Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Acleris gloverana
(western blackheaded budworm)

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Datasheet

Acleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Acleris gloverana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • western blackheaded budworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Acleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); eggs on the underside of western hemlock needles (Tsuga heterophylla).
TitleEggs
CaptionAcleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); eggs on the underside of western hemlock needles (Tsuga heterophylla).
Copyright©Government of Canada
Acleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); eggs on the underside of western hemlock needles (Tsuga heterophylla).
EggsAcleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); eggs on the underside of western hemlock needles (Tsuga heterophylla).©Government of Canada
Acleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); final-instar larva.
TitleLarva
CaptionAcleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); final-instar larva.
Copyright©Government of Canada
Acleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); final-instar larva.
LarvaAcleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); final-instar larva.©Government of Canada
Acleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); one of the many colour forms of the adult moth.
TitleAdult
CaptionAcleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); one of the many colour forms of the adult moth.
Copyright©Government of Canada
Acleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); one of the many colour forms of the adult moth.
AdultAcleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); one of the many colour forms of the adult moth.©Government of Canada
Acleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); damage to juvenile western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla).
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionAcleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); damage to juvenile western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla).
Copyright©Government of Canada
Acleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); damage to juvenile western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla).
Damage symptomsAcleris gloverana (western blackheaded budworm); damage to juvenile western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla).©Government of Canada

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Acleris gloverana (Walsingham, 1879)

Preferred Common Name

  • western blackheaded budworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Acleris variana Dyar, 1904
  • Alceris variana (typographical error) Fernald, 1903
  • Argyrotaenia gloverana McDonnough, 1939
  • Eulia gloverana Fernald, 1903
  • Lophoderus gloverana Fernald, 1891
  • Lophoderus gloveranus Walsingham, 1879
  • Peronea variana Meyrick, 1912

International Common Names

  • English: western black-headed budworm
  • French: tordeuse à tête noire de l'ouest

EPPO code

  • ACLRGL (Acleris gloverana)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Tortricidae
  •                             Genus: Acleris
  •                                 Species: Acleris gloverana

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / frass visible
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Leaves / shredding
Leaves / webbing
Stems / dieback
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Ascogaster provancheri Parasite Eggs/Larvae
Chorinaeus californicus Parasite
Gelis apantelis Parasite
Itoplectis quadricingulata Parasite Pupae
Mastrus laplantei Parasite
Phaeogenes arcticus Parasite Pupae
Scambus decorus Parasite
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves eggs Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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CIE, 1989. Acleris gloverana. Distribution Maps of Pests, No. 507.

Condrasheff SF, 1967. An extraction method for rapid counts of insect eggs and small organisms. Canadian Entomologist, 99:300-303.

Downing GL, 1957. Western hemlock damage caused by the black-headed budworm. Appraisel survey. USDA Forest Service, Alaska Forest Research Centre.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Freeman TN, 1958. The Archipinae of North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, Supplement 7:89 pp.

Furniss RL; Carolin VM, 1977. Western Forest Insects. Washington DC, USA: US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Miscellaneous Publication No. 1339.

Garbutt R, 1992. History of important forest pests in the Prince Rupert Forest Region 1914-1991. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: Pacific Forestry Centre, Forest Insect and Disease Survey Report 92-10.

Graham K, 1954. Notes on a polyhedral disease of black-headed budworm. Canadian Entomologist, 86:546-548.

Gray T; Shepherd RF, 1993. Hymenopterous parasites of the blackheaded budworm, Acleris gloverana on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, 1970-1974. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 90:11-13.

Gray TG; Shepherd RF; Gries G; Gries R, 1996. Sex pheromone component of the western blackheaded budworm, Acleris gloverana Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 128(6):1135-1142; 15 ref.

Hard JS, 1974. Budworm in coastal Alaska. Journal of Forestry, 72:26-31.

Harris JWE; Collis DG; Magar KM, 1972. Evaluation of the tree-beating method for sampling defoliating forest insects. Canadian Entomologist, 104:723-729.

Koot HP, 1991. Western blackheaded budworm. Forest Pest Leaflet 24. Information Canada, Catalogue No. Fo 29-6/24-1992E.

Lejeune RR, 1975. Western black-headed budworm. In: Prebble ML, ed. Aerial Control of Forest Insects in Canada. Information Canada, Catalogue No. Fo23/19/1975, 159-166.

