Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Hiptage benghalensis
(hiptage)

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Datasheet

Hiptage benghalensis (hiptage)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hiptage benghalensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • hiptage
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • H. benghalensis has spread in the tropics after introduction as an ornamental from its native South and South-East Asia. It continues to be available as an ornamental and medicinal plant, and is therefore likel...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Fruits of H. benghalensis: samaras with three wings.
TitleFruits and foliage
CaptionFruits of H. benghalensis: samaras with three wings.
CopyrightSoudjata Radjassegarane
Fruits of H. benghalensis: samaras with three wings.
Fruits and foliageFruits of H. benghalensis: samaras with three wings.Soudjata Radjassegarane
Close-up of H. benghalensis fruits: samaras with three wings.
TitleFruits
CaptionClose-up of H. benghalensis fruits: samaras with three wings.
CopyrightSoudjata Radjassegarane
Close-up of H. benghalensis fruits: samaras with three wings.
FruitsClose-up of H. benghalensis fruits: samaras with three wings.Soudjata Radjassegarane
Axillary inflorescence of H. benghalensis.
TitleAxillary inflorescence
CaptionAxillary inflorescence of H. benghalensis.
CopyrightSoudjata Radjassegarane
Axillary inflorescence of H. benghalensis.
Axillary inflorescenceAxillary inflorescence of H. benghalensis.Soudjata Radjassegarane
Clustered terminal inflorescence of H. benghalensis.
TitleTerminal inflorescence
CaptionClustered terminal inflorescence of H. benghalensis.
CopyrightSoudjata Radjassegarane
Clustered terminal inflorescence of H. benghalensis.
Terminal inflorescenceClustered terminal inflorescence of H. benghalensis.Soudjata Radjassegarane

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz

Preferred Common Name

  • hiptage

Other Scientific Names

  • Banisteria benghalensis L. (1753)
  • Banisteria tetraptera Sonnerat (1782)
  • Banisteria unicapsularis Lam. (1785)
  • Gaertnera indica J.F. Gmelin. (1791)
  • Gaertnera obtusifolia (DC.) Roxb. (1832)
  • Gaertnera racemosa Vahl (1794)
  • Hiptage candicans var. angustifolia Craib
  • Hiptage candicans var. harmandiana (Pierre) Dop
  • Hiptage candicans var. latifolia Pierre
  • Hiptage candicans var. parvifolia Pierre
  • Hiptage harmandiana Pierre
  • Hiptage javanica Blume (1825)
  • Hiptage macroptera Merr. (1910)
  • Hiptage madablota Gaertn. (1790)
  • Hiptage malaiensis Nied. (1915)
  • Hiptage obtusifolia DC. (1824)
  • Hiptage pinnata Elmer (1913)
  • Hiptage teysmannii Arènes (1954)
  • Molina racemosa Cav. (1790)
  • Succowia fimbriata Dennst. (1818)
  • Triopteris jamaicensis L.

International Common Names

  • French: liane de cerf; liane papillon

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Benghalen-Liane
  • India: adimurtte; adirganti; atimukta; chandravalli; haldavel; kampti; kamuka; madhalata; madhavi; madhavi; madhumalati; madmalati; ragotpiti; vasantduti
  • Mauritius: liane de Cythère; liane de fleurs d'oranger; liane rouge
  • Saudi Arabia: liane papillon

EPPO code

  • HTGBE (Hiptage benghalensis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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H. benghalensis has spread in the tropics after introduction as an ornamental from its native South and South-East Asia. It continues to be available as an ornamental and medicinal plant, and is therefore likely to spread further. This climbing vine is able to smother vegetation and produces wind-dispersed samaras to facilitate dissemination. H. benghalensis threatens the last remnants of lowland native forests in La Réunion and Mauritius and is also invasive in parts of Australia, and Hawaii and Florida, USA, where it is regulated.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Polygalales
  •                         Family: Malpighiaceae
  •                             Genus: Hiptage
  •                                 Species: Hiptage benghalensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Hiptagebenghalensis (L.) Kurz was first described in 1874 in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. H. benghalensis has several synonyms (e.g. ISB, 2003) with Banistera benghalensis and H. madablota most commonly cited (Friedmann, 1987; PIER, 2007).

