Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Heterobasidion parviporum

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Datasheet

Heterobasidion parviporum

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Heterobasidion parviporum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Basidiocarps on Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland.
TitleBasidiocarps
CaptionBasidiocarps on Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarps on Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland.
BasidiocarpsBasidiocarps on Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland. Kari Korhonen
Basidiocarps on Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland.
TitleBasidiocarps
CaptionBasidiocarps on Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarps on Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland.
BasidiocarpsBasidiocarps on Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland. Kari Korhonen
Basidiocarps developed under the roots of dead Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.
TitleBasidiocarps
CaptionBasidiocarps developed under the roots of dead Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarps developed under the roots of dead Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.
BasidiocarpsBasidiocarps developed under the roots of dead Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.Kari Korhonen
Basidiocarps developed under the roots of dead Norway spruce (Picea abies), Finland.
TitleBasidiocarps
CaptionBasidiocarps developed under the roots of dead Norway spruce (Picea abies), Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarps developed under the roots of dead Norway spruce (Picea abies), Finland.
BasidiocarpsBasidiocarps developed under the roots of dead Norway spruce (Picea abies), Finland.Kari Korhonen
Basidiocarps developed under a butt cull of Norway spruce (Picea abies) left in the forest, Finland.
TitleBasidiocarps
CaptionBasidiocarps developed under a butt cull of Norway spruce (Picea abies) left in the forest, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarps developed under a butt cull of Norway spruce (Picea abies) left in the forest, Finland.
BasidiocarpsBasidiocarps developed under a butt cull of Norway spruce (Picea abies) left in the forest, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Windthrown trees with decayed roots are often a useful indication of the presence of Heterobasidion root rot in a Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand, Finland.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionWindthrown trees with decayed roots are often a useful indication of the presence of Heterobasidion root rot in a Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Windthrown trees with decayed roots are often a useful indication of the presence of Heterobasidion root rot in a Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand, Finland.
Field symptomsWindthrown trees with decayed roots are often a useful indication of the presence of Heterobasidion root rot in a Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Difference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b).
TitlePore size
CaptionDifference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b).
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Difference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b).
Pore sizeDifference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b). Kari Korhonen
Section of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not.
TitleSection of basidiocarp
CaptionSection of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Section of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not.
Section of basidiocarpSection of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not. Kari Korhonen
Typical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.
TitleCulture media
CaptionTypical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Typical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.
Culture mediaTypical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot on Siberian fir (Abies sibirica), Ural region, Russia.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion root rot on Siberian fir (Abies sibirica), Ural region, Russia.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot on Siberian fir (Abies sibirica), Ural region, Russia.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion root rot on Siberian fir (Abies sibirica), Ural region, Russia.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot on a fresh Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion root rot on a fresh Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot on a fresh Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland.
SymptomsHeterobasidion root rot on a fresh Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Norway spruce (Picea abies) timber with Heterobasidion root rot, Finland.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionNorway spruce (Picea abies) timber with Heterobasidion root rot, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Norway spruce (Picea abies) timber with Heterobasidion root rot, Finland.
SymptomsNorway spruce (Picea abies) timber with Heterobasidion root rot, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot on a fresh Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion root rot on a fresh Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot on a fresh Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland.
SymptomsHeterobasidion root rot on a fresh Norway spruce (Picea abies) stump, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Advanced decay caused by H. parviporum on Norway spruce (Picea abies), Finland.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAdvanced decay caused by H. parviporum on Norway spruce (Picea abies), Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Advanced decay caused by H. parviporum on Norway spruce (Picea abies), Finland.
SymptomsAdvanced decay caused by H. parviporum on Norway spruce (Picea abies), Finland.Kari Korhonen

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen 1998

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Russulales
  •                             Family: Bondarzewiaceae
  •                                 Genus: Heterobasidion
  •                                     Species: Heterobasidion parviporum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Heterobasidion parviporum was separated from the Northern Hemisphere species complex H. annosum sensu lato by Niemelä and Korhonen (1998) and corresponds to the European intersterility group 'S' (Korhonen, 1978). The taxonomic position of its North American counterpart, the 'North American intersterility group S' or 'fir group', is not clear. In the Compendium, this group is considered as a population of H. parviporum.