Mackay MR, 1962. Larvae of the North American Tortricinae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, Supplement 28:182 pp.

Mask RA, 1992. Western black-headed budworm and hemlock sawfly in Alaska - historical summary and bibliography. Technical Report R10-TP-21, USDA Forest Service, Alaska Region.

McCambridge WF, 1956. Effects of black-headed budworm feeding on second-growth western hemlock and Sitka spruce. Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters, 1955-1956, 171-172.

Otvos IS; Borecky N; Shepherd RF; Dewey A, 2001. Spatial relationships between western blackheaded budworm (Acleris gloverana) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) defoliation patterns and habitat zones on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. In: Liebhold AM, McManus ML, Otvos IS, Fosbroke SLC, eds. Proceedings Integrated Management and Dynamics of Forest Defoliating Insects, Victoria, BC, Canada, August 15-19, 1999, USDA-FS GTR NE-277, 133-143.

Otvos IS; Conder N; Heppner DG, 2002. Acleris gloverana (Washingham), western blackheaded budworm (Lepidoptera; Tortricidae). In: Mason PG, Huber JT, eds. Biological Control Programmes in Canada, 1981-2000. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 28-31.

Otvos IS; Fajrajsl A, 1997. An annotated bibliography of Acleris variana and Acleris gloverana. Information Report - Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, No. BC-X-371:vi + 81 pp.

Powell JA, 1962. Taxonomic studies on the Acleris gloverana-variana complex, the black-headed budworms (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 94:833-840.

Powell JA, 1964. Biological and taxonomic studies on tortricine moths, with reference to the species in California. Berkeley/Los Angeles, USA: University of California Publications in Entomology/University of California Press, 32.

PREBBLE ML; GRAHAM K, 1945. B.C. Lumberman. Vancouver, 6 pp.

Robertson JL; Lyon RL; Shon FL; Page M, 1973. Western blackheaded budworm: toxicity of five insecticides to two populations. Journal of Economic Entomology, 66(1):274-275

Schmiege DC, 1965. The fecundity of the black-headed budworm, Acleris variana (Fern.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in coastal Alaska. Canadian Entomologist, 97:1226-1230.

Schmiege DC, 1966. The relation of weather to two population declines of the black-headed budworm, Acleris variana (Fernald) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in coastal Alaska. Canadian Entomologist, 98:1045-1050.

Shepherd RF; Gray TG, 1990. A sampling system for eggs of western blackheaded budworm, Acleris gloverana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. Canadian Entomologist, 122(5-6):555-562

Shepherd RF; Gray TG, 1990. Distribution of eggs of western blackheaded budworm, Acleris gloverana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and of foliage over the crowns of western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. Canadian Entomologist, 122(5-6):547-554

Shepherd RF; Gray TG, 2001. Comparative rates of density change in declining populations of the blackheaded budworm Acleris gloverana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) among different sites on Vancouver Island. Environmental Entomology, 30(5):883-891; 50 ref.

Silver GT, 1960. The relation of weather to population trends of the black-headed budworm, Acleris variana (Fern.), (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 92:401-410.

Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.

Torgersen TR, 1970. Parasites of the black-headed budworm, Acleris gloverana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in southeast Alaska. Canadian Entomologist, 102:1294-1299.

Wood C; Garbutt R, 1990. Defoliator damage assessment and detection and mapping of insect epidemics, Queen Charlotte Islands and Mainland Coast, 1989. Victoria, Canada: Pacific Forestry Centre. Forest Insect and Disease Survey Report 90-8.

Wood CS; Sickle GAvan, 1991. Forest insect and disease conditions: British Columbia and Yukon - 1990. Information Report - Pacific and Yukon Region, Forestry Canada, No. BC-X-326:vi + 34 pp.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CIE, 1989. Acleris gloverana. In: Distribution Maps of Pests,

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Furniss RL, Carolin VM, 1977. Western Forest Insects. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1339., Washington DC, USA: US Department of Agriculture Forest Service.

Koot HP, 1991. Western blackheaded budworm. In: Forest Pest Leaflet 24. Information Canada, Catalogue No. Fo 29-6/24-1992E,

Powell JA, 1964. Biological and taxonomic studies on tortricine moths, with reference to the species in California., Berkeley/Los Angeles, USA: University of California Publications in Entomology/University of California Press. 32.

Distribution Maps

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