Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Heterodera zeae
(corn cyst nematode)

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Datasheet

Heterodera zeae (corn cyst nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 December 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Heterodera zeae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • corn cyst nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Class: Secernentea
  •         Order: Tylenchida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Whole specimens of the corn cyst nematode, H. zeae.
TitleWhole specimens
CaptionWhole specimens of the corn cyst nematode, H. zeae.
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback/Nemapix Vol. 1
Whole specimens of the corn cyst nematode, H. zeae.
Whole specimensWhole specimens of the corn cyst nematode, H. zeae. ©J.D. Eisenback/Nemapix Vol. 1
External surface of the vulval cone of H. zeae, as seen with scanning electron microscopy.
TitleVulval cone
CaptionExternal surface of the vulval cone of H. zeae, as seen with scanning electron microscopy.
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback/Nemapix Vol. 1
External surface of the vulval cone of H. zeae, as seen with scanning electron microscopy.
Vulval coneExternal surface of the vulval cone of H. zeae, as seen with scanning electron microscopy. ©J.D. Eisenback/Nemapix Vol. 1

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Heterodera zeae Koshy et al., 1971

Preferred Common Name

  • corn cyst nematode

International Common Names

  • English: maize cyst nematode
  • French: nématode à kystes du maïs

EPPO code

  • HETDZE (Heterodera zeae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Class: Secernentea
  •                 Order: Tylenchida
  •                     Family: Heteroderidae
  •                         Genus: Heterodera
  •                             Species: Heterodera zeae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
ChinaPresent, Few occurrences
-GuangxiPresent, Few occurrences
-HenanPresentYuzhou, Xuchang City.
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-BiharPresent, Widespread
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent, Widespread
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-JharkhandPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent, Widespread
-MaharashtraPresent, Widespread
-PunjabPresent, Widespread
-RajasthanPresent, Widespread
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
NepalPresent
PakistanPresent, Widespread
ThailandPresent

Europe

GreecePresent, Few occurrences
SloveniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey

North America

United StatesPresent, Localized
-MarylandPresent
-PennsylvaniaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
-VirginiaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Roots / cysts on root surface
Roots / reduced root system
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsCysts as contaminants. Yes
Containers and packaging - woodCysts as contaminants. Yes
Land vehiclesCysts as contaminants. Yes
Soil, sand and gravelCysts as contaminants. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants nematodes/adults; nematodes/cysts; nematodes/juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots nematodes/adults; nematodes/cysts; nematodes/juveniles Yes Yes
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants nematodes/adults; nematodes/cysts; nematodes/juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Aboul-Eid HZ; Ghorab AI, 1981. The occurrence of Heterodera zeae in maize fields in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology, 13(1-2):51-61

Ahmed SI; Qasim M, 1990. A survey of corn cyst nematode in North West Frontier Province and in northern areas of Pakistan. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 7(1):26-27; 4 ref.

Ali, S. S., Sharma, S. B., 2003. Nematode survey of chickpea production areas in Rajasthan, India. Nematologia Mediterranea, 31(2), 147-149.

Aruna Parihar; Siddiqui AU, 1997. Population fluctuation of Heterodera zeae on maize and barley in Rajasthan. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 27(3):321-322; 7 ref.

Asghari R; Pourjam E; Heydari R; Maafi ZT; Latifi AM, 2013. First report of corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae in Afghanistan. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 8(1):93-96. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-013-0104-z/fulltext.html

Bajaj HK; Gupta DC, 1994. Existence of host races in Heterodera zeae Koshy et al. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 17(4):389-390; 13 ref.

Bajaj HK; Gupta DC; Dahiya RS, 1986. Development of Heterodera zeae Koshy et al, on wheat and maize. Nematologica, 32:209-215.

Baldwin JG, 1978. Giant cells induced by nematodes of the Heteroderidae. Nematology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service, No. 36:2 pp.

Bhargava S; Yadav BS, 1978. Host range study and evaluation of certain barley varieties to the maize cyst nematode Heterodera zeae. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 8(1):72.

