Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Hibiscus trionum
(Venice mallow)



Hibiscus trionum (Venice mallow)


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hibiscus trionum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Venice mallow
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Young plant of H. trionum (note matchstick for scale).
TitleYoung plant
CaptionYoung plant of H. trionum (note matchstick for scale).
CopyrightJohn T. Swarbrick
Young plant of H. trionum (note matchstick for scale).
Young plantYoung plant of H. trionum (note matchstick for scale).John T. Swarbrick
CopyrightJohn T. Swarbrick
SeedlingJohn T. Swarbrick
TitleMaturing plant
CopyrightJohn T. Swarbrick
Maturing plantJohn T. Swarbrick
Mature flowering plant of H. trionum (leaves of other species present).
TitleFlowering plant
CaptionMature flowering plant of H. trionum (leaves of other species present).
CopyrightJohn T. Swarbrick
Mature flowering plant of H. trionum (leaves of other species present).
Flowering plantMature flowering plant of H. trionum (leaves of other species present).John T. Swarbrick
Mature flowering plant (40-70 cm tall).
TitleFloweing plant
CaptionMature flowering plant (40-70 cm tall).
Mature flowering plant (40-70 cm tall).
Floweing plantMature flowering plant (40-70 cm tall).AgrEvo


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hibiscus trionum

Preferred Common Name

  • Venice mallow

Other Scientific Names

  • Ketmia trionum Scop.
  • Trionum diffusum Moench.

International Common Names

  • English: bladder hibiscus; bladder ketmia; flower of an hour; ketmia
  • Spanish: aurora comun; flor de una hora
  • French: ketmia d'Afrique
  • Arabic: shebbet

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Eibisch, Stunden-; Stundenblume, Gelbe
  • Italy: ibisco a tre foglie
  • Madagascar: telorirana
  • Netherlands: drieurenbloem
  • Saudi Arabia: teel shataani; teel sheitani
  • South Africa: iyeza-lentshulube; lefefane; lolwane; terblansbossie; uurblom
  • Turkey: seytan keneviri
  • Zambia: kombwe; likulu; lumanda; mikukwa; sansamwa

EPPO code

  • HIBTR (Hibiscus trionum)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Malvaceae
  •                             Genus: Hibiscus
  •                                 Species: Hibiscus trionum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Hibiscus trionum is the widely accepted and commonly used name for this tropical weedy species. Hibiscus is an ancient Greek name for mallow (a related genus), and trionum describes the tri-partite leaf.


Top of page H. trionum is a spreading to erect annual herb, usually 40-70 cm tall.

The root system usually consists of a strong white taproot with many slender laterals in the upper layers of the soil.

The plants are usually strongly branched at the base, giving rise to several ascending, rather woody stems. The stems are green to brown or purplish, striate and variously hairy or bristly.

The leaves occur singly along the stems on 1-6 cm long bristly petioles. Each leaf is palmately divided into three (occasionally five or seven) segments, each very variable in shape and size but usually shallowly to very deeply lobed, 2-8 cm long and hairy or bristly. The leaves may be paler below than above and have pellucid glands.

The flowers, 2.5-4.0 cm in diameter, occur singly in the upper leaf axils, on bristly 2-5 cm long pedicels. Each flower consists of a ring of eight to ten slender bracteoles outside the five inflated hairy, green to purplish sepals, five oval white, cream, pink or yellow petals, each with a dark red to purple basal spot, and a central column bearing numerous stamens and ending in five globular stigmas.

The bristly, oval to spherical fruits develop inside the inflated papery sepals, and at maturity dry out and split into five to release the numerous seeds. The seeds are rough, oval, flattened, dark brown to black and 2-3 mm long.

Seedlings have epigeal germination and may be tinged with purple. The hypocotyl is erect, hairy and about 2 cm long, and the cotyledons oval and strongly 3-veined on hairy petioles. The juvenile leaves are undivided, oval and strongly veined.


