Hibiscus trionum (Venice mallow)
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Hibiscus trionum
Preferred Common Name
- Venice mallow
Other Scientific Names
- Ketmia trionum Scop.
- Trionum diffusum Moench.
International Common Names
- English: bladder hibiscus; bladder ketmia; flower of an hour; ketmia
- Spanish: aurora comun; flor de una hora
- French: ketmia d'Afrique
- Arabic: shebbet
Local Common Names
- Germany: Eibisch, Stunden-; Stundenblume, Gelbe
- Italy: ibisco a tre foglie
- Madagascar: telorirana
- Netherlands: drieurenbloem
- Saudi Arabia: teel shataani; teel sheitani
- South Africa: iyeza-lentshulube; lefefane; lolwane; terblansbossie; uurblom
- Turkey: seytan keneviri
- Zambia: kombwe; likulu; lumanda; mikukwa; sansamwa
- HIBTR (Hibiscus trionum)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Malvales
- Family: Malvaceae
- Genus: Hibiscus
- Species: Hibiscus trionum
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Hibiscus trionum is the widely accepted and commonly used name for this tropical weedy species. Hibiscus is an ancient Greek name for mallow (a related genus), and trionum describes the tri-partite leaf.
DescriptionTop of page H. trionum is a spreading to erect annual herb, usually 40-70 cm tall.
The root system usually consists of a strong white taproot with many slender laterals in the upper layers of the soil.
The plants are usually strongly branched at the base, giving rise to several ascending, rather woody stems. The stems are green to brown or purplish, striate and variously hairy or bristly.
The leaves occur singly along the stems on 1-6 cm long bristly petioles. Each leaf is palmately divided into three (occasionally five or seven) segments, each very variable in shape and size but usually shallowly to very deeply lobed, 2-8 cm long and hairy or bristly. The leaves may be paler below than above and have pellucid glands.
The flowers, 2.5-4.0 cm in diameter, occur singly in the upper leaf axils, on bristly 2-5 cm long pedicels. Each flower consists of a ring of eight to ten slender bracteoles outside the five inflated hairy, green to purplish sepals, five oval white, cream, pink or yellow petals, each with a dark red to purple basal spot, and a central column bearing numerous stamens and ending in five globular stigmas.
The bristly, oval to spherical fruits develop inside the inflated papery sepals, and at maturity dry out and split into five to release the numerous seeds. The seeds are rough, oval, flattened, dark brown to black and 2-3 mm long.
Seedlings have epigeal germination and may be tinged with purple. The hypocotyl is erect, hairy and about 2 cm long, and the cotyledons oval and strongly 3-veined on hairy petioles. The juvenile leaves are undivided, oval and strongly veined.
DistributionTop of page The origin of H. trionum is uncertain, and is difficult to ascertain as the species has now become widespread. It is distributed primarily in tropical and subtropical regions but has also spread to temperate regions in Europe and North America.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Afghanistan||Present||Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|China||Widespread||Wang, 1990; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|India||Present||Rao and Ramayya, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|Iran||Present||Mirkamali, 1979; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|Iraq||Present||Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|Israel||Present||Holm et al., 1991|
|Japan||Present||Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|Jordan||Present||Holm et al., 1991|
|Korea, DPR||Present||Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|Kuwait||Present||Mathew et al., 2012|
|Lebanon||Present||Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|Pakistan||Present||Holm et al., 1997|
|Saudi Arabia||Present||Holm et al., 1997|
|Taiwan||Present||Horng and Leu, 1980|
|Turkey||Present||Holm et al., 1997|
|Botswana||Present||Excell, 1961; Wells et al., 1986; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Present||Holm et al., 1997|
|Egypt||Present||Gab-Alla et al., 1985; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|Ethiopia||Present||Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|Gambia||Present||Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|Ghana||Present||Holm et al., 1991|
|Madagascar||Present||Holm et al., 1997|
|Mali||Present||Hutchinson et al., 1958|
|Namibia||Present||Wells et al., 1986|
|Senegal||Present||Hutchinson et al., 1958; Holm et al., 1991|
|South Africa||Present||Wells et al., 1986; de Villiers, 1987; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|Sudan||Present||Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|Swaziland||Present||Wells et al., 1986; Holm et al., 1991|
|Tanzania||Present||Holm et al., 1997|
|Zambia||Present||Excell, 1961; Vernon, 1983; Holm et al., 1991|