Description

Top of page The morphological characteristics of H. parviporum have not yet been thoroughly investigated. A detailed description of morphology exists only for H. annosum sensu lato. Basidiocarps of H. parviporum can usually be distinguished from H. annosum sensu stricto on the basis of smaller pores and, in particular, by the tomentose upper surface near the margin, which looks like velvet when viewed under a magnifying glass. Distinction from H. abietinum is more difficult (Mugnai and Capretti, 1989).

Distribution

Top of page In Europe, H. parviporum is likely to exist everywhere within the natural distribution range of Picea abies. It has probably also been introduced to many spruce cultures outside this area, in western Europe, as the spores can be dispersed over long distances. H. parviporum is rare in the northernmost spruce forests, north of 64°N in Finland. The distribution area of this species in the east extends over southern Siberia to Japan in the Far East and the eastern Himalayas. The taxonomic position of H. annosum sensu lato occurring in the western Himalayas (Pakistan, India, Nepal) is not clear (Dai et al., 2003). H. parviporum is not very pathogenic to the local tree species in eastern Asia. The fungus has recently been observed in Xinjiang, China (Y-C Dai, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, unpublished data, 2003).

The distribution area of the North American S group seems to be restricted to the western parts of the North American continent, from Alaska in the north to Mexico in the south.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentDai et al., 2006
-JilinRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Dai et al., 2003
-SichuanWidespreadNative Not invasive Dai and Korhonen, 2003
-YunnanWidespreadNative Not invasive Dai et al., 2003
JapanRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Dai et al., 2003
KyrgyzstanPresentNative Not invasive Dai et al., 2003

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Chase and Ullrich, 1990
MexicoPresentNative Not invasive Garbelotto and Chapela, 2000
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlaskaRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Chase and Ullrich, 1990
-ArizonaRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Otrosina et al., 1992
-CaliforniaWidespreadNative Not invasive Garbelotto et al., 1996
-ColoradoRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Chase and Ullrich, 1990; Worrall et al., 2010
-IdahoRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Chase and Ullrich, 1990
-New MexicoPresentWorrall et al., 2010
-OregonWidespreadNative Not invasive Sullivan et al., 2001
-WashingtonWidespreadNative Not invasive Harrington et al., 1989

Europe

AustriaWidespreadNative Not invasive Capretti et al., 1998a
BelarusWidespreadNative Not invasive Korhonen et al., 1992
BulgariaRestricted distributionNative Not invasive La Porta et al., 1998
Czech RepublicPresentNative Not invasive
DenmarkWidespreadNative Not invasive Thomsen, 1994
EstoniaWidespreadNative Not invasive Hanso and Hanso, 2003
FinlandWidespreadNative Not invasive Korhonen and Piri, 1994
FranceRestricted distributionNative Not invasive
GermanyWidespreadNative Not invasive
GreeceRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Tsopelas and Korhonen, 1996
HungaryWidespreadNative Not invasive Pagony and Szanto, 1998
ItalyRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Capretti et al., 1994
LatviaWidespreadNative Not invasive Grantina et al., 2000
LithuaniaWidespreadNative Not invasive Korhonen et al., 1992
NorwayWidespreadNative Not invasive
PolandWidespreadNative Not invasive Lakomy and Werner, 2003
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)WidespreadNative Not invasive Dai et al., 2003
-SiberiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Dai et al., 2003
SlovakiaPresentNative Not invasive
SloveniaWidespreadNative Not invasive Munda et al., 1998
SwedenWidespreadNative Not invasive
SwitzerlandWidespreadNative Not invasive Holdenrieder et al., 1998
UkrainePresentNative Not invasive Negrutskii et al., 1993

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page H. parviflorum has probably been introduced to Norway spruce (Picea abies) cultures in western Europe outside the natural distribution area for Norway spruce.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page H. parviporum mostly affects species of Picea and northern and eastern species of Abies in Eurasia; it is rare on dicotyledonous hosts.

