Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Heterodera schachtii
(beet cyst eelworm)

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Datasheet

Heterodera schachtii (beet cyst eelworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 30 January 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Heterodera schachtii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • beet cyst eelworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Class: Secernentea
  •         Order: Tylenchida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A. Adult female with eggsac. B. Cysts with eggsacs. C. Head of male showing anterior and posterior cephalids. D. End-on view of male head. E. Dorso-ventral view of male head showing amphid openings. F. Fourth-stage male moulting. G. Male tail. H. Male. J. Male oesophageal region. K. Head of second-stage larva. L. Second-stage, infective, larva.
TitleHeterodera schachtii Schmidt.
CaptionA. Adult female with eggsac. B. Cysts with eggsacs. C. Head of male showing anterior and posterior cephalids. D. End-on view of male head. E. Dorso-ventral view of male head showing amphid openings. F. Fourth-stage male moulting. G. Male tail. H. Male. J. Male oesophageal region. K. Head of second-stage larva. L. Second-stage, infective, larva.
CopyrightCAB INTERNATIONAL
A. Adult female with eggsac. B. Cysts with eggsacs. C. Head of male showing anterior and posterior cephalids. D. End-on view of male head. E. Dorso-ventral view of male head showing amphid openings. F. Fourth-stage male moulting. G. Male tail. H. Male. J. Male oesophageal region. K. Head of second-stage larva. L. Second-stage, infective, larva.
Heterodera schachtii Schmidt.A. Adult female with eggsac. B. Cysts with eggsacs. C. Head of male showing anterior and posterior cephalids. D. End-on view of male head. E. Dorso-ventral view of male head showing amphid openings. F. Fourth-stage male moulting. G. Male tail. H. Male. J. Male oesophageal region. K. Head of second-stage larva. L. Second-stage, infective, larva. CAB INTERNATIONAL
Root of sugarbeet infected with H. schachtii.
TitleRoot cysts
CaptionRoot of sugarbeet infected with H. schachtii.
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback/Nemapix Vol. 1
Root of sugarbeet infected with H. schachtii.
Root cystsRoot of sugarbeet infected with H. schachtii.©J.D. Eisenback/Nemapix Vol. 1
Sterile culture on rape roots for all stages of cyst nematode, H. schachtii, including fertile females, males and cysts.
TitleAll stages on rape roots
CaptionSterile culture on rape roots for all stages of cyst nematode, H. schachtii, including fertile females, males and cysts.
Copyright©U. Zunke/Nemapix Vol. 1
Sterile culture on rape roots for all stages of cyst nematode, H. schachtii, including fertile females, males and cysts.
All stages on rape rootsSterile culture on rape roots for all stages of cyst nematode, H. schachtii, including fertile females, males and cysts.©U. Zunke/Nemapix Vol. 1
Sugarbeet field showing damage caused by H. schachtii, in California, USA.
TitleField damage
CaptionSugarbeet field showing damage caused by H. schachtii, in California, USA.
Copyright©J.D. Eisenback/Nemapix Vol. 1
Sugarbeet field showing damage caused by H. schachtii, in California, USA.
Field damageSugarbeet field showing damage caused by H. schachtii, in California, USA. ©J.D. Eisenback/Nemapix Vol. 1

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Heterodera schachtii A. Schmidt, 1871

Preferred Common Name

  • beet cyst eelworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Heterobolbus schachtii (Schmidt, 1871) Railliet, 1896
  • Heterodera schachtii minor O. Schmidt, 1930
  • Tylenchus schachtii (Schmidt, 1871) Oerley, 1880

International Common Names

  • English: sugarbeet nematode
  • Spanish: anguilula de la remolacha; heterodera de la remolacha; nematodo de la remolacha
  • French: anguillule a kyste de la betterave; nematode de la betterave

