- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Heterobasidion insulare (Murrill) Ryvarden 1972
Other Scientific Names
- Fomitopsis insularis (Murrill) Imazeki
- Trametes insularis Murrill 1908
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Fungi
- Phylum: Basidiomycota
- Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
- Class: Agaricomycetes
- Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
- Order: Russulales
- Family: Bondarzewiaceae
- Genus: Heterobasidion
- Species: Heterobasidion insulare
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Heterobasidion insulare is totally intersterile with H. annosum sensu lato and probably also with H. araucariae. Interfertility experiments and DNA analyses have shown that the species is, in fact, a species complex consisting of groups that are partially or totally intersterile with each other (Dai et al., 2002). One such group has been identified from northern China and Japan, another partially intersterile group from Yunnan, and a third totally intersterile group from Taiwan and Quizhou province in southern China. Moreover, it is possible that all these groups represent different taxa from the original type specimen of H. insulare collected by Murrill (1908) in the Philippines.
DescriptionTop of page The pilei of H. insulare are typically imbricate and small, 2.5-9 cm across, 1.5-7 cm radius, 0.2-1.0 cm thick. They are red, dark red or reddish-brown on the pileus surface, often with a cream margin. The pore surface has small pores, 2-3(-4) per mm, with dissepiments often thin and pores sometimes tending to irpicoid towards the base of the basidiocarp. Basidiospores are (4.5-)5-6(-7) x (3.5-)4-5 µm (Buchanan, 1988).
Pure cultures of H. insulare closely resemble those of H. annosum sensu lato (Bakshi et al., 1970), but clamp connections are more frequent and many are double clamps, not observed in cultures of H. annosum and H. araucariae. Clamps are usually also present in homokaryotic single-spore cultures (Dai et al., 2002).
Basidiocarps of H. insulare are usually relatively easy to distinguish from the other species of Heterobasion on the basis of the reddish upper surface of the basidiocarp and the often irpicoid pores. However, some forms of H. insulare look very similar to H. annosum sensu lato, and it is possible that several earlier records of species of Heterobasidion from eastern and southern Asia, where H. annosum sensu lato, H. insulare and even H. araucariae may occur together, are misidentifications.
DistributionTop of page H. insulare has also been recorded in Hunan and Jiangsu, China (Y-C Dai, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China, unpublished data, 2002 and 2003, respectively).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Guizhou||Widespread||Dai et al., 2002|
|-Heilongjiang||Widespread||Dai et al., 2002|
|-Jilin||Widespread||Dai et al., 2002|
|-Yunnan||Widespread||Dai et al., 2002|
|India||Restricted distribution||Ivory, 1987|
|-Uttar Pradesh||Present||Native||Not invasive||Roy and De, 1996|
|Japan||Widespread||Kobayashi et al., 1981; Dai et al., 2002|
|Malaysia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Sabah||Present||Kobayashi et al., 1981|
|Philippines||Present||Murrill, 1908; Dai et al., 2002|
|Taiwan||Restricted distribution||Dai et al., 2002|
|Russian Federation||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Russian Far East||Restricted distribution||Lyubarskii and Vasilyeva, 1975|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Kobayashi et al., 1981|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page There are no proven cases of introduction of H. insulare.
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page Hosts of H. insulare are eastern Asian species of Abies, Pinus, Picea and Larix. Keteleeria has also been recorded as a host.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Abies forrestii var. georgei||Pinaceae||Other|
|Abies mariesii (white fir)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Abies pindrow (fir)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Abies sachalinensis (Sakhalin fir)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Cedrus deodara (Himalayan cedar)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Picea likiangensis (likiang spruce)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Picea smithiana (West Himalayan spruce)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus armandii (armand's pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus luchuensis (luchu pine)||Pinaceae||Main|
|Pinus massoniana (masson pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus patula (Mexican weeping pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus roxburghii (chir pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pinus yunnanensis (Yunnan pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
SymptomsTop of page Symptoms on Pinus luchuensis are similar to those caused by H. annosum sensu lato on pines (Chang et al., 1999).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Roots / rot of wood|
|Stems / discoloration of bark|
Biology and EcologyTop of page H. insulare has been regarded as a harmless non-pathogenic saprotroph, living in stumps and logs of conifers. However, Yen et al. (2002) reported that H. insulare causes root and butt rot, and mortality on Pinus luchuensis in Taiwan.
Transmission of the fungus is poorly understood.
H. insulare is a complex consisting of at least three partially or totally intersterile groups.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bark||spores||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||spores||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||spores||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
Prevention and ControlTop of page There is no information available on the control of H. insulare.
ReferencesTop of page
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Distribution MapsTop of page
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