The North American S group mostly affects species of Abies, Picea, Tsuga, Pseudotsuga and Sequioiadendron in North America. Of the hosts listed, the following are specific for the North American S group: Abies concolor, A. hickelii, A. magnifica, A. procera, Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus lambertiana, P. ponderosa, Sequoiadendron giganteum, Thuja plicata and Tsuga heterophylla.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Abies alba (silver fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies balsamea (balsam fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies concolor (Rocky Mountain white fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies delavayi (delavay's silver fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies fabri (Faber fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies fargesiiPinaceaeOther
Abies forrestii var. georgeiPinaceaeOther
Abies grandis (grand fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies hickeliiPinaceaeOther
Abies lasiocarpa (rocky mountain fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies magnifica (red fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies nephrolepis (Khingan fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies procera (noble fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies sachalinensis (Sakhalin fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies sibirica (Siberian fir)PinaceaeMain
Alnus glutinosa (European alder)BetulaceaeOther
Alnus incana (grey alder)BetulaceaeOther
Betula pendula (common silver birch)BetulaceaeOther
Calluna vulgaris (heather)EricaceaeOther
Calocedrus decurrens (bastard cedar)CupressaceaeOther
Juniperus communis (common juniper)CupressaceaeOther
Larix decidua (common larch)PinaceaeOther
Larix gmelinii (Dahurian larch)PinaceaeOther
Larix griffithianaPinaceaeOther
Larix kaempferi (Japanese larch)PinaceaeOther
Larix sibirica (Siberian larch)PinaceaeMain
Picea abies (common spruce)PinaceaeMain
Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce)PinaceaeOther
Picea glauca (white spruce)PinaceaeOther
Picea jezoensis (Yeddo spruce)PinaceaeOther
Picea likiangensis (likiang spruce)PinaceaeOther
Picea schrenkiana (schrenk's spruce)PinaceaeOther
Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce)PinaceaeOther
Pinus cembra (arolla pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus koraiensis (fruit pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus lambertiana (big pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus sibirica (Siberian stone pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine)PinaceaeOther
Populus tremula (aspen (European))SalicaceaeOther
Populus tremula x Populus tremuloidesSalicaceaeOther
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir)PinaceaeOther
Sequoiadendron giganteum (giant sequoia)TaxodiaceaeOther
Thuja plicata (western redcedar)CupressaceaeOther
Tsuga chinensis (Chinese hemlock)PinaceaeOther
Tsuga dumosa (himalayan hemlock)PinaceaeOther
Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock)PinaceaeOther
Vaccinium myrtillus (blueberry)EricaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page H. parviporum causes root and butt rot. An advanced decay column usually rises several metres up the stem of spruce and fir. On pine saplings the symptoms are similar to those caused by H. annosum sensu stricto.

For further information on symptoms, see datasheet on H. annosum sensu lato.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Roots / rot of wood
Stems / discoloration of bark

Biology and Ecology

Top of page In the forests of Europe, H. parviporum mostly causes damage in stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies), but several introduced species of Picea and Larix are also susceptible. H. parviporum may also kill Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) saplings that grow close to infected spruce stumps, but there are very few records from pine older than 25 years, and hardly any damage. In north-eastern Europe and in Siberia, H. parviporum commonly attacks Norway spruce, Abies sibirica and possibly also Larix sibirica and Pinus sibirica. Records from broadleaved trees are far fewer than for H. annosum sensu stricto.

Transmission

See data sheet on H. annosum sensu lato.

Physiological Specialization

European and East Asian strains show some genetic differentiation (Dai et al., 2003), and there is more differentiation between the Eurasian H. parviporum and the North American S group although they show a high degree of sexual compatibility with each other (Johannesson and Stenlid, 2003).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page See datasheet on H. annosum sensu lato.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark hyphae; spores Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants spores Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood hyphae Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Prevention and Control

Top of page See datasheet on H. annosum sensu lato.

