- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. sensu stricto
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Fungi
- Phylum: Basidiomycota
- Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
- Class: Agaricomycetes
- Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
- Order: Russulales
- Family: Bondarzewiaceae
- Genus: Heterobasidion
- Species: Heterobasidion annosum
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto was separated from the Northern Hemisphere species complex H. annosum sensu lato by Niemelä and Korhonen (1998) and corresponds to the European intersterility group 'P' (Korhonen, 1978). The taxonomic position of its North American counterpart, the 'North American intersterility group P' or 'pine group', is not clear. In the Compendium, this group is considered as a population of H. annosum sensu stricto.
DescriptionTop of page H. annosum sensu stricto, H. parviporum and H. abietinum are close relatives and show only small differences in morphology, although they have not yet been thoroughly investigated. It is usually relatively easy to distinguish between H. annosum and H. parviporum on the basis of basidiocarp morphology: H. annosum has large pores and the brown upper surface is hard, whereas H. parviporum has small pores and the brown upper surface near the margin looks soft and velvety (tomentose) when viewed under a magnifying glass. Identification of H. abietinum is more difficult as these characteristics are somewhere between those of H. annosum and H. parviporum (Mugnai and Capretti, 1989). Accurate identification of these three species is often only possible in the laboratory.
A detailed description of morphology exists only for H. annosum sensu lato.
DistributionTop of page Although precise identifications are lacking, H. annosum sensu stricto probably exists everywhere in Europe where Heterobasidion occurs in pine forests, i.e. in almost all European countries. The northern limit of distribution in Scandinavia is ca 63°N. In the east, the distribution of H. annosum sensu stricto probably extends over southern Siberia, but it has not yet been found in eastern Asia.
North American records in the distribution list refer to the 'North American intersterility group P' or 'pine group' of H. annosum sensu stricto. The North American P group probably occurs in all states where H. annosum sensu lato has been recorded, excluding perhaps Alaska, and appears to be the only intersterility group of H. annosum occurring in eastern parts of the continent.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|-Ontario||Restricted distribution||Native||Not invasive||Chase and Ullrich, 1990|
|-Quebec||Restricted distribution||Native||Not invasive||Roy et al., 2003|
|USA||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||CMI, 1980|
|-California||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Garbelotto et al., 1996|
|-Georgia||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Korhonen, 1978|
|-Montana||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Otrosina et al., 1992|
|-New Hampshire||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Garbelotto et al., 1993|
|-North Carolina||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Chase and Ullrich, 1990|
|-Oregon||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Otrosina et al., 1992|
|-Vermont||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Chase and Ullrich, 1990|
|Austria||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Capretti et al., 1998a|
|Belarus||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Korhonen et al., 1992|
|Bulgaria||Restricted distribution||Native||Not invasive||La Porta et al., 1998|
|Denmark||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Thomsen, 1994|
|Estonia||Restricted distribution||Native||Not invasive||Hanso and Hanso, 2003|
|Finland||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Korhonen and Piri, 1994|
|Germany||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Schulze, 1999|
|Greece||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Tsopelas and Korhonen, 1996|
|Hungary||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Pagony and Szanto, 1998|
|Italy||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Capretti et al., 1994|
|Latvia||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Grantina et al., 2000|
|Lithuania||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Vasiliauskas and Stenlid, 1998|
|Netherlands||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Schuring, 1999|
|Poland||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Lakomy and Werner, 2003|
|-Russia (Europe)||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Dai et al., 2003|
|-Siberia||Restricted distribution||Native||Not invasive||Dai et al., 2003|
|Slovenia||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Munda et al., 1998|
|Spain||Present||Prieto-Recio et al., 2012|
|Switzerland||Restricted distribution||Native||Not invasive||Holdenrieder et al., 1998|
|-England and Wales||Widespread||Native||Not invasive|
|Ukraine||Present||Native||Not invasive||Negrutskii et al., 1993|
|Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||CMI, 1980; Tomanic et al., 2000|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page There are no proven cases of introduction of H. annosum sensu stricto.
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page H. annosum sensu stricto mainly affects species of Pinus, but it also affects a wide range of other conifers in Europe. It is found relatively often on dicotyledonous hosts when they grow in mixture with a susceptible conifer species. It primarily inhabits pine forests and plantations of other conifers established on sites with pine history. It is rare or absent in eastern Asia. Many of the hosts listed have been recorded in the UK, where only H. annosum sensu stricto has been found.
The North American P group affects mostly species of Pinus in North America. The following hosts have only been recorded for the North American P group: Libocedrus decurrens, Arctostaphylos sp., Calocedrus decurrens, Juniperus occidentalis, Picea engelmannii, P. rubens, Pinus coulteri, P. elliottii, P. jeffreyi, P. lambertiana, P. monophylla, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa and P. taeda.
Growth StagesTop of page Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page Symptoms on pine species are those described for H. annosum sensu lato. On spruce, the symptoms of H. annosum sensu stricto and H. parviporum are similar. However, the former species is not so well adapted to the spruce host; for example, the extension of the decay column in the stem is generally smaller (Vasiliauskas and Stenlid, 1998).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Roots / rot of wood|
|Stems / dead heart|
|Stems / gummosis or resinosis|
|Stems / rot|
Biology and EcologyTop of page H. annosum sensu stricto and the North American P group are inhabitants of pine forests or forests with pine history. The former has caused major damage in pine afforestations of central and eastern Europe (Fiodorov, 1998). The damage is generally slight on old forest soils. However, in the UK this fungus causes heavy damage to pine on soils with a high pH (Redfern and Ward, 1998). The North American P group is most harmful in pine cultures growing on high-hazard sites in south-eastern USA (Filip and Morrison, 1998).
In the natural distribution area of Norway spruce (Picea abies), H. annosum sensu stricto is generally much less frequent than H. parviporum on spruce; however, outside this area in western Europe it is the dominating Heterobasidion species attacking Norway spruce and Sitka spruce stands (Korhonen et al., 1998).
For further information on general biology and transmission, see datasheet on H. annosum sensu lato.
Although the European H. annosum sensu stricto and the North American P group are highly interfertile, they show quite a high degree of differentiation in DNA structure (Garbelotto et al., 1993, Johannesson and Stenlid, 2003) and enzymatic properties (Otrosina et al., 1993; Maijala et al., 2003). Some differentiation has been reported between the western and eastern P group populations in North America (Garbelotto et al., 1993).
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Phlebia gigantea||Pathogen||Poland; UK|
|Phlebiopsis gigantea||Antagonist||Italy; Poland||Pinus sylvestris|
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page See datasheet on H. annosum sensu lato.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bark||hyphae; spores||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||spores||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Roots||hyphae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||spores||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||hyphae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Wood||hyphae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.See datasheet on H. annosum sensu lato for information on control.
ReferencesTop of page
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