Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Heterobasidion annosum

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Datasheet

Heterobasidion annosum

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Heterobasidion annosum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Basidiocarp on ground under Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionBasidiocarp on ground under Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarp on ground under Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.
BasidiocarpBasidiocarp on ground under Norway spruce (Picea abies), Estonia.Kari Korhonen
Basidiocarp on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Belarus.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionBasidiocarp on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Belarus.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarp on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Belarus.
BasidiocarpBasidiocarp on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Belarus.Kari Korhonen
Basidiocarp at the base of birch (Betula pendula).
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionBasidiocarp at the base of birch (Betula pendula).
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarp at the base of birch (Betula pendula).
BasidiocarpBasidiocarp at the base of birch (Betula pendula).Kari Korhonen
Basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionBasidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
BasidiocarpBasidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Small basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionSmall basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Small basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
BasidiocarpSmall basidiocarp on a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Typical white pustules (small basidiocarp primordia) at the base of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
TitleBasidiocarp primordia
CaptionTypical white pustules (small basidiocarp primordia) at the base of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Typical white pustules (small basidiocarp primordia) at the base of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.
Basidiocarp primordiaTypical white pustules (small basidiocarp primordia) at the base of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot and Peridermium pini in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand in Finland. The whole crown dies simultaneously in the trees attacked by Heterobasidion, whereas only the top is dying in the tree attacked by Peridermium.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion root rot and Peridermium pini in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand in Finland. The whole crown dies simultaneously in the trees attacked by Heterobasidion, whereas only the top is dying in the tree attacked by Peridermium.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot and Peridermium pini in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand in Finland. The whole crown dies simultaneously in the trees attacked by Heterobasidion, whereas only the top is dying in the tree attacked by Peridermium.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion root rot and Peridermium pini in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand in Finland. The whole crown dies simultaneously in the trees attacked by Heterobasidion, whereas only the top is dying in the tree attacked by Peridermium.Kari Korhonen
Difference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b).
TitlePore size
CaptionDifference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b).
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Difference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b).
Pore sizeDifference in pore size between H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b). |Difference in pore size between Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b). Kari Korhonen
Section of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not.
TitleSection of basidiocarp
CaptionSection of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Section of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not.
Section of basidiocarpSection of basidiocarp margin: H. parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, Heterobasidion annosum (b) has not. |Section of basidiocarp margin: Heterobasidion parviporum (a) has tomentum on the upper side, H. annosum (b) has not. Kari Korhonen
Typical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.
TitleCulture media
CaptionTypical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Typical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.
Culture mediaTypical pure cultures of H. parviporum (a) and Heterobasidion annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.|Typical pure cultures of Heterobasidion parviporum (a) and H. annosum (b) on malt extract agar. Age of cultures ca 4 weeks.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, Finland.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion root rot in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, Finland.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion root rot in a young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion disease centre in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion disease centre in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion disease centre in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion disease centre in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.Kari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionHeterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.
Field symptomsHeterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) plantation on former agricultural soil in Belarus.Kari Korhonen
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) saplings killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionScots pine (Pinus sylvestris) saplings killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) saplings killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
Field symptomsScots pine (Pinus sylvestris) saplings killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.Kari Korhonen
A Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionA Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
A Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.
Field symptomsA Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapling killed by Heterobasidion annosum s.str. Finland.Kari Korhonen
Symptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a fresh Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSymptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a fresh Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Symptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a fresh Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
SymptomsSymptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a fresh Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.Kari Korhonen
Symptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSymptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
CopyrightKari Korhonen
Symptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.
SymptomsSymptoms (resinosis) of Heterobasidion root rot in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stump, Finland.Kari Korhonen

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. sensu stricto

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Russulales
  •                             Family: Bondarzewiaceae
  •                                 Genus: Heterobasidion
  •                                     Species: Heterobasidion annosum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto was separated from the Northern Hemisphere species complex H. annosum sensu lato by Niemelä and Korhonen (1998) and corresponds to the European intersterility group 'P' (Korhonen, 1978). The taxonomic position of its North American counterpart, the 'North American intersterility group P' or 'pine group', is not clear. In the Compendium, this group is considered as a population of H. annosum sensu stricto.

