Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Hibiscus elatus
(blue mahoe)

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Datasheet

Hibiscus elatus (blue mahoe)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hibiscus elatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • blue mahoe
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Due to its rapid growth rate and valuable wood, H. elatus has been introduced and grown in experimental and forestry plantations. It has been also introduced in tropical and warm temperature areas to be used as...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hibiscus elatus Sw.

Preferred Common Name

  • blue mahoe

Other Scientific Names

  • Hibiscus azanzae DC.
  • Hibiscus tiliaceus subsp. elatus (Sw.) Borss. Waalk.
  • Pariti grande Britton
  • Paritium elatum (Sw.) G. Don
  • Talipariti elatum (Sw.) Fryxell

International Common Names

  • English: Cuban bast; mahoe; mahoe tree; mountain mahoe; seaside mahoe
  • Spanish: emajagua; majagua; majagua azul; majahua; majó
  • French: hibiscus en arbre
  • Portuguese: algodoeiro-da-Índia; hibiscus-da-praia

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: hibisco; hibispo; malvácea
  • Cuba: majagua común; majagua hembra; majagua prieta
  • Germany: Eibisch, Hoher Linden-; Hibiskus, Baum-
  • Haiti: cotton marron
  • Honduras: demajagua
  • Italy: ibisco arboreo
  • Lesser Antilles: blue maho; mahot gomb
  • Mexico: holó; majahau; masahua
  • Puerto Rico: majagua majó
  • Saint Lucia: blue mahout
  • Venezuela: algodoncillo

EPPO code

  • HIBEL (Hibiscus elatus)

Trade name

  • blue mahoe
  • mahoe

Summary of Invasiveness

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Due to its rapid growth rate and valuable wood, H. elatus has been introduced and grown in experimental and forestry plantations. It has been also introduced in tropical and warm temperature areas to be used as an ornamental and shade tree (Weaver and Francis, 1989). This early successional tree has escaped from cultivation and can be found naturalized in disturbed sites, secondary montane forests and foothills (Francis and Liogier, 1991; Graveson, 2012). Currently, H. elatus is listed as invasive only in Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad and Tobago Biodiversity, 2016), but it is spreading and becoming abundant on many Caribbean islands such as Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Grenada and St Lucia (Francis and Liogier, 1991; Kairo et al., 2000; Salazar and Soihet, 2001; Graveson, 2012).

A risk assessment for Hawaii gave the species a low risk score of 5 (PIER, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Malvaceae
  •                             Genus: Hibiscus
  •                                 Species: Hibiscus elatus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Malvaceae is a large family of flowering plants comprising about 243 genera and 4,225 species distributed in tropical and temperate regions of the world (Stevens, 2012). In recent years, morphological and molecular studies have shown that many of the families traditionally included in the Malvales are not monophyletic and as a result an expanded circumscription of the family Malvaceae has been created. Currently the family Malvaceae is composed of following nine subfamilies: Bombacoideae (formerly Bombacaceae), Brownlowioideae, Byttnerioideae, Dombeyoideae, Grewioideae, Helicteroideae, Malvoideae (formerly Malvaceae), Sterculioideae (formerly Sterculiaceae), and Tilioideae (Tiliaceae) (Tate et al., 2005).

The genus Hibiscus comprises 580 species (including Pavonia) and is the largest genus within the subfamily Malvoideae (Stevens, 2012). Hibiscus includes many species that are widely used in horticulture, as fibre crops, livestock feed, human food sources, folk medicines, and as ornamentals (Pfeil et al., 2002). Some authors consider H. elatus to be an upland variety of H. tiliaceus (sea hibiscus), a closely related but small tree common on shores throughout the tropics. Fryxell (2001) separated 22 Hibiscus species into a separate genus Talipariti, including moving Hibiscus elatus to Talipariti elatus, but this datasheet uses H. elatus, which is still the accepted name on The Plant List (2013).

The common name mahoe is derived from a Carib word. The ‘blue’ refers to blue-green streaks in the polished wood, giving it a distinctive appearance.

