Invasive Species Compendium

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Heterobasidion insulare

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Datasheet

Heterobasidion insulare

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Heterobasidion insulare
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Close-up of a basidiocarp on Picea sp. stump.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionClose-up of a basidiocarp on Picea sp. stump.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Close-up of a basidiocarp on Picea sp. stump.
BasidiocarpClose-up of a basidiocarp on Picea sp. stump.Kari Korhonen
Basidiocarps on Picea sp. stump.
TitleBasidiocarps
CaptionBasidiocarps on Picea sp. stump.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarps on Picea sp. stump.
BasidiocarpsBasidiocarps on Picea sp. stump.Kari Korhonen
Basidiocarps on Picea sp. stump.
TitleBasidiocarps
CaptionBasidiocarps on Picea sp. stump.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarps on Picea sp. stump.
BasidiocarpsBasidiocarps on Picea sp. stump.Kari Korhonen

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Heterobasidion insulare (Murrill) Ryvarden 1972

Other Scientific Names

  • Fomitopsis insularis (Murrill) Imazeki
  • Trametes insularis Murrill 1908

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Russulales
  •                             Family: Bondarzewiaceae
  •                                 Genus: Heterobasidion
  •                                     Species: Heterobasidion insulare

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Heterobasidion insulare is totally intersterile with H. annosum sensu lato and probably also with H. araucariae. Interfertility experiments and DNA analyses have shown that the species is, in fact, a species complex consisting of groups that are partially or totally intersterile with each other (Dai et al., 2002). One such group has been identified from northern China and Japan, another partially intersterile group from Yunnan, and a third totally intersterile group from Taiwan and Quizhou province in southern China. Moreover, it is possible that all these groups represent different taxa from the original type specimen of H. insulare collected by Murrill (1908) in the Philippines.

Description

Top of page The pilei of H. insulare are typically imbricate and small, 2.5-9 cm across, 1.5-7 cm radius, 0.2-1.0 cm thick. They are red, dark red or reddish-brown on the pileus surface, often with a cream margin. The pore surface has small pores, 2-3(-4) per mm, with dissepiments often thin and pores sometimes tending to irpicoid towards the base of the basidiocarp. Basidiospores are (4.5-)5-6(-7) x (3.5-)4-5 µm (Buchanan, 1988).

Pure cultures of H. insulare closely resemble those of H. annosum sensu lato (Bakshi et al., 1970), but clamp connections are more frequent and many are double clamps, not observed in cultures of H. annosum and H. araucariae. Clamps are usually also present in homokaryotic single-spore cultures (Dai et al., 2002).

Basidiocarps of H. insulare are usually relatively easy to distinguish from the other species of Heterobasion on the basis of the reddish upper surface of the basidiocarp and the often irpicoid pores. However, some forms of H. insulare look very similar to H. annosum sensu lato, and it is possible that several earlier records of species of Heterobasidion from eastern and southern Asia, where H. annosum sensu lato, H. insulare and even H. araucariae may occur together, are misidentifications.

Distribution

Top of page H. insulare has also been recorded in Hunan and Jiangsu, China (Y-C Dai, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China, unpublished data, 2002 and 2003, respectively).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GuizhouWidespreadDai et al., 2002
-HeilongjiangWidespreadDai et al., 2002
-JilinWidespreadDai et al., 2002
-YunnanWidespreadDai et al., 2002
IndiaRestricted distributionIvory, 1987
-Uttar PradeshPresentNative Not invasive Roy and De, 1996
JapanWidespreadKobayashi et al., 1981; Dai et al., 2002
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-SabahPresentKobayashi et al., 1981
MyanmarPresentBuchanan, 1988
NepalPresentThapa, 1990
PhilippinesPresentMurrill, 1908; Dai et al., 2002
TaiwanRestricted distributionDai et al., 2002

Europe

Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russian Far EastRestricted distributionLyubarskii and Vasilyeva, 1975

Oceania

Papua New GuineaPresentKobayashi et al., 1981

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page There are no proven cases of introduction of H. insulare.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Hosts of H. insulare are eastern Asian species of Abies, Pinus, Picea and Larix. Keteleeria has also been recorded as a host.

Symptoms

Top of page Symptoms on Pinus luchuensis are similar to those caused by H. annosum sensu lato on pines (Chang et al., 1999).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / rot of wood
Stems / discoloration of bark

Biology and Ecology

Top of page H. insulare has been regarded as a harmless non-pathogenic saprotroph, living in stumps and logs of conifers. However, Yen et al. (2002) reported that H. insulare causes root and butt rot, and mortality on Pinus luchuensis in Taiwan.

Transmission of the fungus is poorly understood.

Physiological Specialization

H. insulare is a complex consisting of at least three partially or totally intersterile groups.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark spores Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches spores Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Prevention and Control

Top of page There is no information available on the control of H. insulare.

References

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