Top of page The origin of H. trionum is uncertain, and is difficult to ascertain as the species has now become widespread. It is distributed primarily in tropical and subtropical regions but has also spread to temperate regions in Europe and North America.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
ChinaWidespreadWang, 1990; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
IndiaPresentRao and Ramayya, 1981; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
IranPresentMirkamali, 1979; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
IraqPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
IsraelPresentHolm et al., 1991
JapanPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
JordanPresentHolm et al., 1991
KazakhstanPresentKurkova, 1980
Korea, DPRPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
KuwaitPresentMathew et al., 2012
LebanonPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
PakistanPresentHolm et al., 1997
Saudi ArabiaPresentHolm et al., 1997
TaiwanPresentHorng and Leu, 1980
TurkeyPresentHolm et al., 1997


BotswanaPresentExcell, 1961; Wells et al., 1986; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
Côte d'IvoirePresentHolm et al., 1997
EgyptPresentGab-Alla et al., 1985; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
EthiopiaPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
GambiaPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
GhanaPresentHolm et al., 1991
KenyaPresentIvens, 1968
MadagascarPresentHolm et al., 1997
MaliPresentHutchinson et al., 1958
MozambiquePresentExcell, 1961
NamibiaPresentWells et al., 1986
SenegalPresentHutchinson et al., 1958; Holm et al., 1991
South AfricaPresentWells et al., 1986; de Villiers, 1987; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
SudanPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
SwazilandPresentWells et al., 1986; Holm et al., 1991
TanzaniaPresentHolm et al., 1997
ZambiaPresentExcell, 1961; Vernon, 1983; Holm et al., 1991
ZimbabwePresentExcell, 1961; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997

North America

CanadaPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
-SaskatchewanPresentMortensen, 1988
USAWidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Holm et al., 1997
-AlabamaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-ColoradoPresentWestra et al., 1996
-ConnecticutPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-DelawarePresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-FloridaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-HawaiiPresentNeal, 1965
-IdahoPresentKlauzer, 1983
-IllinoisPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-IndianaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-IowaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-KansasPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-KentuckyPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-LouisianaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MainePresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MarylandPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MassachusettsPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MichiganPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MinnesotaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-MississippiPresentChandler, 1977; Walker, 1981; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-NebraskaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Teo-Sherrell et al., 1996
-New HampshirePresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-New JerseyPresentWilson and Nzewl, 1974; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-New MexicoPresentPitts, 1996
-New YorkPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-North CarolinaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-OhioPresentGuscar et al.,1983; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-OklahomaPresentCurrie and Peeper, 1986; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-PennsylvaniaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-Rhode IslandPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-South CarolinaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-South DakotaPresentSmith and Arnold, 1982; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-TennesseePresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-TexasPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Pitts, 1996
-VermontPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-VirginiaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-West VirginiaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987
-WisconsinPresentLorenzi and Jeffery, 1987

South America

ChilePresentHolm et al., 1997


AlbaniaPresentWebb, 1968
BulgariaPresentWebb, 1968; Stoimenova et al., 1995
Czech RepublicPresentWebb, 1968
GermanyPresentHolm et al., 1997
GreecePresentWebb, 1968; Holm et al., 1997
HungaryPresentWebb, 1968; Gazdag-Torma and Mandoki, 1986; Kondar and Szabo, 1986
ItalyPresentWebb, 1968; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
PolandPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
PortugalPresentPopescu et al., 1983; Chirila and Pintilie, 1986
RomaniaPresentChirila & Pintil, 1986; Webb, 1968; Popescu et al., 1983
Russian FederationPresentWebb, 1968; Holm et al., 1997
SpainPresentHolm et al., 1997
UKPresentHolm et al., 1997
UkrainePresentVorob'ev, 1974
Yugoslavia (former)PresentMijatovic and Lozanovski, undated; Webb, 1968; Holm et al., 1991


AustraliaWidespreadHnatiuk, 1990; Holm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentHnatiuk, 1990
-New South WalesPresentPurvis, 1985; Pollock et al., 1984; Purvis et al., 1985; Hnatiuk, 1990
-QueenslandPresentPollock et al., 1984; Hnatiuk, 1990
-South AustraliaPresentHnatiuk, 1990
-TasmaniaPresentHnatiuk, 1990
-VictoriaPresentHnatiuk, 1990
-Western AustraliaPresentHnatiuk, 1990
New CaledoniaPresentMacKee, 1985
New ZealandPresentHolm et al., 1991; Holm et al., 1997


Top of page H. trionum is common in moist to wet disturbed soils throughout its mainly tropical and subtropical range. It requires bare soil for germination and is shaded out by dense taller crops and other plants.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page In addition to the crops listed, H. trionum is also common in gardens, vegetable crops, irrigated crops, nurseries, orchards, along roadsides, around buildings, on wasteland and anywhere which has been disturbed to expose bare soil. It is uncommon in pastures (unless heavily damaged) and in heavily shaded areas.

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Currie and Peeper (1986) found that machine harvesting increased germination of H. trionum from 0% to 40%, suggesting that there is physical inhibition of germination by the woody seed coat. Westra et al. (1996) reported that freshly harvested seeds remained 95% dormant after 3 months storage at 25°C.