|Zimbabwe||Present||Excell, 1961; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|Canada||Present||Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|USA||Widespread||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Holm et al., 1997|
|-Alabama||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Colorado||Present||Westra et al., 1996|
|-Connecticut||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Delaware||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Florida||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Illinois||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Indiana||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Iowa||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Kansas||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Kentucky||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Louisiana||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Maine||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Maryland||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Massachusetts||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Michigan||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Minnesota||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Mississippi||Present||Chandler, 1977; Walker, 1981; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Nebraska||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Teo-Sherrell et al., 1996|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-New Jersey||Present||Wilson and Nzewl, 1974; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-New Mexico||Present||Pitts, 1996|
|-New York||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-North Carolina||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Ohio||Present||Guscar et al.,1983; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Oklahoma||Present||Currie and Peeper, 1986; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Pennsylvania||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Rhode Island||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-South Carolina||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-South Dakota||Present||Smith and Arnold, 1982; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Tennessee||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Texas||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Pitts, 1996|
|-Vermont||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Virginia||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-West Virginia||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|-Wisconsin||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987|
|Chile||Present||Holm et al., 1997|
|Bulgaria||Present||Webb, 1968; Stoimenova et al., 1995|
|Czech Republic||Present||Webb, 1968|
|Germany||Present||Holm et al., 1997|
|Greece||Present||Webb, 1968; Holm et al., 1997|
|Hungary||Present||Webb, 1968; Gazdag-Torma and Mandoki, 1986; Kondar and Szabo, 1986|
|Italy||Present||Webb, 1968; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|Poland||Present||Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|Portugal||Present||Popescu et al., 1983; Chirila and Pintilie, 1986|
|Romania||Present||Chirila & Pintil, 1986; Webb, 1968; Popescu et al., 1983|
|Russian Federation||Present||Webb, 1968; Holm et al., 1997|
|Spain||Present||Holm et al., 1997|
|UK||Present||Holm et al., 1997|
|Yugoslavia (former)||Present||Mijatovic and Lozanovski, undated; Webb, 1968; Holm et al., 1991|
|Australia||Widespread||Hnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
|-Australian Northern Territory||Present||Hnatiuk, 1990|
|-New South Wales||Present||Purvis, 1985; Pollock et al., 1984; Purvis et al., 1985; Hnatiuk, 1990|
|-Queensland||Present||Pollock et al., 1984; Hnatiuk, 1990|
|-South Australia||Present||Hnatiuk, 1990|
|-Western Australia||Present||Hnatiuk, 1990|
|New Caledonia||Present||MacKee, 1985|
|New Zealand||Present||Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997|
HabitatTop of page H. trionum is common in moist to wet disturbed soils throughout its mainly tropical and subtropical range. It requires bare soil for germination and is shaded out by dense taller crops and other plants.
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page In addition to the crops listed, H. trionum is also common in gardens, vegetable crops, irrigated crops, nurseries, orchards, along roadsides, around buildings, on wasteland and anywhere which has been disturbed to expose bare soil. It is uncommon in pastures (unless heavily damaged) and in heavily shaded areas.
Biology and EcologyTop of page Currie and Peeper (1986) found that machine harvesting increased germination of H. trionum from 0% to 40%, suggesting that there is physical inhibition of germination by the woody seed coat. Westra et al. (1996) reported that freshly harvested seeds remained 95% dormant after 3 months storage at 25°C.
Growth studies by Chandler and Dale (1974) showed that this weed was less vigorous than its close relatives Sida spinosa, Anoda cristata and Abutilon theophrasti.