Bhargava S; Yadav BS, 1979. Host range study and evaluation of certain barley varieties to the maize cyst nematode: Heterodera zeae. Indian Journal of Nematology, 9(1):77

Bhattacharya D; Swarup G, 1988. Pasteuria penetrans, a pathogen of the genus Heterodera, its effect on nematode biology and control. Indian Journal of Nematology, 18(1):61-70

CABI/EPPO, 2014. Heterodera zeae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 851 (Edition 2).

Chinnasri B; Tanchitsomkid N; and Toida Y, 1995. Heterodera zeae on maize in Thailand. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 24:35-38.

Correia FJS; Abrantes IMde O, 2005. Characterization of Heterodera zeae populations from Portugal. Journal of Nematology, 37(3):328-335.

Cui JiangKuan, Zhou Bo, Jiao YongJi, Lv Yan, Lu JunFeng, Meng HaoGuang, Jiang ShiJun, 2020. First report of Heterodera zeae on maize (Zea mays) in Henan Province, China. Plant Disease, 104(7), 2031-2032. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-02-20-0227-PDN

Darekar KS; Kadam MV; Ajri DS; Dorge SK, 1981. Occurrence of maize cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae in Maharashtra State. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 6(2):156

Dashrath Singh; Aruna Parihar; Siddiqui AU, 1997. Effect of application of urea and carbofuran on maize in a Heterodera zeae infested field. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 27(3):319-320; 7 ref.

Dunn MT, 1983. Ppcilomyces nostocoides, a new hyphomycete isolated from cysts of Heterodera zeae. Mycologia, 75(1):179-182

Eisenback JD; Reaver DM; Stromberg EL, 1993. First report of corn cyst nematode (Heterodera zeae) in Virginia. Plant Disease, 77(6):647; 2 ref.

El-Sherif MA; Ali AH; Barakat MI, 1995. Suppressive bacteria associated with plant parasitic nematodes in Egyptian agriculture. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 24(2):55-59; 7 ref.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Gokte N; Swarup G, 1988. On the potential of some bacterial biocides against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Indian Journal of Nematology, 18(1):152-153; 3 ref.

Golden AM; Mulvey RH, 1983. Redescription of Heterodera zeae, the corn cyst nematode, with SEM observations. Journal of Nematology, 15(1):60-70

Hashmi G; Hashmi S; Krusberg LR; Huettel RN, 1994. Resistance in Zea mays to Heterodera zeae. Journal of Nematology, 25(4 Supp):820-823; 13 ref.

Hashmi S; Krusberg LR; Sardanelli S, 1993. Reproduction of Heterodera zeae and its suppression of corn plant growth as affected by temperature. Journal of Nematology, 25(1):55-58; 8 ref.

Heijbroek W, 1994. Green manures in fallows and as catch crops with the aim of making the soil healthy. Maandblad - Suiker Unie, 28(6/7):18-21.

Hooper DJ, 1990. Extraction and processing of plant and soil nematodes. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 45-68.

Hutzell PA, 1984. Description of males of Heterodera zeae. Journal of Nematology, 16(1):83-86

Hutzell PA; Krusberg LR, 1990. Temperature and the life cycle of Heterodera zeae. Journal of Nematology, 22(3):414-417; 12 ref.

Ibrahim, I. K. A., Handoo, Z. A., Basyony, A. B. A., 2017. The cyst nematodes Heterodera and Globodera species in Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 35(2), 151-154. doi: 10.18681/pjn.v35.i02.p151-154

Ibrahim, I. K. A., Mokbel, A. A., Handoo, Z. A., 2010. Current status of phytoparasitic nematodes and their host plants in Egypt. Nematropica, 40(2), 239-262. http://www.ontaweb.org/

Ismail AE; Abadir SK; Khair AM, 1994. Damage potential and reproduction of Heterodera zeae on corn under field conditions. Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cairo, 45(1):231-242; 16 ref.

Ismail AE; Abadir SK; Kheir AM, 1996. Reproductive potential of Heterodera zeae on corn under field conditions. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 14(1):41-48; 16 ref.