Description

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H. elatus is a large evergreen tree up to 25 m high, tall straight trunk 0.4 m in diameter or larger. Leaves alternate with slender round leafstalks, 6–10 cm long, light green basal scales (stipules) 3 cm long, shedding early and leaving ring scar. Blades heart-shaped and nearly round, about 13–18 cm long and broad, abruptly shorter long-pointed at apex and heart-shaped or notched at base, with straight or finely wavy edges, with mostly nine main veins from base, slightly thickened, upper surface green and hair-less, lower surface gray hairy with 1–3 narrow glands near base of main veins. Flowers 1–3 borne at leaf bases at ends of twigs on stout green stalks of 13 mm, with light green hairy basal cup (involucre) 2 cm long with nine long-pointed lobes. Calyx 4–5 cm, light green, hairy, tubular with five narrow long-pointed spreading lobes. Petals five, yellow with large dark red spot at base inside, 9–13 cm long, narrow elliptical spreading, united at base. Stamens numerous on whitish column united with corolla at base. Pistil has densely hairy five-celled ovary, long style, and five rounded stigmas. Seed capsules egg-shaped, 2.5–4 cm long, blunt-pointed, densely hairy, splitting into five parts, calyx and involucre shedding. A red-flowered form is known there (Little and Skolmen, 2003).

Distribution

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H. elatus is native to Cuba and Jamaica, and is the national tree of Jamaica. It can also be found cultivated and naturalized in Peru, Brazil, Mexico, Florida, Hawaii, and on islands in the West Indies (Weaver and Francis, 1989; Salazar and Soihet, 2001; Broome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2016

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedWeaver and Francis, 1989Cultivated and naturalized
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWeaver and Francis, 1989Cultivated and naturalized
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedLittle and Skolmen, 2003Cultivated and naturalized

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentPFAF, 2016
CaribbeanPresentPlanted, Natural
CubaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
DominicaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GrenadaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresentPFAF, 2016
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedMolina, 1975
JamaicaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
NicaraguaPresentPFAF, 2016
PanamaPresentPFAF, 2016
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated and naturalized
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced Invasive Trinidad and Tobago Biodiversity, 2016
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012

South America

BoliviaPresent Planted
BrazilPresentIntroducedWeaver and Francis, 1989Cultivated and naturalized
GuyanaPresentPFAF, 2016
PeruPresentIntroducedWeaver and Francis, 1989Cultivated and naturalized
SurinamePresentPFAF, 2016

History of Introduction and Spread

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In Puerto Rico, H. elatus was introduced in the 1940s to be tested in experimental forestry plantations (Weaver and Francis, 1989). Since then it has been grown in plantations as an ornamental tree in gardens and parks and can be found naturalized across the island, principally in montane forests, moist lowland sites, foothills and secondary rainforests (Francis and Weaver, 1988; Weaver and Francis, 1989; Francis and Liogier, 1991).

On St Lucia, it has been widely planted for reforestation projects by the St Lucia Department of Forestry. It has escaped from plantations and can now be found naturalized in lower montane rainforests (Graveson, 2012).

In Hawaii, it was introduced about the middle of the 20th century as a forest and shade tree in moist lowland zones. It was also introduced as a shade tree in southern Florida, because of its resistance to salt spray (Little and Skolmen, 2003). This species is also reported as naturalized in Mexico, Peru, Brazil, and on many islands in the Lesser Antilles (Weaver and Francis, 1989; Salazar and Soihet, 2001; Broome et al., 2007).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Puerto Rico Jamaica 1940s Timber trade (pathway cause) Yes No Weaver and Francis (1989)

Habitat

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H. elatus is an early successional species that can be found growing in montane forests, moist lowlands, foothills, secondary forests, and disturbed moist sites (Weaver and Francis, 1989; Francis and Liogier, 1991; Salazar and Soihet, 2001). It can grow at elevations from sea level to 1200 m, but does not occur in the immediate coastal zone (Lovig, 2013).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for H. elatus varies from 2n=60 to 2n=90 (Butorina et al., 1990). Hybridization with the closed related species H. tiliaceus has been reported (Ashton et al., 1990).

