Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Heterobasidion annosum

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Datasheet

Heterobasidion annosum

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Heterobasidion annosum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Basidiocarp on ground under Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionBasidiocarp on ground under Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarp on ground under Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.
BasidiocarpBasidiocarp on ground under Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.Kari Korhonen
Basidiocarp on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Belarus.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionBasidiocarp on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Belarus.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarp on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Belarus.
BasidiocarpBasidiocarp on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Belarus.Kari Korhonen
Basidiocarp at the base of birch (Betula pendula).
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionBasidiocarp at the base of birch (Betula pendula).
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarp at the base of birch (Betula pendula).
BasidiocarpBasidiocarp at the base of birch (Betula pendula).Kari Korhonen
Basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionBasidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
BasidiocarpBasidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Small basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionSmall basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Small basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
BasidiocarpSmall basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Typical white pustules (small basidiocarp primordia) at the base of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
TitleBasidiocarp primordia
CaptionTypical white pustules (small basidiocarp primordia) at the base of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Typical white pustules (small basidiocarp primordia) at the base of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
Basidiocarp primordiaTypical white pustules (small basidiocarp primordia) at the base of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot and Peridermium pini in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand in Finland. The whole crown dies simultaneously in the trees attacked by Heterobasidion, whereas only the top is dying in the tree attacked by Peridermium.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion root rot and Peridermium pini in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand in Finland. The whole crown dies simultaneously in the trees attacked by Heterobasidion, whereas only the top is dying in the tree attacked by Peridermium.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot and Peridermium pini in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand in Finland. The whole crown dies simultaneously in the trees attacked by Heterobasidion, whereas only the top is dying in the tree attacked by Peridermium.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion root rot and Peridermium pini in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand in Finland. The whole crown dies simultaneously in the trees attacked by Heterobasidion, whereas only the top is dying in the tree attacked by Peridermium.Kari Korhonen
Difference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b).
TitlePore size
CaptionDifference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b).
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Difference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b).
Pore sizeDifference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b). Kari Korhonen
Section of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not.
TitleSection of basidiocarp
CaptionSection of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Section of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not.
Section of basidiocarpSection of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not. Kari Korhonen
Typical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.
TitleCulture media
CaptionTypical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Typical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.
Culture mediaTypical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, Finland.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion root rot in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, Finland.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion root rot in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion disease centre in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion disease centre in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion disease centre in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion disease centre in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.Kari Korhonen
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) saplings killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionScots pine (Pinus sylvestris) saplings killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) saplings killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
Field symptomsScots pine (Pinus sylvestris) saplings killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.Kari Korhonen
A Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionA Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
A Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
Field symptomsA Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.Kari Korhonen
Symptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a fresh Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSymptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a fresh Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Symptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a fresh Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
SymptomsSymptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a fresh Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Symptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSymptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Symptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
SymptomsSymptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.Kari Korhonen

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. sensu stricto

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Russulales
  •                             Family: Bondarzewiaceae
  •                                 Genus: Heterobasidion
  •                                     Species: Heterobasidion annosum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto was separated from the Northern Hemisphere species complex H. annosum sensu lato by Niemelä and Korhonen (1998) and corresponds to the European intersterility group 'P' (Korhonen, 1978). The taxonomic position of its North American counterpart, the 'North American intersterility group P' or 'pine group', is not clear. In the Compendium, this group is considered as a population of H. annosum sensu stricto.

Description

Top of page H. annosum sensu stricto, H. parviporum and H. abietinum are close relatives and show only small differences in morphology, although they have not yet been thoroughly investigated. It is usually relatively easy to distinguish between H. annosum and H. parviporum on the basis of basidiocarp morphology: H. annosum has large pores and the brown upper surface is hard, whereas H. parviporum has small pores and the brown upper surface near the margin looks soft and velvety (tomentose) when viewed under a magnifying glass. Identification of H. abietinum is more difficult as these characteristics are somewhere between those of H. annosum and H. parviporum (Mugnai and Capretti, 1989). Accurate identification of these three species is often only possible in the laboratory.