Ismail AE; Hasabo SA, 1995. Effect of root diffusates of some weeds in corn fields on the hatchability of corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 13(1):41-46

Ismail AE; Youssef MMA, 1993. Reaction of barley and wheat cultivars to the infection of Heterodera zeae and Meloidogyne incognita. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 3(1):17-21; 11 ref.

Kaiser SAKM, 1986. Sources of resistance to turcicum leaf blight of maize caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass) Leonard & Suggs. Indian Journal of Mycological Research, 24(2):133-136

Kanwar RS; Rana BP; Walia KK; Walia RK, 1996. Studies on the pathogenic potential of Heterodera zeae and Pratylenchus zeae on maize in Haryana. Indian Journal of Nematology, 26(1):7-14; 8 ref.

Kaul RK; Sethi CL, 1982. Effect of simultaneous inoculations and prior establishment of Heterodera zeae, Meloidogyne incognita and Tylenchorhynchus vulgaris on penetration of cyst and root-knot nematodes into maize roots. Indian Journal of Nematology, 12(1):79-85

Kaul RK; Sethi CL, 1982. Interaction amongst Heterodera zeae, Meloidogyne incognita and Tylenchorhynchus vulgaris on Zea mays. Indian Journal of Nematology, 12(1):91-98

Kaul RK; Sethi CL, 1987. Effect of some systemic nematicides on the in vitro emergence of larvae from the cysts of Heterodera zeae. Indian Journal of Nematology, 17(2):214-217; 5 ref.

Kheir AM; Farahat AA; Abadir SK, 1989. Studies on the corn cyst nematode (CCN) Heterodera zeae in Egypt: IV- Variation in development and reproduction of four different populations on some corn cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 7(2):69-73; 6 ref.

Koshy PK; Swarup G, 1971. Distribution of Heterodera avenae, H. zeae, H.cajani, and Anguina tritici in India. Indian Journal of Nematology, 1:106-111.

Koshy PK; Swarup G; Sethi CL, 1970. Heterodera zeae n.sp. (Nematoda:Heteroderidae), a cyst-forming nematode in Zea mays. Nematologica, 16:511-516.

Krusberg LR, 1988. The corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae in the United States. In: Maqbool, MA, Golden AM, Ghaffar A, Krusberg LR, eds. Advances in Plant Nematology. Proceedings of the U.S. - Pakistan International Workshop on Plant Nematology, April, 6-8, Karachi, Pakistan, 171-175.

Krusberg LR; Sardanelli S, 1989. Survival of Heterodera zeae in soil in the field and in the laboratory. Journal of Nematology, 21(3):347-355; 7 ref.

Krusberg LR; Sardanelli S; Grybauskas AP, 1997. Damage potential of Heterodera zeae to Zea mays as affected by edaphic factors. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 20(6):593-599; 15 ref.

Kunkum Walia; Gopal Swarup, 1985. Effect of some fungi on nematode hatching and larval root penetration. Indian Journal of Nematology, 15(2):174-176

Lal A; Mathur VK, 1982. Occurrence of Heterodera zeae on Vetiveria zizanioides. Indian Journal of Nematology, 12(2):405-407

Lal A; Mathur VK; Agarwal PC, 1982. Studies on the effect of Fusarium solani parasitism on Heterodera zeae.. Nematologica, 28(4):447-450; 8 ref.

Lauritis JA; Rebois RV; Graney LS, 1983. Life cycle of Heterodera zeae Koshy, Swarup, and Sethi on Zea mays L. axenic root explants. Journal of Nematology, 15(1):115-119

MacGowan John B, 1981. Nematology Circular No 77. Gainsville, Florida: Fla. Dept. Agri. & Consumer Services Division of Plant Industry.

Mahipal Singh; Aruna Parihar; Siddiqui AU, 1998. Effect of different pH levels on the development and morphometrics of Heterodeara zeae on maize. Indian Journal of Nematology, 28(2):159-162; 4 ref.