References

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Adhikari MK, 1988. Polypores (wood-rotting fungi) of Nepal. Banko Janakari Kathmandu, Nepal; Forest Research and Information Centre, Forest Survey and Research Office, Department of Forests, 2(1):9-20

Anderson RL; Ritter W; Witmer RC, 1976. Fomes annosus found on eastern white pine in Iowa. Plant Disease Reporter, 60:981-984.

Anon., 1959. Reports on forest research for the years ended March, 1957, March, 1958. London, UK: HMSO.

Anon., 1985. Taxonomy and ecology of wood-destroying fungi. Rep. For. Prod. Aust. 1965/66, 1966 (39).

Anon., 2004. Cylindroselloides dybasi, Hall in Nova Scotia. World Wide Web page at http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/Environment/NHR/cylindroselloides.html.

Applegate HW, 1971. Annosus root rot mortality in once-thinned loblolly pine plantations in Tennessee. Plant Disease Reporter, 55:625-627.

Bakshi BK, 1950. Fungi associated with ambrosia beetles in Great Britain. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 33(1-2):111-120.

Bakshi BK; Sen M; Singh B, 1970. Cultural diagnosis of Indian Polyporaceae. II. Genera Fomes and Trametes. Indian Forest Records, 2:245-276.

Barnard EL; Gilly SP; Dixon WN, 1991. Incidence of Heterobasidion annosum and other root-infecting fungi in residual stumps and roots in thinned slash pine plantations in Florida. Plant Disease, 75(8):823-828

Berry FH, 1968. Spread of Fomes annosus root rot in thinned shortleaf pine plantations. USDA Forest Service, Res. Note NE-87, 4 pp.

Berry FH; Bretz TW, 1964. Urea and other chemicals effective against colonization of Shortleaf Pine stumps by Fomes annosus in Missouri. Plant Disease Reporter, 48(11):886-887.

Berry FH; Dooling OJ, 1962. Fomes annosus on shortleaf pine in Missouri. Plant Disease Reporter, 46:521-522.

Binyamini N, 1982. Host index for Israeli wood-rotting fungi. Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 30 pp.

Buchanan PK, 1988. A new species of Heterobasidion (Polyporaceae) from Australasia. Mycotaxon, 32:325-337

Campbell WA, 1938. The cultural characteristics of the species of Fomes. Bulletin Torrey botanical Club, 65(1):31-69.

Capretti P; Barzanti GP; Cech T; Tomiczek C, 1998. Intersterility groups (ISG) of Heterobasidion annosum in the Italian Alpine region and Austria. In: Delatour C, Guillaumin J-J, Lung-Escarmant B, Marçais B, eds. Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees. 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Carcans-Maubuisson, France. INRA Editions, Les Colloques, no. 89: 437. (Abstr.).

Capretti P; Barzanti GP; Luisi N; Puddu A, 1998. Group dying of Silver fir (Abies alba) by Heterobasidion annosum in Central and Southern Italy. In: Delatour C, Guillaumin J-J, Lung-Escarmant B, Marçais B, eds. Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees. 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Carcans-Maubuisson, France. INRA Editions, Les Colloques, no. 89: 440. (Abstr.).

Capretti P; Goggioli V; Mugnai L, 1994. Intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum in Italy: Distribution, hosts and pathogenicity tests. In: Johansson M, Stenlid J, ed. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Wik, Sweden and Haikko, Finland. Swedish Univ. of Agric. Sci., Uppsala, Sweden, 218-226.

Capretti P; Korhonen K; Mugnai L; Romagnoli C, 1990. An intersterility group of Heterobasidion annosum specialized to Abies alba. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 20(4):231-240

Capretti P; Tegli S; Lakomy P; Zamponi L, 2003. Genetic variation in Heterobasidion abietinum (H. annosum F group) population. In: Laflamme G, Bérubé JA, Bussières G, eds. Root and butt rots of forest trees. 10th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, Québec City, Canada. Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, Information Report LAU-X-126:293-295.