A detailed description of morphology exists only for H. annosum sensu lato.

Distribution

Top of page Although precise identifications are lacking, H. annosum sensu stricto probably exists everywhere in Europe where Heterobasidion occurs in pine forests, i.e. in almost all European countries. The northern limit of distribution in Scandinavia is ca 63°N. In the east, the distribution of H. annosum sensu stricto probably extends over southern Siberia, but it has not yet been found in eastern Asia.

North American records in the distribution list refer to the 'North American intersterility group P' or 'pine group' of H. annosum sensu stricto. The North American P group probably occurs in all states where H. annosum sensu lato has been recorded, excluding perhaps Alaska, and appears to be the only intersterility group of H. annosum occurring in eastern parts of the continent.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

KazakhstanPresentCABI (Undated a)
NepalPresentCABI (Undated a)

Europe

AustriaPresent, WidespreadNativeCapretti et al. (1998)
BelarusPresent, WidespreadNativeKorhonen et al. (1992)
BulgariaPresent, LocalizedNativePorta et al. (1998)
CzechoslovakiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentCABI (Undated a)
DenmarkPresent, WidespreadNativeThomsen (1994)
EstoniaPresent, LocalizedNativeHanso and Hanso (2003)
FinlandPresent, WidespreadNativeKorhonen and Piri (1994)
FrancePresent, WidespreadNativeCABI (Undated a)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadNativeSchulze (1999)
GreecePresent, WidespreadNativeTsopelas and Korhonen (1996)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadNativePagony and Szanto (1998)
IrelandPresentCABI (Undated a)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadNativeCapretti et al. (1994)
LatviaPresent, WidespreadNativeGrantiņa et al. (2000)
LithuaniaPresent, WidespreadNativeVasiliauskas and Stenlid (1998)
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadNativeSchuring (1999)
NorwayPresent, WidespreadNativeCABI (Undated a)
PolandPresent, WidespreadNativeŁakomy and Werner (2003)
PortugalPresentNativeCABI (Undated a)
-MadeiraPresentKorhonen (1978)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-Russia (Europe)Present, WidespreadNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: Dai et al. (2003)
-SiberiaPresent, LocalizedNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: Dai et al. (2003)
Serbia and MontenegroPresent, WidespreadNativeUK, CAB International (1980); Tomanic et al. (2000)
SloveniaPresent, WidespreadNativeMunda et al. (1998)
SpainPresentPrieto-Recio et al. (2012)
SwedenPresent, WidespreadNativeCABI (Undated a)
SwitzerlandPresent, LocalizedNativeHoldenrieder et al. (1998)
UkrainePresentNativeNegrutskiĭ et al. (1993)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadNativeCABI (Undated a);
-ScotlandPresent, WidespreadNativeCABI (Undated a)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-OntarioPresent, LocalizedNativeChase and Ullrich (1990)
-QuebecPresent, LocalizedNativeRoy et al. (2003)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadNativeUK, CAB International (1980)
-AlaskaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadNativeGarbelotto et al. (1996)
-FloridaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-GeorgiaPresent, WidespreadNativeKorhonen (1978)
-MontanaPresent, WidespreadNativeOtrosina et al. (1992)
-New HampshirePresent, WidespreadNativeGarbelotto et al. (1993)
-New MexicoPresentCABI (Undated a)
-North CarolinaPresent, WidespreadNativeChase and Ullrich (1990)
-OregonPresent, WidespreadNativeOtrosina et al. (1992)
-VermontPresent, WidespreadNativeChase and Ullrich (1990)
-VirginiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-WashingtonPresentCABI (Undated a)
-WisconsinPresentCABI (Undated a)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)
New ZealandPresentCABI (Undated a)

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page There are no proven cases of introduction of H. annosum sensu stricto.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page H. annosum sensu stricto mainly affects species of Pinus, but it also affects a wide range of other conifers in Europe. It is found relatively often on dicotyledonous hosts when they grow in mixture with a susceptible conifer species. It primarily inhabits pine forests and plantations of other conifers established on sites with pine history. It is rare or absent in eastern Asia. Many of the hosts listed have been recorded in the UK, where only H. annosum sensu stricto has been found.