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: roeal; roecystenematod
  • Finland: juurikasankeroinen
  • Germany: Aehlchen, Ruebenzysten-; Aelchen, Rueben-; Nematode, Rueben-
  • Italy: Anguillula della barbabietola
  • Netherlands: Bietecystenaaltje; Bietenaaltje
  • Norway: betecystenematode
  • Sweden: betcystnematod
  • Turkey: seker pancari nematodu

EPPO code

  • HETDSC (Heterodera schachtii)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Class: Secernentea
  •                 Order: Tylenchida
  •                     Family: Heteroderidae
  •                         Genus: Heterodera
  •                             Species: Heterodera schachtii

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
ChinaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
IndiaAbsent, intercepted onlySethi et al., 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
IranPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
IraqPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
IsraelPresentMinz, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentIPPC, 2018Present: under eradication
JordanPresentBridge, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
KyrgyzstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentFranklin, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Cape VerdePresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentIbrahim and Handoo, 2016
GambiaPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
LibyaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SenegalPresent, few occurrencesLuc and Netscher, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaWidespreadCoetzee, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentBello and Romero, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresentPagliano, 1925; CABI/EPPO, 2001

North America

CanadaWidespreadBrown, 1932; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
MexicoPresentSosa-Moss, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadBessey, 1911; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-HawaiiPresentWilliams and Holtzmann, 1965; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-MissouriPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-NebraskaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-North DakotaPresentNelson et al., 2012; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-UtahPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-WyomingPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014

South America

ChilePresentStone and Valenzuela, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
PeruPresentKrusberg and Hirschmann, 1958; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
UruguayPresentMesa and Alvarez-Argudin, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AlbaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
AustriaWidespread****CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumWidespreadSimon, 1948; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaRestricted distribution191*Stoyanov, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
DenmarkWidespreadWarming, 1897; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014; DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Denmark, 2018
EstoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
FinlandPresentVappula, 1962; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
FranceWidespreadChatin, 1891; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentSchacht, 1859; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentAyoutantis et al., 1951; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
IrelandPresentDuggan, 1957; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadPetri, 1931; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-SicilyPresentLombardo et al., 2008; Lombardo et al., 2011
LatviaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
MoldovaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsWidespreadBos, 1892; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentKarpinski, 1895; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentOliveira and Branquinho, 1943; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-AzoresPresentNoak, 1902; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentPricina, 1910; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentRenco and Cerevková, 2008
SpainWidespreadDominguez, 1951; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SwedenWidespread****Nilson-Ehle, 1903; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentSavary, 1954; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
UKPresentStaniland and Walton, 1928; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (former)PresentGruijicic, 1958; CABI/EPPO, 2001

Oceania

AustraliaPresentMillikan, 1940; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandWidespreadClark, 1963; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / cysts on root surface
Roots / hairy root
Roots / reduced root system

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Catenaria auxiliaris Pathogen
Cylindrocarpon olidum Pathogen
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen
Hirsutella heteroderae Pathogen
Hirsutella rhossiliensis Pathogen
Humicola grisea Pathogen
Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist
Verticillium chlamydosporium Parasite Eggs
Verticillium falcatum Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Yes
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Allen MW, Raski DJ, 1950. Chemical control of nematodes. Soil type important limiting factor in control of certain plant parasitic nematodes with volatile soil fumigants. California Agriculture, 4:5

Anon., 1951. Nematodes. Canadian Insect Pest Review, 29:247-251.

Aumann J, 1994. The chemical nature of the amphidial and "excretory" system secretions of Heterodera schachtii (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) males. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 17(2):186-189; 17 ref

Aumann J, Hashem M, 1993. Studies on substances with sex pheromone activity produced by Heterodera schachtii females. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 16:43-46

Ayoutantis AJ, Kortas CB, Pélécassis ED, 1951. Rapport sommaire sur les insectes et autre animaux nuisibles observés en Gréce en 1950. Annules l'institute. Phytopathology Benaki, 5:15-17

Baker AD, 1952. Notes on some nematode problems in 1952. Report of Science Service Division of Botany and Plant Pathology Department, Agriculture Canada