The habit, ecology, germination, vegetative and reproductive growth of the plant are discussed (in Romanian) by Chirila and Pintilie (1986) and by Miron et al. (1996), whilst Westra et al. (1996) have also covered its seed ecology in some detail. Roche (1992) presents a wider summary of its biology and ecology, and Holm et al. (1997) usefully review some older literature.
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page H. trionum is an alternative host for some fungal pathogens, including Glomerella cingulata (Mortensen, 1988), Giberella baccata (Walker, 1981) and Verticillium dahliae (Johnson and Brinkerhoff, 1976). It is also recorded as susceptible to Meloidogyne javanica (Bird and Milln, 1979) and the Egyptian stem borer, Earias insulana (Abul-Nasr et al., 1972, Faseli, 1977).
ImpactTop of page Despite its small size, H. trionum can be a significant competitor with many crops. Chandler (1977) showed that height of individual cotton plants could be reduced by densities of <32 weeds per 12 m of row, although final cotton yields were not affected.However, Chandler and Dale (1974) had previously shown that even 64 weeds per 12 m of row had no effects in cotton.
Eaton and Feltner (1973) and Eaton et al. (1976) demonstrated reduced soyabean yields following competition from this weed. Full season competition reduced yield by 75%.
H. trionum is an alternative host for cucumber mosaic cucumovirus in Egypt (Nasser, 1994).
UsesTop of page H. trionum appears to have no useful attributes.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page There are several other weedy annual species of Hibiscus in various parts of the tropics, but all are significantly taller and more erect as well as being woodier than H. trionum. They include (but are probably not restricted to) the following species:
Hibiscus micranthus from India and West Africa is an erect branched woody herb 0.6-1.5 m tall, with small (1 cm diameter) white to pinkish flowers;
Hibiscus panduraeformis from India is an erect branched distinctly bristly, woody herb, 1-2 m tall with showy yellow flowers with purple centres;
Hibiscus vitifolius is also from India and West Africa, and is an erect, little branched, woody herb, 1-1-5 m tall with showy yellow flowers with dark purple centres;
Hibiscus cannabinus occurs in East Africa and eastern Asia, and is an erect prickly and woody herb, 1-2 m tall with white or yellow flowers also containing a purple centre; and
Hibiscus masterianus from East Africa is an erect thorny woody herb, 1-2 m tall, again with showy yellow flowers with a purple centre.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Cultural Control
As an annual weed, H. trionum is susceptible to all forms of cultivation which sever the taproot and remove the plant from the soil (Gab-Alla et al., 1985).
In mulching trials with various crop residues Purvis et al. (1985) found that H. trionum numbers were significantly higher in plots mulched with oilseed rape, sorghum or sunflower than with wheat or field pea.
H. trionum has been controlled with the following herbicides:
metolachlor + oxyfluorfen (Gazdag-Torma and Mandoki, 1986);
oxyfluorfen + chlorbromuron (Gazdag-Torma and Mandoki, 1986);
bifenox (Kondar and Szabo, 1986);
trifluralin (Kondar and Szabo, 1986);
prometryn + fenuron (Kondar and Szabo, 1986);
fenoxan [clomazone] (Hopper, 1986);
cyanazine + atrazine (Parke et al., 1984);
bentazone (Popescu et al., 1983);
acifluorfen (Popescu et al., 1983);
fomesafen (Popescu et al., 1983);
oxyfluorfen (Klauzer, 1983);
prometryne (Kurkova, 1980);
monolinuron (Kurkova, 1980);
metobromuron (Kurkova, 1980);
metribuzin (Kurkova, 1980);
dinitramine (Maksoud et al., 1981);
fluridone (Mirkamali, 1979);
pendimethalin (Wilson and Nzewl, 1974);
triflusulfuron + phenmedipham (Toth and Peter, 1997);
ethofumesate + metamitron (Toth and Peter 1997).
Australian registrations for the control of H. trionum include oxyfluorfen, glufosinate-ammonium, pendimethalin, propachlor, atrazine, prometryne, diquat + paraquat, fluometuron, norflurazon, 2,4-D amine, glyphosate, 2,4-D + picloram, imazethapyr, oryzalin + oxyfluorfen, pendimethalin, acifluorfen, and metribuzin (Hamilton, 1997).