Description

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H. benghalensis is a perennial, woody, much-branched, evergreen, vine-like shrub that can reach a height of 10-15 m. Young branches are grey and tomentose. The leaves are simple, entire, opposite, oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 8-21 cm long and 4-9 cm wide, acute or acuminate, glabrous, a red-varnished colour when young and have petioles about 1 cm long. The highly fragrant, pink to white flowers have a yellow throat, are strongly zygomorphic, 2-3 cm in diameter, borne in erect, pubescent, axillary racemes of 10-20 cm length, the pedicels being 15-20 mm long. The corolla has five free, elliptic to round, pubescent, reflexed petals 1-1.7 cm long, fringed on the margins. Fruits are samaras with three spreading, papery, oblanceolate to elliptic wings, the middle wing being 4-6 cm long and the two lateral wings 2-3 cm long. Dry fruits are propelled by wind to places where the seeds are released.

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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H. benghalensis has a large native range covering South and South-East Asia, from India and Sri Lanka to China, the Philippines and Indonesia (Randall, 2002; PIER, 2007). It is now becoming naturalized in tropical areas with a continuing increase in its distribution.
 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007
CambodiaPresentNative Not invasive PIER, 2007
ChinaPresentNative Not invasive PIER, 2007
-FujianPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007
-GuangdongPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007
-GuangxiPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007
-GuizhouPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007
-HainanPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007
-YunnanPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007
IndiaPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; PIER, 2007
-Tamil NaduPresentChittibabu and Parthasarathy, 2001
IndonesiaPresentNative Not invasive PIER, 2007
JapanPresent Not invasive Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007
LaosPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007
MalaysiaPresentNative Not invasive PIER, 2007
PhilippinesPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; PIER, 2007
Sri LankaPresentNative Not invasive PIER, 2007
TaiwanPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007; PIER, 2007
ThailandPresentNative Not invasive PIER, 2007
VietnamPresentNative Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007

Africa

MauritiusWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Friedmann, 1987; Lorence and Sussman, 1988; Cronk and Fuller, 1995
RéunionWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Friedmann, 1983; Lorence and Sussman, 1988; Cronk and Fuller, 1995; ISSG, 2003; PIER, 2003

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive FLEPPC, 2001; USDA-NRCS, 2007
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2007

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2007; Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2007
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2007
-Western AustraliaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Randall, 1998

History of Introduction and Spread

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Original dates of introduction are not known. The species is reported as invasive in La Réunion and Mauritius (Friedmann, 1987; Lorence and Sussman, 1988; Cronk and Fuller, 1995), in Hawaii (PIER, 2007) and Florida, USA (FLEPPC, 2001) and in Western Australia (Randall, 1998). In Hawaii, H. benghalensis is sparingly cultivated (Carr, 2001) and has been targeted for eradication in some islands as it is now one of the most invasive of horticultural plants threatening native communities (PIER, 2007).

Risk of Introduction

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Further spread is highly probable, owing to the risks of both accidental movement as a seed contaminant of agricultural produce, or deliberate introduction as an ornamental. This is encouraged by availability from commercial nurseries by mail-order catalogues and websites. H. benghalensis is already prohibited as a noxious weed in Florida, USA: the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC, 2001) lists this species as a Category II plant, which are species that have shown a potential to disrupt native plant communities. These species may become ranked as Category I, but have not yet demonstrated disruption of natural Florida communities.