Growth studies by Chandler and Dale (1974) showed that this weed was less vigorous than its close relatives Sida spinosa, Anoda cristata and Abutilon theophrasti.

The habit, ecology, germination, vegetative and reproductive growth of the plant are discussed (in Romanian) by Chirila and Pintilie (1986) and by Miron et al. (1996), whilst Westra et al. (1996) have also covered its seed ecology in some detail. Roche (1992) presents a wider summary of its biology and ecology, and Holm et al. (1997) usefully review some older literature.

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page H. trionum is an alternative host for some fungal pathogens, including Glomerella cingulata (Mortensen, 1988), Giberella baccata (Walker, 1981) and Verticillium dahliae (Johnson and Brinkerhoff, 1976). It is also recorded as susceptible to Meloidogyne javanica (Bird and Milln, 1979) and the Egyptian stem borer, Earias insulana (Abul-Nasr et al., 1972, Faseli, 1977).


Top of page Despite its small size, H. trionum can be a significant competitor with many crops. Chandler (1977) showed that height of individual cotton plants could be reduced by densities of <32 weeds per 12 m of row, although final cotton yields were not affected.However, Chandler and Dale (1974) had previously shown that even 64 weeds per 12 m of row had no effects in cotton.

Eaton and Feltner (1973) and Eaton et al. (1976) demonstrated reduced soyabean yields following competition from this weed. Full season competition reduced yield by 75%.

H. trionum is an alternative host for cucumber mosaic cucumovirus in Egypt (Nasser, 1994).


Top of page H. trionum appears to have no useful attributes.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page There are several other weedy annual species of Hibiscus in various parts of the tropics, but all are significantly taller and more erect as well as being woodier than H. trionum. They include (but are probably not restricted to) the following species:

Hibiscus micranthus from India and West Africa is an erect branched woody herb 0.6-1.5 m tall, with small (1 cm diameter) white to pinkish flowers;

Hibiscus panduraeformis from India is an erect branched distinctly bristly, woody herb, 1-2 m tall with showy yellow flowers with purple centres;

Hibiscus vitifolius is also from India and West Africa, and is an erect, little branched, woody herb, 1-1-5 m tall with showy yellow flowers with dark purple centres;

Hibiscus cannabinus occurs in East Africa and eastern Asia, and is an erect prickly and woody herb, 1-2 m tall with white or yellow flowers also containing a purple centre; and

Hibiscus masterianus from East Africa is an erect thorny woody herb, 1-2 m tall, again with showy yellow flowers with a purple centre.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

As an annual weed, H. trionum is susceptible to all forms of cultivation which sever the taproot and remove the plant from the soil (Gab-Alla et al., 1985).

In mulching trials with various crop residues Purvis et al. (1985) found that H. trionum numbers were significantly higher in plots mulched with oilseed rape, sorghum or sunflower than with wheat or field pea.

Chemical Control

H. trionum has been controlled with the following herbicides:

metolachlor + oxyfluorfen (Gazdag-Torma and Mandoki, 1986);
oxyfluorfen + chlorbromuron (Gazdag-Torma and Mandoki, 1986);
bifenox (Kondar and Szabo, 1986);
trifluralin (Kondar and Szabo, 1986);
prometryn + fenuron (Kondar and Szabo, 1986);
fenoxan [clomazone] (Hopper, 1986);
cyanazine + atrazine (Parke et al., 1984);
bentazone (Popescu et al., 1983);
acifluorfen (Popescu et al., 1983);
fomesafen (Popescu et al., 1983);
oxyfluorfen (Klauzer, 1983);
prometryne (Kurkova, 1980);
monolinuron (Kurkova, 1980);
metobromuron (Kurkova, 1980);
metribuzin (Kurkova, 1980);
dinitramine (Maksoud et al., 1981);
fluridone (Mirkamali, 1979);
pendimethalin (Wilson and Nzewl, 1974);
triflusulfuron + phenmedipham (Toth and Peter, 1997);
ethofumesate + metamitron (Toth and Peter 1997).

Australian registrations for the control of H. trionum include oxyfluorfen, glufosinate-ammonium, pendimethalin, propachlor, atrazine, prometryne, diquat + paraquat, fluometuron, norflurazon, 2,4-D amine, glyphosate, 2,4-D + picloram, imazethapyr, oryzalin + oxyfluorfen, pendimethalin, acifluorfen, and metribuzin (Hamilton, 1997).

