside areas and maritime scrub, occurring in Pernambuco, Alagoas, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo (Taylor and Zappi, 2004).
In Hawaii, H. undatus was introduced in 1830 apparently in a shipment from Mexico of plants bound for China; most of the plants were being discarded because they were dead, but as the H. undatus plants were still alive they were planted out. These flourished and were soon commonly cultivated throughout the islands as ornamentals (Morton, 1987). Nowadays, H. undatus is regarded as invasive on the islands of Hawaii, Kahoolawe, Kauai, Lanai, Maui, Molokai, Niihau and Oahu (Wagner et al., 1999). Naturalized populations are well established in leeward areas of Oahu and Kauai (Staples and Herbst, 2005).
In Florida, USA, H. undatus has become a weed of disturbed areas in the south and centre of the state. Although the earliest specimen was vouchered in 1962, the species was probably introduced much earlier. In the Florida Keys it is classed as a category II invasive (increasing in abundance but has not yet altered plant communities by displacing native species). Manual removal is the only control method mentioned (Hadden et al., 2005).
H. undatus is becoming widely naturalized in eastern Australia where it is regarded as an environmental weed of open woodlands, dry rainforest, riparian areas and coastal vegetation in the warmer areas. It has been recorded in south-eastern and central Queensland and in the coastal districts of northern New South Wales; it appears on local weed lists in Byron Shire in northern New South Wales and Redland Shire in south-eastern Queensland. It is usually found growing on trees as a climber or epiphyte, and can even climb up into the canopy of very tall trees where it can form massive colonies; the weight of its succulent stems can eventually bring trees down (Queensland Government, 2011).
H. undatus is cited as invasive in numerous other regions throughout the world, including: Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) off the coast of Chile (Rachel Atkinson and John Sawyer, pers. observation, 2011); Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012); the island of Île Grand Terre in New Caledonia (MacKee, 1994); the island of Niue (Space et al., 2004); and Reunion in the Indian Ocean (Lavergne, 2006). It has been found naturalized on the Canary Islands (Global Compendium of Weeds, 2015), as well as in Andalusia in mainland Spain (Dana et al., 2005), and also Taiwan and China, where it was introduced in 1645; it is cultivated there as a hedge and for its fruit but has also been found invading woods, rocky areas and maritime scrub in south Fujian, south Guangdong, south-west Guangxi and Hainan (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Dragon fruit continues to be introduced as a commercial fruit crop; for example, it was only introduced to Sri Lanka in 1997 (Gunasena et al., 2007). Wherever it is grown as a fruit crop or ornamental there is the likelihood of escape from cultivation, either through seed dispersal by birds or, because of its ability to reproduce vegetatively, through distribution or disposal of plant material. On Niue, for example, H. undatus infestations were observed mainly along roadsides, apparently planted for ornamental purposes or resulting from the dumping of viable plant material (Space et al., 2004).
HabitatTop of page
H. undatus is a lithophyte or hemi-epiphyte tolerant of shade and, due to crassulacean acid metabolism, resistant to drought (Andrade et al., 2007a). Nothing is known about its native habitat, but it is most likely to be lowland tropical deciduous forest. Naturalized populations are found in tropical deciduous forest, tropical semideciduous forest, riparian vegetation, thorn scrub and thorn forest (Arias Montes et al., 1997; Pérez-García et al., 2001). It is also found in disturbed areas, rocky areas, roadsides and maritime scrub (Taylor and Zappi, 2004; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). In Mexico it has been found in highly heterogeneous environments, ranging from 2 to 2750 m above sea level, with annual rainfall ranging from 340 to 3500 mm and annual mean temperature ranging from 13° to 29°C (Cálix de Dios, 2004). In eastern Australia it can be found invading open woodlands, dry rainforest, riparian areas and coastal vegetation in the warmer areas (Queensland Government, 2011).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Disturbed areas||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Rail / roadsides||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Natural forests||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Rocky areas / lava flows||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Rocky areas / lava flows||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Scrub / shrublands||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Arid regions||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Coastal areas||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
H. undatus is one of many alien species in Florida threatening the endangered plant species Chromolaena frustrata, Consolea corallicola and Harrisia aboriginum (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013).