Cartwright K St G; Findlay WPK, 1946. Decay of Timber and its Prevention. London, UK: HMSO.

Certini G; Corti G; Ugolini FC, 2000. Influence of soil properties on the mortality of silver fir in Tuscany, Italy. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 119(6):323-331; 25 ref.

Chang TT; Hsieh HJ; Chang RJ; Fu CS, 1999. Common tree diseases in Taiwan. Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. (In Chinese).

Chase TE; Ullrich RC, 1983. Sexuality, distribution, and dispersal of Heterobasidion annosum in pine plantations of Vermont. Mycologia, 75(5):825-831

Chase TE; Ullrich RC, 1990. Genetic basis of biological species in Heterobasidion annosum: Mendelian determinants. Mycologia, 82(1):67-72

Chase TE; Ullrich RC; Korhonen K, 1985. Homothallic isolates of Heterobasidion annosum. Mycologia, 77(6):975-977

CMI, 1980. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 271, edition 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cowling EB; Kelman A, 1964. Influence of temperature on growth of Fomes annosus isolates. Phytopathology, 54(4):373-378.

Dai Y-C; Korhonen K, 2003. First report of Heterobasidion parviporum (S Group of H. annosum sensu lato) on Tsuga spp. in Asia. Plant Disease, 87:1007.

Dai YC; Vainio EJ; Hantula J; Niemelä T; Korhonen K, 2003. Investigations on Heterobasidion annosum s.lat. in central and eastern Asia with the aid of mating tests and DNA fingerprinting. Forest Pathology, 33(5):269-286.

Dai YC; Yuan HS; Wei YL; Korhonen K, 2006. New records of Heterobasidion parviporum in China. Forest Pathology, 36(4):287-293.

Dai YuCheng; Korhonen K, 2004. Heterobasidion parviporum identified from Northern Sichuan Province with the aid of mating tests. Journal of Fungal Research, 2(2):1-4.

Dai YuCheng; Vainio EJ; Hantula J; Niemelä T; Korhonen K, 2002. Sexuality and intersterility within the Heterobasidion insulare complex. Mycological Research, 106(12):1435-1448.

Daniel G; Asiegbu F; Johansson M, 1998. The saprotrophic wood-degrading abilities of Heterobasidium annosum intersterility groups P and S. Mycological Research, 102(8):991-997; 38 ref.

Driver CH, Ginns JH Jr. , 1969. Ecology of slash pine stumps: fungal colonization and infection by Fomes annosus. Forest Science, 15:2-10.

Eusebio MA, 1977. Occurrence of heart rot in virgin forests and decay in logged-over areas. Sylvatrop Philippine Forest Research Journal, 2(3):195-208

Froelich RC; Kuhlman EG; Hodges CS; Weiss MJ; Nichols JD, 1977. Fomes annosus root rot in the South. Guidelines for prevention. USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, August 1977.

Garbelotto M; Bruns TD; Cobb FW; Otrosina WJ, 1993. Differentiation of intersterility groups and geographic provenances among isolates of Heterobasidion annosum detected by random amplified polymorphic DNA assays. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71(4):565-569

Garbelotto M; Chapela I, 2000. First report of Heterobasidion annosum on the endemic Abies hickeli of Southern Mexico. Plant Disease, 84(9):1047; 2 ref.

Garbelotto M; Otrosina WJ; Cobb FW; Bruns TD, 1998. Habitat preference and the evolution of sympatric intersterility groups in the Heterobasidion annosum species complex. Root and butt rots of forest trees: 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, Carcans-Maubuisson, (France), 1-7 September, 1997., 85-102; [^italic~Les Colloques^roman~ No. 89]; 46 ref.

Garbelotto M; Ratcliff A; Bruns TD; Cobb FW; Otrosina WJ, 1996. Use of taxon-specific competitive-priming PCR to study host specificity, hybridization, and intergroup gene flow in intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum. Phytopathology, 86(5):543-551; 34 ref.

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