Habitat

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H. benghalensis is generally a plant of open ground in its native range, growing near ravines or stream sides, but it can establish and grow successfully in woodland and partially shaded habitats. As an invasive species, H. benghalensis occurs in native remnant lowland semi-dry forest, stream sides and disturbed areas, and as a weed it prefers sub-humid areas but can tolerate dry periods.
 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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H. benghalensis is an environmental weed infesting mainly natural forests, but is not generally a weed of agriculture, pastures or commercial forestry.
 

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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In La Réunion, the flowering period is from March to July. As an ornamental species, H. benghalensis can be propagated by cuttings, but it is also propagated by seeds. In the wild, winged seeds are readily dispersed by wind. H. benghalensis is native to tropical and warm temperate climatic regions. It has been introduced to gardens as an ornamental, and has escaped. In its native range in China it is recorded at altitudes of (100-) 200-1900 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007). Where introduced, H. benghalensis is present in dry and moist areas from sea level to 1100 m elevation in Hawaii (Smith, 1985; PIER, 2007), lowland forests at altitudes below 250 m with an annual rainfall of 1000-2500 mm in Mauritius, and in lowlands up to 750 m in La Réunion (exceptionally up to 1200 m), with a mean annual rainfall less than 1500 mm, and an annual average temperature range of 18-25°C (Cadet, 1977). It prefers light areas, although seedlings are shade tolerant, and it is tolerant of mild droughts.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
0 1900

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 25
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 20 28
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 18 20

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration05number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall10002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page No natural enemies are known.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Seeds of H. benghalensis have adaptations for dispersal mechanism by wind for short-distance dispersal, most efficient in open habitats. For long-distance dispersal, there are risks of accidental movement as a contaminant of agricultural produce. Deliberate introduction of H. benghalensis is also quite likely, as it is used as an ornamental. Such introduction is encouraged by the availability of seed from horticultural industry via mail-order catalogues and from websites.

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsOrnamental and medicinal uses Yes
MailInternet Yes
Wind Yes PIER, 2007

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx seeds
Fruits (inc. pods) seeds
Growing medium accompanying plants seeds; stems
Roots roots
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches stems
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production None
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species Negative
Tourism Negative
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Economic Impact

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There are no records of direct impact on crops. However, mechanical and chemical control of H. benghalensis is very costly.

Environmental Impact

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H. benghalensis is a woody climber, capable of smothering tree canopies of native forests, and  threatens the last remnants of primary dry forests of La Réunion.

In La Réunion, lowland semi-dry native forest was common before the arrival of man, but it was largely deforested and today only remnants can be found on the slopes of certain mountain ranges and in some remote dry ravines (Cadet, 1977). H. benghalensis threatens the remaining endemic or indigenous vegetation found in such areas by climbing over it and smothering it. The same is true in Mauritius, where lowland forests were replaced after the arrival of man and H. benghalensis threatens the remnant indigenous vegetation.

Social Impact

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Dense populations of H. benghalensis can interfere with access to amenity areas, stream sides, etc.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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It is often used as an ornamental species. H. benghalensis is a vine-like plant that is often cultivated in the tropics for its attractive and fragrant flowers. It can be trimmed to form a small tree or shrub or can be trained as a vine. H. benghalensis is also occasionally cultivated for medicinal purposes (Bailey and Bailey, 1976) with the bark, leaves and flowers being aromatic, bitter, acrid, astringent, refrigerant, vulnerary, expectorant, cardiotonic, anti-inflammatory and having insecticidal properties (Varier, 1994). The leaves are used in India to treat asthma and rheumatism.

Uses List

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Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Few species can be confused with H. benghalensis. In La Réunion, there is no other genus of Malpighiceae and H. benghalensis is the only species (Friedmann, 1987).

Prevention and Control

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Mechanical Control

Mechanical control without a follow-up chemical treatment is not effective. Branches should be cut before flowering to reduce seed production, but herbicide stump treatments are required to prevent regrowth and to ensure plant kill.