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Dragon fruit is a fast growing, vine-like, tropical cactus grown for its fleshy, succulent fruit. Dragon fruit is frost and chilling sensitive and is largely produced in areas where temperatures do not exceed 38°C. Optimum temperatures for growth are 18-25°C, with good relative humidity levels. Growing as a climbing cactus in shaded or semi-shaded positions under large canopies, dragon fruit may be injured by extreme sunlight and can tolerate some shade; however, it is considered to be a full sunlight crop in Central and South American countries. When growing naturally, dragon fruit attaches branched stems to trees or rocks via adventitious roots. Under cultivation, the vine-like stems are supported by a post and trellis system. The plant is fairly tolerant of wind when attached to a trellis. Problems can occur with single-post trellises, where the plant forms a fairly bulky canopy, depending on the sturdiness of the trellis. They prefer loamy, sandy or stony moderately saline soils with good drainage. They do best in a loose soil, rich in organic matter, with a pH of 5.5-6.5 and not more than 50% slope. Like many cacti, dragon fruit has a low water demand, which is related to their crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) mode of photosynthesis – uptake of CO2 occurs during the night when the stomata are open, which restricts water loss via transpiration during the heat of the day.
Flowers are pollinated by bats or moths; however, hand pollination is also used with self-incompatible varieties to ensure good fruit set and fruit size. This requires considerable labour input and many new commercial operations are utilising new cultivars which are self-fertile to avoid the cost of hand pollination. Many of the varieties bred in Asia are now self-compatible and will set fruit relatively easily without requiring hand pollination. The main disadvantage with many of the self-compatible varieties of dragon fruit is that the fruit is often smaller than if the flowers were cross-pollinated with pollen from a different clone or different species (Merten, 2002). This may be due to fruit weight, which is positively correlated with the number of viable seeds and dependent on pollination.
Hand pollination is carried out by removing the anthers from one flower and brushing them against the stigma of another or by collecting the pollen and using a small brush to pollinate many flowers. Commercial growers have to determine if it is worthwhile hand pollinating flowers in order to obtain a greater fruit weight, given the cost of labour and returns received for larger fruit. Often the first wave of flowers will not set fruit in self-incompatible varieties; however, a process has been developed for long-term storage of pollen which allows hand pollination whenever it is required. Pollen collected from dragon fruit flowers can be stored after drying to a moisture content of 5-10% and stored at below freezing temperatures. Pollen can be stored in this way for 9 months and used to pollinate the first blooms of the season, resulting in an earlier and larger crop.
Commercial dragon fruit growers in Taiwan use supplemental night break lighting to increase the flowering period after the normal period of flowering has finished. Flowering is induced by breaking the dark period with lighting between 22:00 and 02:00 h, allowing off-season production from November to April. These fruits produced in the off-season often receive premium prices as they are larger and sweeter than those produced from summer crops.
Dragon fruit, while being a type of cactus, perform poorly under extremes of temperature and cannot tolerate high light and temperature. Dragon fruit plantations must be sighted in frost-free areas or incorporate some form of frost protection such as greenhouse production for cooler winter climates. Dragon fruit plants will show damage at temperatures of below 0°C and also above 40-45°C as they were originally adapted to shade canopy environments. In high radiation areas, overhead shading is often installed which also helps reduce extremely high temperatures which can limit flowering and fruit set. High radiation levels cause the plants to become bleached in appearance caused by the destruction of chlorophyll in the stems, growth will also be retarded and plants may eventually die. However, under heavy shade the plants may become etiolated with reduced flowering and production levels. Recommendations for shading are to apply the minimal amount of shade required to prevent bleaching of the stems and ensure the plants are not water stressed as this reduces the crop’s resistance to high light damage.