Reproductive Biology

Flowers of H. elatus are bisexual. Trees may remain in flower for approximately 3 to 4 months. Buds open in the late afternoon into the night and flowers remain open for up 48 hours. A studied performed in Jamaica showed that nocturnal visitors of H. elatus include bats and moths, while diurnal visitors include bees, hummingbirds and flies. However, >99% of the pollination (pollen deposition) is performed by bats (Lovig, 2013).

Physiology and Phenology

In Cuba, H. elatus has been recorded flowering from November to March and fruiting from February to May. In Jamaica, fruiting occurs from March to April. In Puerto Rico flowers are produced all year long (Salazar and Soihet, 2001).

Longevity

H. elatus has been classified as a perennial, early successional tree. This species grows rapidly, reaching a height of 18 m in just 10 years (Little and Skolmen, 2003).

Activity Patterns

Seeds of H. elatus may remain viable for 4-6 months. Germination rate in this species varies from 40% to 80%. Germination starts 10 days after seed sowing (Weaver and Francis, 1989).

Associations

In the Caribbean region, H. elatus is a host plant for the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Kairo et al., 2000). The hibiscus mealybug has been reported on more than 200 plant species globally and behaves as a pest on fibre crops, grapevines, fruits and forest trees and ornamentals (Kairo et al., 2000).

In Cuba, H. elatus grows in montane forest associated with the following species: Andira inermis, Calophyllum calaba, Carapa guianensis, Guarea guara, Manilkara sideroxylon, and Bactris cubensis (Weaver and Francis, 1989).

Environmental Requirements

H. elatus grows best on areas with mean annual rainfall ranging between 1500 mm and 3800 mm and temperature ranging between 20-26°C at elevations from sea level to 1200 m. It is adapted to a wide variety of soil types including limestone and calcareous soils, but prefers fertile, well-drained soil with pH 6.5 -- 7.9 (Salazar and Soihet, 2001). It can tolerate understory shade and direct sunlight (Weaver and Francis, 1989). The plant can tolerate strong winds but not maritime exposure (PFAF, 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
26 -15 0 1200

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 25

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration23number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall15003800mm; lower/upper limits

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anomis illita Herbivore Seedlings not specific
Maconellicoccus hirsutus Herbivore Whole plant not specific
Pestalotia heterocornis Pathogen Whole plant not specific
Septoria Pathogen Whole plant not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus has been reported causing severe devastation on stands of H. elatus in the West Indies (Kairo et al., 2000). In Cuba, the species Anomis illita is an important herbivore of seedlings in nurseries (Salazar and Soihet, 2001). In Jamaica foliar damage caused by Septoria sp. and Pestalotia heterocornis has been reported (Weaver and Francis, 1989).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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H. elatus spreads by seeds. Each fruit may contain up to 100 seeds, which are dispersed by wind and water (Salazar and Soihet, 2001; Lovig, 2013). In cultivation, it can be spread vegetatively via cuttings (Weaver and Francis, 1989).

Intentional introduction

Since the 1940s, H. elatus has been intentionally introduced in experimental and forestry plantations across the West Indies, tropical America and Hawaii (Weaver and Francis, 1989; Salazar and Soihet, 2001; Little and Skolmen, 2003).

Environmental Impact

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H. elatus has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized in natural and disturbed sites where it is outcompeting native species (Francis and Liogier, 1991; Trindad and Tobago Biodiversity, 2016). Across the West Indies, this tree species is spreading, becoming more abundant and competing with native species in forest stands (Francis and Liogier, 1991; Graveson, 2012; Trinidad and Tobago Biodiversity, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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The attractive coloured wood of H. elatus has been appreciated for cabinetwork, furniture, fine boxes, floors, baseball bats, souvenirs and sculptures. In Puerto Rico, the wood has been traditionally used to make “cuatros”. Other uses include construction, railroad crossties, and shingles. The fibrous bark of young trees makes good ropes. Formerly, the lacelike inner bark was used for tying bundles of Havana cigars and was called Cuban bark. An infusion of the leaves and young twigs is used in traditional Caribbean medicine. In Cuba it is often planted as a windbreak (Weaver and Francis, 1989; Salazar and Soihet, 2001; Little and Skolmen, 2003).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, no. 98. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington DC, 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams CD, 1971. The blue mahoe & other bush: an introduction to plant life in Jamaica. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Far Eastern Press