Chemical Control

Several screening trials have been conducted to investigate and assess herbicides to control H. benghalensis, in Hawaii, USA and Queensland, Australia. Treatment of cut stumps was used in La Réunion with branches cut at ground level and glyphosate applied, and basal bark applications of triclopyr leading to 50% plant kill. Survivors were plants with larger diameter stems in which the treatment did not cover the circumference of the stem completely (PIER, 2007).

Biological Control

There have been no known efforts at biological control of H. benghalensis.

References

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Bailey LH, Bailey EZ, 1976. Hortus third: a concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. New York, USA: Macmillan.

Baret S, Rouget M, Richardson DM, Lavergne C, Egoh B, Dupont J, Strasberg D, 2006. Current distribution and potential extent of the most invasive alien plant species on La Réunion (Indian Ocean, Mascarene islands). Austral Ecology, 31(6):747-758.

Cadet T, 1977. La végétation de l'île de La Réunion. Etude phytoécologique et phytosociologique. Thèse, Université de Marseille.

Carr JD, 2001. UH Manoa Campus Plants. University of Hawaii, Department of Botany, Honolulu, HI. http://www.botany.hawaii/edu/faculty/carr/160-webindex.htm.

Chittibabu CV, Parthasarathy N, 2001. Liana diversity and host relationships in a tropical evergreen forest in the Indian Eastern Ghats. Ecological Research, 16(3):519-529.

Cronk QCB, Fuller JL, 1995. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. London, UK; Chapman & Hall Ltd, xiv + 241 pp.

FLEPPC, 2001. List of Invasive Species. Florida's Most Invasive Species. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council Florida EPPC Newsletter, 11(1):3-4. http://www.fleppc.org/.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2003. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2007. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

Friedmann F, 1987. Malpighiacées. In: Bosse J, Cadet T, Guého J, Marais W, eds. Flore des Mascareignes. La Réunion, Maurice, Rodrigues. 51. Malvacées à 62. Oxalidaceae. The Sugar Industry Research Institute, Mauritius. L'office de la recherche scientifique et technique outre-mer, Paris. Kew, UK: The Royal Botanic Gardens, 1-4.

ISB, 2003. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. University of South Florida, USA: Institute for Systematic Botany. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/main.asp?plantID=4118.

ISSG, 2003. Global Invasive Species Database. Invasive Species Specialist Group, IUCN. Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. www.issg.org.

Lorence DH, Sussman RW, 1988. Diversity, density, and invasion in a Mauritian wet forest. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Botanical Garden, 25:187-204.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003. VAScular Tropicos database. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2007. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

PIER, 2003. Invasive plant species: Hiptage Benghalensis. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk http://www.hear.org/pier/.

PIER, 2007. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Randall R, 1998. Western Weeds. Plant Protection Society of Western Australia. http://www.hear.org/gcw.

Randall RP, 2002. A global compendium of weeds. A global compendium of weeds, xxx + 905 pp.

Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, 2007. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens. http://avhtas.tmag.tas.gov.au/

Smith CW, 1985. Impact of alien plants on Hawaii's native biota. In: Hawaii's terrestrial ecosystems: preservation and management. Proceedings of a symposium held June 5-6, 1984, at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. [ed. by Stone CP, Scott JM] Honolulu, HI, USA: University of Hawaii Press, 180-250.

Smith CW, 1985. Impact of alien plants on Hawaii's native biota. In: Stone CP, Scott JM, eds. Hawaii's Terrestrial Ecosystems: Preservation and Management. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press, 180-250.

Tassin J, Rivière JN, Cazanove M, Bruzzese E, 2006. Ranking of invasive woody plant species for management on Réunion Island. Weed Research (Oxford), 46(5):388-403. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=wre

USDA, NRCS, 2007. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Varier PS, 1994. Indian medicinal plants: a compendium of 500 species, Vol 3. Madras, India: Orient Longman Limited.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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19/11/2007 Updated by:

Nick Pasiecznik, Consultant, France

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