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Aecidium||Pathogen||Leaves||not specific||Invasiveorg, 2015|
|Anastrepha||Herbivore||Fruits/pods||not specific||Invasiveorg, 2015|
|Bactrocera correcta||Herbivore||Fruits/pods||not specific||Lo Waddell, 2001|
|Bactrocera dorsalis||Herbivore||Fruits/pods||not specific||Lo Waddell, 2001|
|Cactus virus X||Pathogen||Whole plant||not specific||Liao et al., 2003|
|Ceratitis||Herbivore||Fruits/pods||not specific||Invasiveorg, 2015|
|Dothiorella||Pathogen||Fruits/pods||not specific||Zee et al., 2004|
|Fusicoccum||Pathogen||Stems||not specific||Valencia-Botin et al., 2005|
|Xanthomonas campestris||Pathogen||Stems||not specific||Zee et al., 2004|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
In Vietnam and many other dragon fruit cultivation regions, fruit flies are a major pest affecting fruit quality. Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) and guava fruit fly (B. correcta) are species that both lay eggs in fruits and the larvae can develop successfully even when the fruits are too green to eat (Lo and Waddell, 2001). H. undatus is also a host for Anastrepha and Ceratitis spp. fruit flies (Invasive.org, 2015). Aphids may infest flowers or fruits in some regions and young plants can be prone to slugs and snails under damp conditions. Rabbits, squirrels, possums and similar pests have been known to feed on the lower stems and mice, rats and birds will eat ripe fruits (Merten, 2002).
Few diseases are reported on H. undatus, although stem rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris and brown spots on fruits caused by Dothiorella occur in some production areas (Zee et al., 2004). Viruses such as Cactus virus X (CVX) have been reported on dragon fruit plants, causing symptoms such as stunted, malformed and mottled growth (Fudi-Allah et al., 1983). In Taiwan, CVX is widespread in dragon fruit orchards, with infection rates of 60-90% in many regions (Liao et al., 2003). A strain of Fusicoccum has been isolated from stems (Valencia-Botin et al., 2005), and H. undatus is also a host to a quarantine-significant rust, Aecidium sp., known from Mexico (Invasive.org, 2015).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
H. undatus seed is dispersed by birds which have fed on the fruits (Invasive Species South Africa, 2015).
As H. undatus propagates easily vegetatively, the disposal of plant material from the species can result in establishment of populations.
The main means of introduction and dispersal is planting of H. undatus by people as a garden ornamental or for fruit production in gardens and plantations.
Pathway CausesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Environment (generally)||Positive and negative|
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Habitats
In South Africa, naturalized H. undatus is believed to impact the local ecology (Invasive Species South Africa, 2015), whereas in the Florida Keys it has not altered plant communities by displacing native species, although it has the potential to do so (Hadden et al., 2005). In eastern Australia it has invaded open woodlands, dry rainforest, riparian areas and coastal vegetation in the warmer areas (Queensland Government, 2011).
Impact on Biodiversity
In parts of Florida, USA, non-native invasive plants, including H. undatus, pose a threat to native plant species, notably the endangered Chromolaena frustrata (Cape Sable thoroughwort), Consolea corallicola (Florida semaphore cactus) and Harrisia aboriginum (aboriginal prickly-apple). Invasives compete with native plants for space, light, water and nutrients, and they have caused population declines in all three species. C. frustrata and C. corallicola have been extirpated from half of the islands where they occurred in the Florida Keys, and threats of competition from non-native plants and habitat loss still exist in the remaining populations. H. aboriginum has been extirpated from the northern extent of its range in Manatee County, and threats of poaching, competition from non-native plant species and habitat loss still exist in the remaining populations. Plans are proposed to remove invasives from habitats and develop plant communities of predominately native vegetation with either no or few competitive non-native, invasive plant species (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012, 2013).