The North American P group affects mostly species of Pinus in North America. The following hosts have only been recorded for the North American P group: Libocedrus decurrens, Arctostaphylos sp., Calocedrus decurrens, Juniperus occidentalis, Picea engelmannii, P. rubens, Pinus coulteri, P. elliottii, P. jeffreyi, P. lambertiana, P. monophylla, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa and P. taeda.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Abies alba (silver fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies amabilis (Pacific silver fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies balsamea (balsam fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies cephalonica (Greek fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies concolor (Rocky Mountain white fir)PinaceaeMain
Abies firma (momi fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies grandis (grand fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies homolepis (Nikko fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies procera (noble fir)PinaceaeOther
Abies sachalinensis (Sakhalin fir)PinaceaeMain
Acer platanoides (Norway maple)AceraceaeOther
Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore)AceraceaeOther
Alnus glutinosa (European alder)BetulaceaeOther
Alnus incana (grey alder)BetulaceaeOther
Araucaria araucana (monkey puzzle)AraucariaceaeOther
Arctostaphylos (bearberry)EricaceaeOther
Betula pendula (common silver birch)BetulaceaeOther
Betula pubescens (Downy birch)BetulaceaeOther
Calluna vulgaris (heather)EricaceaeOther
Calocedrus decurrens (bastard cedar)CupressaceaeMain
Carpinus betulus (hornbeam)BetulaceaeOther
Castanea sativa (chestnut)FagaceaeOther
Cedrus deodara (Himalayan cedar)PinaceaeOther
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port Orford cedar)CupressaceaeOther
Corylus avellana (hazel)BetulaceaeOther
Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn)RosaceaeOther
Crataegus rhipidophylla (Midland hawthorn)RosaceaeOther
Cupressocyparis leylandii (Leyland cypress)CupressaceaeOther
Cupressus arizonica (Arizona cypress)CupressaceaeOther
Cupressus lusitanica (Mexican cypress)CupressaceaeOther
Cupressus macrocarpa (Monterey cypress)CupressaceaeOther
Cupressus sempervirens (Mediterranean cypress)CupressaceaeOther
Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)FabaceaeOther
Erica scoparia (green heather)EricaceaeOther
Fagus sylvatica (common beech)FagaceaeOther
Fraxinus excelsior (ash)OleaceaeOther
Fraxinus ornus (flowering ash)OleaceaeOther
Juniperus communis (common juniper)CupressaceaeOther
Juniperus occidentalis (western Juniper)CupressaceaeOther
Larix decidua (common larch)PinaceaeMain
Larix kaempferi (Japanese larch)PinaceaeOther
Larix marschlinsii (hybrid larch)PinaceaeOther
Larix sibirica (Siberian larch)PinaceaeOther
Laurus nobilis (sweet bay)LauraceaeOther
Ligustrum vulgare (common privet)OleaceaeOther
Malus sylvestris (crab-apple tree)RosaceaeOther
Metasequoia glyptostroboides (water fir)TaxodiaceaeOther
Nothofagus alpina (rauli beech)NothofagaceaeOther
Nothofagus obliqua (roble)NothofagaceaeOther
Picea abies (common spruce)PinaceaeMain
Picea asperata (dragon spruce)PinaceaeOther
Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce)PinaceaeOther
Picea omorika (Pancic spruce)PinaceaeOther
Picea retroflexaPinaceaeOther
Picea rubens (red spruce)PinaceaeOther
Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce)PinaceaeMain
Pinus armandii (armand's pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus banksiana (jack pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus coulteri (big-cone pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus elliottii (slash pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus jeffreyi (Jeffrey pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus lambertiana (big pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus monophylla (single-leaf pinyon pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus mugo (mountain pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus nigra (black pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus peuce (macedonian pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus pinaster (maritime pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus pinea (stone pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus radiata (radiata pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus resinosa (red pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine)PinaceaeMain
Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus virginiana (scrub pine)PinaceaeOther
Pinus wallichiana (blue pine)PinaceaeOther
Populus nigra (black poplar)SalicaceaeOther
Populus tremula (aspen (European))SalicaceaeOther
Prunus cerasifera (myrobalan plum)RosaceaeOther
Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeOther
Prunus padus (bird cherry)RosaceaeOther
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeOther
Prunus spinosa (blackthorn)RosaceaeOther
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir)PinaceaeMain
Pteridium aquilinum (bracken)DennstaedtiaceaeOther
Quercus cerris (European Turkey oak)FagaceaeOther
Quercus ilex (holm oak)FagaceaeOther
Quercus petraea (durmast oak)FagaceaeOther
Quercus robur (common oak)FagaceaeOther
Quercus rubra (northern red oak)FagaceaeOther
Rhododendron ponticum (rhododendron)EricaceaeOther
Rubus fruticosus (blackberry)RosaceaeOther
Sorbus aria (whitebeam)RosaceaeOther
Sorbus aucuparia (mountain ash)RosaceaeOther
Taxus baccata (English yew)TaxaceaeOther
Thuja plicata (western redcedar)CupressaceaeOther
Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock)PinaceaeOther
Ulex europaeus (gorse)FabaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Symptoms on pine species are those described for H. annosum sensu lato. On spruce, the symptoms of H. annosum sensu stricto and H. parviporum are similar. However, the former species is not so well adapted to the spruce host; for example, the extension of the decay column in the stem is generally smaller (Vasiliauskas and Stenlid, 1998).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Roots / rot of wood
Stems / dead heart
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / rot