Baldwin JG, Mundo-Ocampo M, 1991. Heteroderinae, cyst and non-cyst forming nematodes. In: Nickle WR, ed. Manual of Agricultural Nematology. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, 275-362

Behrens E, 1975. Taxonomically useful characters for the differentiation of Heterodera species. Probleme der Phytonematologie. Vortrage anlasslich der 10 Tagung uber Probleme der Phytonematologie im Institut fur Pflanzenzuchtung Gross-Lusewitz der Deutschen Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften zu Berlin am 11 Juni 1971., 122-142

Behrens E, 1975. Taxonomically useful characters for the differentiation of Heterodera species. Probleme der Phytonematologie. Vortrage anlasslich der 10 Tagung uber Probleme der Phytonematologie im Institut fur Pflanzenzuchtung Gross-Lusewitz der Deutschen Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften zu Berlin am 11 Juni 1971., 122-142

Bello A, Romero MD, 1973. Heterodera schachtii Schmidt, 1871 (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) en los suelos de las islas Canarias. Anal. Edafol, 32:887-892

Bessey EA, 1911. Root-knot and its control. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin, 217:895

Bleve-Zacheo T, Zacheo G, 1987. Cytological studies of the susceptible reaction of sugar-beet roots to Heterodera schachtii. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 30:13-16

Bos J, 1892. Meded. Nederland Phytopathology ver. Het Nederlandsche Tuinbouwblat 8, 288

Bridge J, 1978. Plant nematology in Jordan. (ODM Report on the visit to Jordan, 3-15 April 1978.). Ascot, Berks, UK: Ministry for Overseas Development, [ii] + 20 pp

Brown HD, 1932. The sugarbeet nematode Heterodera schachtii - a new parasite in Canada. Scientific Agriculture, 12:544-552

Böckenhoff A, Grundler FMW, 1994. Studies on the nutrient uptake by the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii by in situ microinjection of fluorescent probes into the feeding structures in Arabidopsis thaliana. Parasitology, 109(2):249-255; 34 ref

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Heterodera schachtii. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 824. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Carta LK, Baldwin JG, 1990. Phylogenetic implications of phasmid absence in males of three genera in Heteroderinae. Journal of Nematology, 22(3):386-394; 44 ref

Chatin J, 1891. Sur la présence de l'Heterodera schachtii dans les cultures d'aeillets à Nice. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaine des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences Paris, 113:1066-1067

Choi YE, Gerprt E, 1975. Additional list of Tylenchida (Nematoda) from Korea with description of two new species. Nematologica, 21(1):26-34

Clark W C, 1963. A review of plant parasitic nematodes in New Zealand. Proceedings of the Sixteenth New Zealand Weed Control Conference, 91-95

Clarke AJ, Shepherd AM, 1965. Zinc and other Metallic Ions as hatching agents for the beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii Schmidt. Nature, 208(5009):502

Coetzee V, 1968. The distribution of the family Heteroderidae (Filipjev, 1934) in South Africa and some host records of Meloidogyne species. South African Journal of Agricultural Science, 11:775-787

Cooke D, 1993. Nematodes Parasites of Sugarbeet. In: Evans K, Trudgill DL, Webster JM, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Temperate Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 133-169

Cooke DA, Thomason IJ, 1979. The relationship between population density of Heterodera schachtii, soil temperature, and sugarbeet yields. Journal of Nematology, 11(2):124-128

Corder MN, Buhrer EM, Thorne G, 1936. A list of plants attacked by the sugarbeet nematode (Heterodera schachtii). Plant Disease Reporter, 20:38-47

Crump DH, Kerry BR, 1987. Studies on the population dynamics and fungal parasitism of Heterodera schachtii in soil from a sugar-beet monoculture. Crop Protection, 6(1):49-55; 23 ref

DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Denmark, 2018. Update of pest status in Denmark for specific harmful organisms in relation to export of seeds - part 1. (Opdatering af skadegørerstatus i Danmark for specifikke skadegørere i relation til eksport af frø - del 1). Tjele, Denmark: DCA - Nationalt Center for Fødevarer og Jordbrug, Aarhus University.51 pp. https://pure.au.dk/portal/files/141699745/Levering_af_skadeg_rerestatus_del_1_ver5.pdf