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Chromolaena frustrata||USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||Florida||Competition - monopolizing resources||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013|
|Consolea corallicola (Florida semaphore cactus)||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||Florida||Competition - monopolizing resources||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013|
|Harrisia aboriginum (Aboriginal prickly-apple)||NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||Florida||Competition - monopolizing resources||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013|
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Tolerant of shade
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Has high reproductive potential
- Reproduces asexually
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition - smothering
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
UsesTop of page
Dragon fruit has been consumed in its native countries since pre-Columbian times and is grown specifically for its fruit, the flesh of which is eaten raw and is mildly sweet and succulent; the yellow type is sweeter than the red. The fruit has a texture similar to that of the prickly pear and kiwi fruit. Chilled fruit are preferred. The flesh has high nutritional value, including high contents of vitamin C, calcium, potassium and fibre. Eating the fruits is claimed to reduce cholesterol, help the digestive system and prevent cancer (FAO, 2004). The outer skin is not eaten. The pulp, especially of the red or purple types, can be blended as a drink or used for sherbets and salads or to make syrup and can be used for making juice or wine. Frozen pulp is used to flavour ice cream, yoghurt, jelly, preserves, candy and pastries. The flowers are edible and can be eaten steamed or cooked as a vegetable or steeped as a tea. The tiny black seeds are eaten with the fruit; however, these are indigestible and have a mild laxative effect. Fruit is usually eaten chilled for improved flavour. The unopened flower buds are edible and can be cooked and eaten as a vegetable.
The peel can be used to produce betacyanin and colouring pigments, and the mucilage in the food or cosmetics industries. Dragon fruit plants are grown as ornamentals for their large, attractive flowers and as bonsai specimens. H. undatus has also been used as a rootstock for other species of ornamental cactus because of its rapid growth and tolerance to humid substrates (Wright et al., 2007). The fruit is also used as an ornament on banquet or buffet tables, either entire or in slices.
The stems and flowers of Hylocereus species have been used for medicinal purposes to treat diabetes, as a diuretic and to help wound healing. The fruit has been found to have a preventive effect on cardiovascular disease.
From an ecological point of view, the species is an important source in Mexico of nectar for bats, including the lesser long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris curasoae) and the Mexican long-tongued bat (Choeronycteris mexicana), which visit flowers during the night, and for honey bees (Apis mellifera), which visit during the day (Valiente-Banuet et al., 1996).
Uses ListTop of page
Human food and beverage
- Beverage base
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
H. ocamponis (Salm-Dyck) Britton & Rose is a similar cactus to H. undatus and is cultivated in Guatemala, Colombia, Bolivia and Puerto Rico. It has more deeply undulate wings bordered with brown and longer spines. The fruit is wine-red outside and inside, and the flesh is sweet (Morton, 1987). Other dragon fruit-type Hylocereus species producing sweet fruits include H. costaricensis (red skin, red flesh) and H. megalanthus (yellow skin, white flesh).
Other climbing cactus species grown for the edible fruit include H. lemairei, producing fruits with red skin and red flesh dotted with edible black seeds, and Selenicereus megalanthus, the pitaya amarillo or yellow pitaya, producing fruits with yellow skin and clear to white flesh containing edible black seeds (Luders and McMahon, 2006).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
On Niue, where weedy H. undatus has not been easy to eliminate, particularly when plants become established in rocky areas, public education is recommended in order to prevent the dumping of garden waste which contains H. undatus plant material and to discourage further planting of the species (Space et al., 2004).
Manual removal is the only control method mentioned in the literature (Hadden et al., 2005).
ReferencesTop of page
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ContributorsTop of page
10/09/15 Invasive Species Compendium sections added by:
<span "="" style="outline: 0px">Andrew Praciak, CABI, UK
Distribution MapsTop of page
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