Ashton PMS, Lowe JS, Larson BC, 1989. Thinning and spacing guidelines for blue mahoe (Hibiscus elatus Sw.). Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 2(1):37-47; 14 ref

Ashton PMS, Lowe JS, Larson BC, 1990. Some evidence for the cause of epicormic sprouting in blue mahoe (Hibiscus elatus Sw.) in the moist limestone region of Puerto Rico. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 3(2):123-130; 14 ref

Ayensu ES, 1981. Medicinal Plants of the West Indies. Michigan, USA: Reference Publications Inc

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Burns LV, 1942. Roofing shingles in Jamaica. Carib. For. 4 (9-15)

Butorina, A. K., Muraya, L. S., Moreno, V., 1990. Cytogenetics of Hibiscus elatus Sw. Genetika (Moskva), 26(1), 149-153.

Callan E-McC, 1943. Observations on cotton stainers (Dysdercus spp.) and their host plants in Jamaica. Trop. Agric. 20 (113-5). [Imperial College of Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad.]

Calzadilla E, Jiménez M, González A, Mojena B, Renda A, Sánchez J, 1987. Some experience with agroforestry systems in the northern foothills of the Sierra Maestra. Revista Forestal Baracoa, 17(2):57-74; 17 ref

Caribbean Commission, 1953. Report of the Conference on Caribbean timbers, their utilization and trade within the area, Trinidad. April 15-22

Chudnoff M, 1984. Tropical timbers of the world. Agriculture Handbook, USDA, No. 607, Madison, USA: Forest Products Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

De Freitas K, Paquet J, 1980. Manual of Dendrology . Inventory of the Indigenous Forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Forestry Division, Trinidad and Tobago, 4:55

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Francis JK, 1989. Merchantable volume and weights of mahoe in Puerto Rican plantations. Research Note Southern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. SO-355, 4 pp.; 12 ref

Francis JK, Weaver PL, 1988. Performance of Hibiscus elatus in Puerto Rico. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 67(4):327-338; 34 ref

Francis, J. K., Liogier, H. A., 1991. Naturalized exotic tree species in Puerto Rico. In: General Technical Report - Southern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service , (No. SO-82) . i + 12 pp.

Fryxell, P. A., 2001. Talipariti (Malvaceae), a segregate from Hibiscus. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium, 23, 225-270.

Garcia A, Valdes H, Triguero N, 1990. Anomis illita (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), an important defoliator of Hibiscus elatus (majagua). Revista Forestal Baracoa, 20(2):7-17

Geary TF, Briscoe CB, 1972. Tree species for plantations in the granitic uplands of Puerto Rico. Forest Service Research Paper, Institute of Tropical Forestry, Puerto Rico, No. ITF-14, 8 pp.; 6 ref

Gindel I, 1972. Centre for Forestry Research and Training, Cuba. Methods of establishing shelterbelts and windbreaks. FAO Report, No. FO (SF-CUB 3):Informe Tecnico 2, vii + 67 pp.; 4 ref

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Jimenez M, Rodriguez A, Montalvo JM, Alvarez L, 1988. Evaluation of Coffea arabica in association with forest trees on terraces in the Sierra del Rosario, Pinar del Rio, Cuba. [Evaluacion del Coffea arabica asociado con especies forestales en terrazas de plataforma constante en la Sierra del Rosario, Pinar del Rio.] Revista Forestal Baracoa, 18(1):65-78; 19 ref

Kairo, M. T. K., Pollard, G. V., Peterkin, D. D., Lopez, V. F., 2000. Biological control of the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Caribbean. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 5(4), 241-254. doi: 10.1023/A:1012997619132

Kribs DA, 1950. Commercial foreign woods on teh American market: a manual to their structure, identification, uses and distribution. Edwards Brothers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich. 1950. pp. iii + 157 + 334 photos. Many refs

Leather RI, 1967. A catalogue of some plant diseases and fungi in Jamaica. Bulletin, Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Jamaica No. 61 (n.s.), 1967. pp. 92. [18 refs.]