Biological Control

No attempts have been reported at biological control of H. trionum.


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Abul-Nasr S, Megahed MM, Mabrouk AAM, 1972. A study on the host plants of the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana (Boisd.) other than cotton and maize (Lepidoptera:Arctiidae). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 56:151-161

Bird AF, Milln JP, 1979. The growth of Meloidogyne javanica in some Australian native plants. Search, 10(1/2):48-50

Chandler JM, 1977. Competition of spurred anoda, veletleaf, prickly sida and venice mallow in cotton. Weed Science, 25(2):151-158

Chandler JM, Dale JE, 1974. Comparative growth of four malvaceous species. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society, 116-117

Chirila C, Pintilie C, 1986. Weeds in agricultural crops and their control. (XXIV). Hibiscus trionum L. Productia Vegetala, Cereale si Plante Tehnice, 38(1):25-27

Currie RS, Peeper TF, 1986. Effect of harvest method on weed seed germination and potential emergence of resistance. Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society, 395.

Eaton BJ, Feltner KC, 1973. Venice mallow competition in soybeans. Weed Science, 21(2):89-94

Eaton BJ, Russ OG, Feltner KC, 1976. Competition of velvetleaf, prickly sida and Venice mallow in soybeans. Weed Science, 24(2):224-228

Faseli MD, 1977. Investigations on the biology, ecology and control of Earias insulana Boisd. (Noctuidae). Entomologie et Phytopathologie Appliquees, No.43:Pe 39-54; de 6-7

Gab-Alla FI, Mohamed MK, El-Deepah HRA, 1985. Effect of hoeing and thinning date on maize (Zea mays, L.) and associated weeds. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 23(1):15-28

Gazdag-Torma M, Mándoki A, 1986. Use of Goal 2 E in onions. Növényvédelem, 22(10):471-473.

Guscar HL, Bellman SK, Hillson MT, Warfield TR, 1983. FMC 57020 4EC-control of broadleaves in conventional soybean. Proceedings of the North Central Weed Control Conference Columbus, Ohio, USA, 23.

Hamilton K, 1997. PESKEM - USES - PESTS: The Australian Directory of Registered Pesticides and their Uses. 15th edition. Gatton, Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland.

Hnatiuk RJ, 1990. Census of Australian Vascular Plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series Number 11. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Holm LG, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company.

Hopper DM, 1986. FMC-57020 - 1985 EUP/TT results. Proceedings, 40th annual meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society., 78.

Horng H-C, Leu L-S, 1980. Weeds of Cultivated Land in Taiwan. Taipei, Taiwan: Weed Science Society of the Republic of China.

Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, 1958. The flora of west tropical Africa, 2nd edition (Revised by RWJ Keay). London, UK: Crown Agents.

Ivens GW, 1968. East African Weeds and their Control. Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press.

Johnson WM, Brinkerhoff LA, 1976. Susceptibility of some crops and weeds to Verticillium dahliae Kleb. isolated from cotton. Proceedings of the 1976 Beltwide Cotton Production Research Conferences. Memphis, Tennessee, USA: National Cotton Council, 21-22.

Klauzer J, 1983. Postemergence broadleaf weed control in onions with oxyfluorfen. Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science, 36:193.

Kondár L, Szabó M, 1986. Weed control in sunflowers. Növényvédelem, 22(3):126-129.

Kurkova ZI, 1980. Effect of chemical and mechanical treatments of soil on yield and quality of potatoes in Alma-Ata region. Nauchnye osnovy vozdelyvaniya kartofelya v Kazakhstane., 124-139.

Lorenzi HJ, Jeffery LS(Editors), 1987. Weeds of the United States and their control. New York, USA; Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd., 355 pp.

MacKee HS, 1985. Les Plantes Introduites et Cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Volume hors series, Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances. Paris, France: Museum Nationelle d'Histoire Naturelle.

Maksoud MA, Rizk TY, El-Oksh I, Fayed T, Ibrahim H, 1981. Chemical and mechanical weed control in transplanted tomatoes. Annals of Agricultural Science, 26(1/2):307-321

Mathew KT, Malallah G, Al-Dosari M, 2012. Eleven new weeds in Kuwait. Kuwait Journal of Science & Engineering, 39(1A):169-192.

Mijatovic K, Lozanovski R, undated. Changes in the floristic composition of weed associations in small grains and maize crops as a consequence of long-term application of herbicides and other measures. Drugi kongres u korovima. Zbornik referata., 21-44; 51 ref.