Description

Top of page H. annosum sensu stricto, H. parviporum and H. abietinum are close relatives and show only small differences in morphology, although they have not yet been thoroughly investigated. It is usually relatively easy to distinguish between H. annosum and H. parviporum on the basis of basidiocarp morphology: H. annosum has large pores and the brown upper surface is hard, whereas H. parviporum has small pores and the brown upper surface near the margin looks soft and velvety (tomentose) when viewed under a magnifying glass. Identification of H. abietinum is more difficult as these characteristics are somewhere between those of H. annosum and H. parviporum (Mugnai and Capretti, 1989). Accurate identification of these three species is often only possible in the laboratory.

A detailed description of morphology exists only for H. annosum sensu lato.

Distribution

Top of page Although precise identifications are lacking, H. annosum sensu stricto probably exists everywhere in Europe where Heterobasidion occurs in pine forests, i.e. in almost all European countries. The northern limit of distribution in Scandinavia is ca 63°N. In the east, the distribution of H. annosum sensu stricto probably extends over southern Siberia, but it has not yet been found in eastern Asia.

North American records in the distribution list refer to the 'North American intersterility group P' or 'pine group' of H. annosum sensu stricto. The North American P group probably occurs in all states where H. annosum sensu lato has been recorded, excluding perhaps Alaska, and appears to be the only intersterility group of H. annosum occurring in eastern parts of the continent.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

KazakhstanPresent
NepalPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-OntarioRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Chase and Ullrich, 1990
-QuebecRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Roy et al., 2003
USAWidespreadNative Not invasive CMI, 1980
-AlaskaPresent
-CaliforniaWidespreadNative Not invasive Garbelotto et al., 1996
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Korhonen, 1978
-MontanaWidespreadNative Not invasive Otrosina et al., 1992
-New HampshireWidespreadNative Not invasive Garbelotto et al., 1993
-New MexicoPresent
-North CarolinaWidespreadNative Not invasive Chase and Ullrich, 1990
-OregonWidespreadNative Not invasive Otrosina et al., 1992
-VermontWidespreadNative Not invasive Chase and Ullrich, 1990
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Europe

AustriaWidespreadNative Not invasive Capretti et al., 1998a
BelarusWidespreadNative Not invasive Korhonen et al., 1992
BulgariaRestricted distributionNative Not invasive La Porta et al., 1998
Czechoslovakia (former)Present
DenmarkWidespreadNative Not invasive Thomsen, 1994
EstoniaRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Hanso and Hanso, 2003
FinlandWidespreadNative Not invasive Korhonen and Piri, 1994
Former USSRPresent
FranceWidespreadNative Not invasive
GermanyWidespreadNative Not invasive Schulze, 1999
GreeceWidespreadNative Not invasive Tsopelas and Korhonen, 1996
HungaryWidespreadNative Not invasive Pagony and Szanto, 1998
IrelandPresent
ItalyWidespreadNative Not invasive Capretti et al., 1994
LatviaWidespreadNative Not invasive Grantina et al., 2000
LithuaniaWidespreadNative Not invasive Vasiliauskas and Stenlid, 1998
NetherlandsWidespreadNative Not invasive Schuring, 1999
NorwayWidespreadNative Not invasive
PolandWidespreadNative Not invasive Lakomy and Werner, 2003
PortugalPresentNative Not invasive
-MadeiraPresentKorhonen, 1978
Russian FederationPresent
-Russia (Europe)WidespreadNative Not invasive Dai et al., 2003
-SiberiaRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Dai et al., 2003
SloveniaWidespreadNative Not invasive Munda et al., 1998
SpainPresentPrieto-Recio et al., 2012
SwedenWidespreadNative Not invasive
SwitzerlandRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Holdenrieder et al., 1998
UKWidespreadNative Not invasive
-England and WalesWidespreadNative Not invasive
-ScotlandWidespreadNative Not invasive
UkrainePresentNative Not invasive Negrutskii et al., 1993
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)WidespreadNative Not invasive CMI, 1980; Tomanic et al., 2000

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page There are no proven cases of introduction of H. annosum sensu stricto.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page H. annosum sensu stricto mainly affects species of Pinus, but it also affects a wide range of other conifers in Europe. It is found relatively often on dicotyledonous hosts when they grow in mixture with a susceptible conifer species. It primarily inhabits pine forests and plantations of other conifers established on sites with pine history. It is rare or absent in eastern Asia. Many of the hosts listed have been recorded in the UK, where only H. annosum sensu stricto has been found.