Leiva Sánchez AT, 2007. Majagua. In: Trees of Cuba. Oxford, UK: Macmillan Education, 64

Little EL Jr, Skolmen RG, 2003. Common Forest Trees of Hawaii (Native and introduced). Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture and the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Little EL, Jr, Wadsworth FH, 1964. Common trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Agriculture Handbook U.S. Department of Agriculture No. 249. Washington DC, USA: USDA

Lovig HM, 2013. A test of the pollination syndrome concept using the Jamaican Blue Mahoe, Hibiscus elatus. Doctoral dissertation, Humboldt State University

Molina, R. A., 1975. Enumeration of the plants of Honduras. (Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras). Ceiba, 19(1), 1-118.

Neville HO, 1919. Hardwoods of Cuba. Cuba Rev., 18:13-25

Pandey DS, Vaish US, 1990. Season, media and type of wood for propagation of Hibiscus L. Indian Journal of Forestry, 13(4):307-311; 5 ref

Pena A, Montalvo JM, 1986. Environmental conditions for germination tests on five forest species. [Condiciones ambientales para pruebas de germinacion en cinco especies forestales.] Revista Forestal Baracoa, 16(1):7-20; 19 ref

PFAF, 2016. Plants For A Future Database. http://www.pfaf.org/USER/Default.aspx

Pfeil, B. E., Brubaker, C. L., Craven, L. A., Crisp, M. D., 2002. Phylogeny of Hibiscus and the tribe Hibisceae (Malvaceae) using chloroplast DNA sequences of ndhF and the rpl16 intron. Systematic Botany, 27(2), 333-350.

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

Record SJ, Hess RW, 1943. Timbers of the New World. New Haven, Conneticut, USA: Yale University Press

Rodriguez AM, Hinojosa D, 1986. Bacterial spot caused by Pseudomonas cichorii in Hibiscus elatus. Ciencia y Tecnica en la Agricultura, Proteccion de Plantas, 9(3):103-113

Salazar R, Soihet C, 2001. Hibiscus elatus. Ficha tecnica no. 125. Serie Técnica. Manual Técnico. Programa de Investigación. Proyecto de Semillas Forestales. CATIE, Turrialba. Costa Rica

Sotolongo P, 1989. Seed orchard of Hibiscus elatus: production of genetically improved seed. [El huerto semillero de Hibiscus elatus (majagua). Produccion de semilla mejorada geneticamente.] Revista Forestal Baracoa, 19(2):109-111; 2 ref

Sotolongo P, 1991. Fertilization time after pollination in Hibiscus elatus (majagua). [Tiempo de fecundacion despues de la polinizacion en Hibiscus elatus (majagua).] Revista Baracoa, 21(2-3):69-74; 4 ref

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Swabey C, 1941. The principal timbers of Jamaica. Bull. Dep. Sci. Agric. Jamaica (n.s.) No. 29 1941. pp. 37

Swabey C, 1945. Forestry in Jamaica. For. Bull. For. Dep. Jamaica 1945. No. 1 pp. 44 + map

Tate JA, Aguilar JF, Wagstaff SJ, La Duke JC, Slotta TAB, Simpson BB, 2005. Phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Malveae (Malvaceae, subfamily Malvoideae) as inferred from ITS sequence data. American Journal of Botany, 92(4), 584-602.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

Thompson DA, 1983. Effects of Hurricane Allen on some Jamaican forests. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 62(2):107-115; 19 ref

Trinidad and Tobago Biodiversity, 2016. List of Invasive Plants. http://www.biodiversity.gov.tt/home/trinidad-a-tobago-biodiversity.html

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

Weaver PL, Francis JK, 1989. Hibiscus elatus Sw. Mahoe. Research Note SO-ITF-SM-14. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station. New Orleans, USA

Wordsworth FW, 1997. Forest Production for Tropical America. USDA Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook No. 710

Contributors

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11/01/17 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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