Mirkamali H, 1979. Experiments on the new herbicide fluridon in cotton. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 15(1/4):34-39

Miron V, Iancu E, Teodorescu V, Ditu D, Radoi V, 1996. Ecological peculiarities of the principal weed species present in vegetable crops. Anale Institutul de Cerceta^breve~ri pentru Legumicultura^breve~ s^tail~i Floricultura^breve~, Vidra, 14:335-339; 5 ref.

Mortensen K, 1988. The potential of an endemic fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, for biological control of round-leaved mallow (Malva pusilla) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Science, 36(4):473-478

Nasser MAK, 1994. Incidence of cucumber mosaic virus in relation to aphid vectors activity and infection sources. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 25(3):223-232

Neal MC, 1965. In Gardens of Hawaii. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication No. 50. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Bishop Museum.

Parke D, Bedford J, 1984. Bladex a triazine herbicide for fallow weed control. No-tillage crop production in northern N.S.W. [Edited by Martin, R.J.; Felton, W.L.] Tamworth, Australia; Department of Agriculture, 121-122

Pitts JR, 1996. Pre-emergence and post-emergence weed control in west Texas with Staple herbicide. In: Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conferences Nashville, 1996. Memphis, USA: National Cotton Council, Vol. 2:1525-1526.

Pollock DC, Davis RC, 1984. Conservation tillage farming in northern New South Wales and Queensland with chlorsulfuron. Proceedings of the seventh Australian weeds conference, 1984, Volume II [edited by Madin, R.W.] Perth, Australia; Weed Society of Western Australia, 1-7

Popescu A, Sarpe N, Tomoroga P, Popa F, Dinu C, Penescu A, 1983. Efficiency of herbicides in controlling Solanum nigrum, Abutilon theophrasti and other dicotyledonous weeds in soyabean crops. Probleme de Agrofitotehnie Teoretica si Aplicata, 5(4):381-393

Purvis CE, Jessop RS, Lovett JV, 1985. Selective regulation of germination and growth of annual weeds by crop residues. Weed Research, UK, 25(6):415-421

Rao SRS, Ramayya N, 1981. Distribution of stomata and its relation to plant habit in the order Malvales. Indian Journal of Botany, 4(2):149-156

Roche C, 1992. Venice mallow (Hibiscus trionum L.). Pacific Northwest Cooperative Extension Publication, PNW412:2 pp.

Smith RL, Arnold WE, 1982. Phytotoxic interactions in tank mix applications of acifluorfen and bentazon. Proceedings, North Central Weed Control Conference. North Central Weed Control Conference, Inc. napolis, USA India, 75

Stoimenova I, Taleva A, Mikova A, 1995. Herbicidal spectrum of some mixtures used in soybean growing. In: Proceedings, Soil Science and Strategy for Sustainable Agriculture Conference, Sofia, Bulgaria. Pochvoznanie, Agrokhimiya y Ekologyia, 30(1-6): 197-199.

Teo-Sherrell CPA, Mortensen DA, Keaton ME, 1996. Fates of weed seeds in soil: a seeded core method of study. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33(5):1107-1113; 24 ref.

Toth E, Peter I, 1997. Weed control in sugarbeet with triflusulfuron-methyl based programmes: the Hungarian experience. Proceedings of the 49th international symposium on crop protection, Gent, Belgium, 6 May 1997, Part III. Mededelingen Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit-Gent, 1997, 62(3a): 791-798.

Vernon R, unda. Field guide to important arable weeds of Zambia. Field guide to important arable weeds of Zambia. Department of Agriculture Chilanga Zambia, 151pp.

Villiers DA de, 1987. Alternative hosts for the black root rot fungus Thielaviopsis basicola of tobacco. Phytophylactica, 19(3):347-348

Vorob'ev NE, 1974. Study of the importance of competition for light in interrelations between cultivated and weed plants. Ukrain'skii Botanichnii Zhurnal, 31(1):18-24

Walker HL, 1981. Fusarium lateritium: a pathogen of spurred anoda (Anoda cristata), prickly sida (Sida spinosa) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Science, 29(6):629-631

Wells MJ, Balsinhas AA, Joffe H, Engelbrecht VM, Harding G, Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

Westra P, Pearson CH, Ristau R, Schweissing F, 1996. Venice mallow (Hibiscus trionum) seed production and persistence in soil in Colorado. Weed Technology, 10(1):22-28; 18 ref.

Wilson RR, Nzewl GI, 1974. Pre-emergence weed control in corn with AC-92553 herbicide. Proceedings of the North Central Weed Control Conference, Vol. 29:128-129.

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