Biology and Ecology

Top of page H. annosum sensu stricto and the North American P group are inhabitants of pine forests or forests with pine history. The former has caused major damage in pine afforestations of central and eastern Europe (Fiodorov, 1998). The damage is generally slight on old forest soils. However, in the UK this fungus causes heavy damage to pine on soils with a high pH (Redfern and Ward, 1998). The North American P group is most harmful in pine cultures growing on high-hazard sites in south-eastern USA (Filip and Morrison, 1998).

In the natural distribution area of Norway spruce (Picea abies), H. annosum sensu stricto is generally much less frequent than H. parviporum on spruce; however, outside this area in western Europe it is the dominating Heterobasidion species attacking Norway spruce and Sitka spruce stands (Korhonen et al., 1998).

For further information on general biology and transmission, see datasheet on H. annosum sensu lato.

Physiological Specialization

Although the European H. annosum sensu stricto and the North American P group are highly interfertile, they show quite a high degree of differentiation in DNA structure (Garbelotto et al., 1993, Johannesson and Stenlid, 2003) and enzymatic properties (Otrosina et al., 1993; Maijala et al., 2003). Some differentiation has been reported between the western and eastern P group populations in North America (Garbelotto et al., 1993).

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Armillaria mellea Pathogen
Fomitopsis pinicola Pathogen
Gloeophyllum saepiarium Pathogen
Hirschioporus abietinus Pathogen
Hypholoma capnoides Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite Italy
Macrolepiota procera Pathogen
Macrolepiota rachodes Pathogen
Oidiodendron maius Pathogen
Phlebia gigantea Pathogen Poland; UK
Phlebiopsis gigantea Antagonist Italy; Poland Pinus sylvestris
Resinicium bicolor Pathogen
Scytalidium album Pathogen
Scytalidium lignicola Pathogen
Sistotrema brinckmannii Pathogen
Tolypocladium niveum Pathogen

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page See datasheet on H. annosum sensu lato.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

See datasheet on H. annosum sensu lato for information on control.

References

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