Makadia BM; Jogani DK; Patel DJ, 1988. Occurrence of Heterodera zeae on maize in Gujarat. Indian Journal of Nematology, 18(1):130.

Mani A; Prakash KS, 1992. Distribution of plant parasitic nematodes associated with certain principal crops in Andhra Pradesh. Current Nematology, 3(1):21-26; 6 ref.

Maqbool MA, 1980. Occurrence of eight cyst nematodes on some agricultural crops in Pakistan. Karachi University Journal of Science, 8(1 & 2):103-108; 30 ref.

Maqbool MA, 1981. Occurrence of root-knot and cyst nematodes in Pakistan. Nematologia Mediterranea, 9(2):211-212

Maqbool MA; Hashmi S, 1984. New host records of cyst nematodes, Heterodera zeae and H. mothi from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 2:99-100.

McGregor RC, 1978. People-placed pathogens: the emigrant pests. In: Horsfall JG, Cowling EB, ed. Plant disease. An advanced treatise. Volume II. How disease develops in populations. Academic Press Inc. New York, USA & London UK, 383-396

Meher HC; Venkatesan P, 2004. RAPD markers and microsatellites for detecting genetic polymorphism in six isolates of Heterodera zeae from India. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 12(1):110-114.

Muktar J; Sangam L; Khan AA, 1989. Predominant nematodes associated with different stages of growth of maize plant. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 6:24-25.

Oro V, 2014. Two new maize cyst nematodes in Europe. (Dve nove cistolike nematode kukuruza u Evropi.) Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor), 42(2/3):204-208.

Parihar A; Yadav BS; Siddiqui AU, 1991. Reaction of some cultivated and weed plants to the corn cyst nematode Heterodera zeae. Indian Journal of Nematology, 21(1):94-95

Qasim M; Ghaffar A, 1986. Heterodera zeae in the rhizosphere of declining almond trees. Nematologia Mediterranea, 14(1):159.

Rai B; Pathak KN; Jha MM; Ojha KL, 1996. Effect of inoculation of Heterodera zeae, Exserohilum turcicum [Setosphaeria turcica] and Fusarium moniliforme [Gibberella fujikuroi] alone and in combination in rabi maize and the development of Turcicum leaf blight. Indian Journal of Nematology, 26(1):105-108; 11 ref.

Ringer CE; Sardanelli S; Krusberg LR, 1987. Investigations of the host range of the corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae, from Maryland. Annals of Applied Nematology, 1:97-106

Sakhuja PK; Singh I; Sharma NK; Sharma SK, 1987. Occurrence of maize cyst nematode Heterodera zeae in Hoshiarpur District (Punjab). Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 24(4):613-614; 4 ref.

Samina, S., Erum, Y. I., 2019. Nematode fauna of Kurram Agency, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 37(1), 1-20. doi: 10.18681/pjn.v37.i01.p1-20

Sardanelli S; Krusberg LR; Golden AM, 1981. Corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae, in the United States. Plant Disease, 65(7):622

Sethi CL; Srivasta AN, 1986. Management of Heterodera zeae through pesticidal seed dressing. Indian Journal of Nematology, 16:82-86.

Shahina F; Abid M; Maqbool MA, 1989. Screening for resistance in corn cultivars against Heterodera zeae. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 7:75-79.

Shahina F; Maqbool MA, 1989. Embryonic and postembryonic developmental stages of Heterodera zeae Koshy et al., 1971 on Zea mays. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 7(1):3-16; 7 ref.

Shahina F; Maqbool MA, 1990. Distribution of corn cyst and cereal cyst nematodes in Pakistan. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 7(3):38-40; 9 ref.

Shahina F; Maqbool MA, 1990. Effects of different inoculum levels of Heterodera zeae on Zea mays and H. avenae on Hordeum vulgare. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 7(3):43-44; 6 ref.

Shahina F; Maqbool MA, 1990. Host range studies of Heterodera zeae and H. avenae. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 8:79-85.

Shahina, F., Erum, Y. I., 2007. Distribution of cyst nematodes in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 25(1), 29-35.