The North American P group affects mostly species of Pinus in North America. The following hosts have only been recorded for the North American P group: Libocedrus decurrens, Arctostaphylos sp., Calocedrus decurrens, Juniperus occidentalis, Picea engelmannii, P. rubens, Pinus coulteri, P. elliottii, P. jeffreyi, P. lambertiana, P. monophylla, P. ponderosa, P. resinosa and P. taeda.

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Symptoms on pine species are those described for H. annosum sensu lato. On spruce, the symptoms of H. annosum sensu stricto and H. parviporum are similar. However, the former species is not so well adapted to the spruce host; for example, the extension of the decay column in the stem is generally smaller (Vasiliauskas and Stenlid, 1998).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / rot of wood
Stems / dead heart
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / rot

Biology and Ecology

Top of page H. annosum sensu stricto and the North American P group are inhabitants of pine forests or forests with pine history. The former has caused major damage in pine afforestations of central and eastern Europe (Fiodorov, 1998). The damage is generally slight on old forest soils. However, in the UK this fungus causes heavy damage to pine on soils with a high pH (Redfern and Ward, 1998). The North American P group is most harmful in pine cultures growing on high-hazard sites in south-eastern USA (Filip and Morrison, 1998).

In the natural distribution area of Norway spruce (Picea abies), H. annosum sensu stricto is generally much less frequent than H. parviporum on spruce; however, outside this area in western Europe it is the dominating Heterobasidion species attacking Norway spruce and Sitka spruce stands (Korhonen et al., 1998).

For further information on general biology and transmission, see datasheet on H. annosum sensu lato.

Physiological Specialization

Although the European H. annosum sensu stricto and the North American P group are highly interfertile, they show quite a high degree of differentiation in DNA structure (Garbelotto et al., 1993, Johannesson and Stenlid, 2003) and enzymatic properties (Otrosina et al., 1993; Maijala et al., 2003). Some differentiation has been reported between the western and eastern P group populations in North America (Garbelotto et al., 1993).

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Armillaria mellea Pathogen
Fomitopsis pinicola Pathogen
Gloeophyllum saepiarium Pathogen
Hirschioporus abietinus Pathogen
Hypholoma capnoides Pathogen
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite Italy
Macrolepiota procera Pathogen
Macrolepiota rachodes Pathogen
Oidiodendron maius Pathogen
Phlebia gigantea Pathogen Poland; UK
Phlebiopsis gigantea Antagonist Italy; Poland Pinus sylvestris
Resinicium bicolor Pathogen
Scytalidium album Pathogen
Scytalidium lignicola Pathogen
Sistotrema brinckmannii Pathogen
Tolypocladium niveum Pathogen

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page See datasheet on H. annosum sensu lato.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

See datasheet on H. annosum sensu lato for information on control.

References

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Adhikari MK, 1988. Polypores (wood-rotting fungi) of Nepal. Banko Janakari Kathmandu, Nepal; Forest Research and Information Centre, Forest Survey and Research Office, Department of Forests, 2(1):9-20

Anderson RL; Ritter W; Witmer RC, 1976. Fomes annosus found on eastern white pine in Iowa. Plant Disease Reporter, 60:981-984.

Anon., 1959. Reports on forest research for the years ended March, 1957, March, 1958. London, UK: HMSO.

Anon., 1985. Taxonomy and ecology of wood-destroying fungi. Rep. For. Prod. Aust. 1965/66, 1966 (39).

Anon., 2004. Cylindroselloides dybasi, Hall in Nova Scotia. World Wide Web page at http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/Environment/NHR/cylindroselloides.html.

Applegate HW, 1971. Annosus root rot mortality in once-thinned loblolly pine plantations in Tennessee. Plant Disease Reporter, 55:625-627.

Bakshi BK, 1950. Fungi associated with ambrosia beetles in Great Britain. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 33(1-2):111-120.

Bakshi BK; Sen M; Singh B, 1970. Cultural diagnosis of Indian Polyporaceae. II. Genera Fomes and Trametes. Indian Forest Records, 2:245-276.

Barnard EL; Gilly SP; Dixon WN, 1991. Incidence of Heterobasidion annosum and other root-infecting fungi in residual stumps and roots in thinned slash pine plantations in Florida. Plant Disease, 75(8):823-828

Berry FH, 1968. Spread of Fomes annosus root rot in thinned shortleaf pine plantations. USDA Forest Service, Res. Note NE-87, 4 pp.