No attempts have been reported at biological control of H. trionum.
ReferencesTop of page
Abul-Nasr S, Megahed MM, Mabrouk AAM, 1972. A study on the host plants of the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana (Boisd.) other than cotton and maize (Lepidoptera:Arctiidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 56:151-161
Hamilton K, 1997. PESKEM - USES - PESTS: The Australian Directory of Registered Pesticides and their Uses. 15th edition. Gatton, Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland.
Hnatiuk RJ, 1990. Census of Australian Vascular Plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series Number 11. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Holm LG, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Horng H-C, Leu L-S, 1980. Weeds of Cultivated Land in Taiwan. Taipei, Taiwan: Weed Science Society of the Republic of China.
Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, 1958. The flora of west tropical Africa, 2nd edition (Revised by RWJ Keay). London, UK: Crown Agents.
Ivens GW, 1968. East African Weeds and their Control. Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press.
Johnson WM, Brinkerhoff LA, 1976. Susceptibility of some crops and weeds to Verticillium dahliae Kleb. isolated from cotton. Proceedings of the 1976 Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences. Memphis, Tennessee, USA: National Cotton Council, 21-22.
MacKee HS, 1985. Les Plantes Introduites et Cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Volume hors series, Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances. Paris, France: Museum Nationelle d'Histoire Naturelle.
Mijatovic K, Lozanovski R, undated. Changes in the floristic composition of weed associations in small grains and maize crops as a consequence of long-term application of herbicides and other measures. Drugi kongres u korovima. Zbornik referata., 21-44; 51 ref.
Miron V, Iancu E, Teodorescu V, Ditu D, Radoi V, 1996. Ecological peculiarities of the principal weed species present in vegetable crops. Anale Institutul de Cerceta^breve~ri pentru Legumicultura^breve~ s^tail~i Floricultura^breve~, Vidra, 14:335-339; 5 ref.
Mortensen K, 1988. The potential of an endemic fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, for biological control of round-leaved mallow (Malva pusilla) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Science, 36(4):473-478
Neal MC, 1965. In Gardens of Hawaii. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication No. 50. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Bishop Museum.
Parke D, Bedford J, 1984. Bladex
Pitts JR, 1996. Pre-emergence and post-emergence weed control in west Texas with Staple herbicide. In: Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences Nashville, 1996. Memphis, USA: National Cotton Council, Vol. 2:1525-1526.
Pollock DC, Davis RC, 1984. Conservation tillage farming in northern New South Wales and Queensland with chlorsulfuron. Proceedings of the seventh Australian weeds conference, 1984, Volume II [edited by Madin, R.W.] Perth, Australia; Weed Society of Western Australia, 1-7
Popescu A, Sarpe N, Tomoroga P, Popa F, Dinu C, Penescu A, 1983. Efficiency of herbicides in controlling Solanum nigrum, Abutilon theophrasti and other dicotyledonous weeds in soyabean crops. Probleme de Agrofitotehnie Teoretica si Aplicata, 5(4):381-393
Smith RL, Arnold WE, 1982. Phytotoxic interactions in tank mix applications of acifluorfen and bentazon. Proceedings, North Central Weed Control Conference. North Central Weed Control Conference, Inc. napolis, USA India, 75
Stoimenova I, Taleva A, Mikova A, 1995. Herbicidal spectrum of some mixtures used in soybean growing. In: Proceedings, Soil Science and Strategy for Sustainable Agriculture Conference, Sofia, Bulgaria. Pochvoznanie, Agrokhimiya y Ekologyia, 30(1-6): 197-199.
Toth E, Peter I, 1997. Weed control in sugarbeet with triflusulfuron-methyl based programmes: the Hungarian experience. Proceedings of the 49th international symposium on crop protection, Gent, Belgium, 6 May 1997, Part III. Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit-Gent, 1997, 62(3a): 791-798.
Wells MJ, Balsinhas AA, Joffe H, Engelbrecht VM, Harding G, Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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