Sharma NK; Damanjeet; Sharma SB, 1984. Incidence of maize cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae in Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Nematology, 14:198.

Sharma SB; Swarup G, 1984. Cyst forming nematodes of India. New Delhi, India: Cosmo Publications.

Shashi Singh; Satish Kumar; Bajaj HK, 1998. Catalase and Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozymes patterns of races of Heterodera cajani and H. zeae. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 28(4):175-177; 10 ref.

Shazad S; Ghaffar A, 1986. Tomato, a natural host of Heterodera zeae in Pakistan. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 3:38.

Singh KP; Edward JC, 1979. Effect of organic amendments on growth of maize, morphometrics of Heterodera zeae and rhizosphere microflora. Indian Phytopathology, 32:166

Singh SD; Siradhana BS, 1988. Effect of nematodes on late wilt of maize. Indian Phytopathology, 41(2):173-176

Skantar AM; Handoo ZA; Zanakis GN; Tzortzakakis EA, 2012. Molecular and morphological characterization of the corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae, from Greece. Journal of Nematology, 44(1):58-66. http://journals.fcla.edu/jon/article/view/79253

Southey JF, 1986. Laboratory methods for work with plant and soil nematodes. Norwich, NR3 1PD, Norfolk, UK: H.M.S.O. Books, vii + 202pp.

Srivasta AN, 1980. Studies on the maize cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae, PhD Thesis. New Delhi, India: IARI.

Srivasta AN; Sethi CL, 1984. Effect of soil type on reproduction of Heterodera zeae. Indian Journal of Nematology, 14:72

Srivasta AN; Sethi CL, 1984. Histopathology of maize cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae. Indian Journal of Nematology, 14:205-206.

Srivasta AN; Sethi CL, 1984. Relationship of initial populations of Heterodera zeae with plant growth of maize and nematode reproduction. Indian Journal of Nematology, 14:110-114.

Srivasta AN; Sethi CL, 1985. On the larval penetration and biology of Heterodera zeae on maize. Indian Journal of Nematology, 15:18-20.

Srivasta AN; Sethi CL, 1986. Seasonal population fluctuations of Heterodera zeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis and Tylenchorhynchus vulgaris in maize - cowpea - wheat rotation. Indian Journal of Nematology, 16:16-18.

Srivastava AN; Jagan Lal, 1997. Effect of carbosulfan and sebuphos applied singly and in combination on reproduction of Heterodera zeae and growth of Zea mays. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 5(1):94-97; 13 ref.

Srivastava AN; Kaushal KK, 1991. Heterodera zeae at high altitudes in Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Nematology, 21(2):163-164; 5 ref.

Srivastava AN; Swarup G, 1975. Preliminary studies on some graminaceous plants for their susceptibility to the maize cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae Koshy et al., 1970. Indian Journal of Nematology, 5(2):257-259

Subramaniyan S; Vadivellu S; Valliammai K, 1990. Nematodes associated with forest trees in Tamil Nadu. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 7:27-30.

Swarup G; Gokte N, 1986. The cyst forming nematodes In:Swarup G, Dasgupta DR, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes of India, Problems and Progress, 172-193.

Swarup R; Swarup G, 1986. A note on evaluation of stains in differentiation of cysts and eggs from debris. Indian Journal of Nematology, 16:116-117.

Szalanski AL; Sui DD; Harris TS; Powers TO, 1997. Identification of cyst nematodes of agronomic and regulatory concern with PCR-RFLP of ITS1. Journal of Nematology, 29(3):255-267; 35 ref.

Wu, H. Y., Qiu, Z. Q., Mo, A. S., Li, J. Q., Peng, D. L., 2017. First report of Heterodera zeae on maize in China. Plant Disease, 101(7), 1330. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-01-17-0146-PDN

Distribution References

Aboul-Eid H Z, Ghorab A I, 1981. The occurrence of Heterodera zeae in maize fields in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology. 13 (1-2), 51-61.

Ali S S, Sharma S B, 2003. Nematode survey of chickpea production areas in Rajasthan, India. Nematologia Mediterranea. 31 (2), 147-149.