Berry FH; Bretz TW, 1964. Urea and other chemicals effective against colonization of Shortleaf Pine stumps by Fomes annosus in Missouri. Plant Disease Reporter, 48(11):886-887.

Berry FH; Dooling OJ, 1962. Fomes annosus on shortleaf pine in Missouri. Plant Disease Reporter, 46:521-522.

Binyamini N, 1982. Host index for Israeli wood-rotting fungi. Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 30 pp.

Buchanan PK, 1988. A new species of Heterobasidion (Polyporaceae) from Australasia. Mycotaxon, 32:325-337

Campbell WA, 1938. The cultural characteristics of the species of Fomes. Bulletin Torrey botanical Club, 65(1):31-69.

Capretti P; Barzanti GP; Cech T; Tomiczek C, 1998. Intersterility groups (ISG) of Heterobasidion annosum in the Italian Alpine region and Austria. In: Delatour C, Guillaumin J-J, Lung-Escarmant B, Marçais B, eds. Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees. 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Carcans-Maubuisson, France. INRA Editions, Les Colloques, no. 89: 437. (Abstr.).

Capretti P; Barzanti GP; Luisi N; Puddu A, 1998. Group dying of Silver fir (Abies alba) by Heterobasidion annosum in Central and Southern Italy. In: Delatour C, Guillaumin J-J, Lung-Escarmant B, Marçais B, eds. Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees. 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Carcans-Maubuisson, France. INRA Editions, Les Colloques, no. 89: 440. (Abstr.).

Capretti P; Goggioli V; Mugnai L, 1994. Intersterility groups of Heterobasidion annosum in Italy: Distribution, hosts and pathogenicity tests. In: Johansson M, Stenlid J, ed. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Root and Butt Rots. Wik, Sweden and Haikko, Finland. Swedish Univ. of Agric. Sci., Uppsala, Sweden, 218-226.

Capretti P; Korhonen K; Mugnai L; Romagnoli C, 1990. An intersterility group of Heterobasidion annosum specialized to Abies alba. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 20(4):231-240

Capretti P; Tegli S; Lakomy P; Zamponi L, 2003. Genetic variation in Heterobasidion abietinum (H. annosum F group) population. In: Laflamme G, Bérubé JA, Bussières G, eds. Root and butt rots of forest trees. 10th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, Québec City, Canada. Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry Centre, Information Report LAU-X-126:293-295.

Cartwright K St G; Findlay WPK, 1946. Decay of Timber and its Prevention. London, UK: HMSO.

Certini G; Corti G; Ugolini FC, 2000. Influence of soil properties on the mortality of silver fir in Tuscany, Italy. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 119(6):323-331; 25 ref.

Chang TT; Hsieh HJ; Chang RJ; Fu CS, 1999. Common tree diseases in Taiwan. Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. (In Chinese).

Chase TE; Ullrich RC, 1983. Sexuality, distribution, and dispersal of Heterobasidion annosum in pine plantations of Vermont. Mycologia, 75(5):825-831

Chase TE; Ullrich RC, 1990. Genetic basis of biological species in Heterobasidion annosum: Mendelian determinants. Mycologia, 82(1):67-72

Chase TE; Ullrich RC; Korhonen K, 1985. Homothallic isolates of Heterobasidion annosum. Mycologia, 77(6):975-977

CMI, 1980. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 271, edition 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cowling EB; Kelman A, 1964. Influence of temperature on growth of Fomes annosus isolates. Phytopathology, 54(4):373-378.

Dai Y-C; Korhonen K, 2003. First report of Heterobasidion parviporum (S Group of H. annosum sensu lato) on Tsuga spp. in Asia. Plant Disease, 87:1007.

Dai YC; Vainio EJ; Hantula J; Niemelä T; Korhonen K, 2003. Investigations on Heterobasidion annosum s.lat. in central and eastern Asia with the aid of mating tests and DNA fingerprinting. Forest Pathology, 33(5):269-286.

Dai YuCheng; Vainio EJ; Hantula J; Niemelä T; Korhonen K, 2002. Sexuality and intersterility within the Heterobasidion insulare complex. Mycological Research, 106(12):1435-1448.

Daniel G; Asiegbu F; Johansson M, 1998. The saprotrophic wood-degrading abilities of Heterobasidium annosum intersterility groups P and S. Mycological Research, 102(8):991-997; 38 ref.

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