Asghari R, Pourjam E, Heydari R, Maafi Z T, Latifi A M, 2013. First report of corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae in Afghanistan. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 8 (1), 93-96. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-013-0104-z/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s13314-013-0104-z

CABI, EPPO, 2014. Heterodera zeae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 851 (Edition 2). DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20143156819

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chinnasri B, Tangchitsomkid N, Toida Y, 1995. Heterodera zeae on maize in Thailand. Japanese Journal of Nematology. 35-38.

Correia F J S, Abrantes I M de O, 2005. Characterization of Heterodera zeae populations from Portugal. Journal of Nematology. 37 (3), 328-335.

Cui JiangKuan, Zhou Bo, Jiao YongJi, Lv Yan, Lu JunFeng, Meng HaoGuang, Jiang ShiJun, 2020. First report of Heterodera zeae on maize (Zea mays) in Henan Province, China. Plant Disease. 104 (7), 2031-2032. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-20-0227-PDN

Darekar K S, Kadam M V, Ajri D S, Dorge S K, 1981. Occurrence of maize cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae in Maharashtra State. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 6 (2), 156.

Eisenback J D, Reaver D M, Stromberg E L, 1993. First report of corn cyst nematode (Heterodera zeae) in Virginia. In: Plant Disease, 77 (6) 647. DOI:10.1094/PD-77-0647E

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Ibrahim I K A, Handoo Z A, Basyony A B A, 2017. The cyst nematodes Heterodera and Globodera species in Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 35 (2), 151-154. DOI:10.18681/pjn.v35.i02.p151-154

Ibrahim I K A, Mokbel A A, Handoo Z A, 2010. Current status of phytoparasitic nematodes and their host plants in Egypt. Nematropica. 40 (2), 239-262. http://www.ontaweb.org/

Kaiser S A K M, 1986. Sources of resistance to turcicum leaf blight of maize caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass) Leonard & Suggs. Indian Journal of Mycological Research. 24 (2), 133-136.

Kanwar R S, Rana B P, Walia K K, Walia R K, 1996. Studies on the pathogenic potential of Heterodera zeae and Pratylenchus zeae on maize in Haryana. Indian Journal of Nematology. 26 (1), 7-14.

Kheir A M, Farahat A A, Abadir S K, 1989. Studies on the corn cyst nematode (CCN) Heterodera zeae in Egypt: IV- Variation in development and reproduction of four different populations on some corn cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 7 (2), 69-73.

KOSHY P K, SWARUP G, 1971. Distribution of Heterodera avenae, H. zeae, H. cajani and Anguina tritici in India. Indian Journal of Nematology. 1 (2), 106-111.

Krusberg L R, 1988. The corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae in the United States. In: Advances in plant nematology. [Advances in plant nematology.], [ed. by Maqbool MA, Golden AM, Ghaffar A, Krusberg LR]. Karachi, Pakistan: National Nematological Research Centre, University of Karachi. 171-175.

Lal A, Mathur V K, 1982. Occurrence of Heterodera zeae on Vetiveria zizanioides. Indian Journal of Nematology. 12 (2), 405-407.

Makadia B M, Jogani D K, Patel D J, 1988. Occurrence of Heterodera zeae on maize in Gujarat. Indian Journal of Nematology. 18 (1), 130.

Mani A, Prakash K S, 1992. Distribution of plant parasitic nematodes associated with certain principal crops in Andhra Pradesh. Current Nematology. 3 (1), 21-26.

Maqbool M A, 1980. Occurrence of eight cyst nematodes on some agricultural crops in Pakistan. Karachi University Journal of Science. 8 (1 & 2), 103-108.

Maqbool M A, 1981. Occurrence of root-knot and cyst nematodes in Pakistan. Nematologia Mediterranea. 9 (2), 211-212.

Meher H C, Venkatesan P, 2004. RAPD markers and microsatellites for detecting genetic polymorphism in six isolates of Heterodera zeae from India. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 12 (1), 110-114.

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