Dominguez Garcia-Tejero F, 1951. Distribucion en Espa±a de las plages de la nemolache. Boln. Patol. Veg y Ent. Agricola, 18:197-198

Duggan JJ, 1957. Testing soil samples for beet root eelworm. Economic Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, 4:83-89

Endo BY, Wyss U, 1992. Ultrastructure of cuticular exudations in parasitic juvenile Heterodera schachtii, as related to cuticle structure. Protoplasma, 166(1-2):67-77; 21 ref

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Esmailpour MH, SchSfer R, 1970. Auftreten von Rübennematoden (Heterodera schachtii) in Iran. Entomology and Phytopathology. Appl. (Teheran), 29:6-7

Frank, 1896. Die Krankheiten der Pflanzen. Vol. III. Die tierparasitSren Krankheit der Pflanzen. Breslau, 2nd ed

Franklin MT, 1940. On the identification of strains of Heterodera schachtii. Journal of Helminthology, 18:63-84

Franklin MT, 1949. The cyst-forming species of Heterodera. Bucks, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux

Franklin MT, 1972. Heterodera schachtii C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant Parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 1. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Goffart H, 1932. Untersuchungen am Hafernematoden Heterodera schachtii Schm. unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der schleswig-holsteinischen VerhSltnisse 1, III. Beitrag zu: Fossenstudien an Heterodera schachtii Schm. Arb. biol. Bund. Anst. Land. - u Forstw., 20:1-26

Goffart H, 1936. Neue Wirtspflanzen von Heterodera schachtii Schmidt. Z. Pflkrankh. PflPath. Pfl Schutz, 46:359-364

Golden AM, 1959. Susceptibility of several Beta species to the sugar-beet nematode (Heterodera schachtii) and root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Journal American Society Sugar Beet Technology, 10:444-447

Golden AM, Shafer T, 1959. Susceptibility of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to the sugar-beet nematode (Heterodera schachtii). Plant Disease Reporter, 43:1196-1197

Graney LS, Miller LI, 1980. Differentiation of five isolates of Heterodera schachtii as races of the sugarbeet cyst nematode. Journal of Nematology, 12:223

Green CD, Greet DN, 1972. The location of the secretions that attract male Heterodera schachtii and Heterodera rostochiensis to their females. Nematologica, 18:347-352

Griffin GD, 1987. Efficacy of using split and post plant applications of aldicarb for control of Heterodera schachtii in sugar beet. Annals of Applied Nematology, 1:119-122

Gruijicic G, 1958. Heterodera schachtii - repina nematoda Kod nas. Plant Protection, Beograd, 167-174

Grundler F, Betka M, Wyss U, 1991. Influence of changes in the nurse cell system (syncytium) on sex determination and development of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii: Total amounts of proteins and amino acids. Phytopathology, 81(1):70-74; 28 ref

Hartsuijker K, 1947. The sugarbeet eelworm in Holland. CongrFs de l'Institut Internationale de Recherches BetteraviFres, Brussels, 2-5 February 1947, 10(29)

Heijbroek W, 1973. Forecasting incidence of, and issuing warnings about, nematodes, especially Heterodera schachtii and Ditylenchus dipsaci. I.I.R.B. (Journal of the International Institute for Sugar Beet Research), 6(2):76-86

Heijbroek W, 1983. Some effects of fungal parasites on the population development of the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.). Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 48(2):433-439

Hesling JJ, 1978. Cyst nematodes: morphology and identification of Heterodera, Globodera and Punctodera. In: Southey JF, ed. Plant nematology. London UK: HM Stationery Office, 125-155

Hesling JJ, 1978. Cyst nematodes: morphology and identification of Heterodera, Globodera and Punctodera. In: Southey JF, ed. Plant nematology. London UK: HM Stationery Office, 125-155

Hijner JA, 1952. De gevoeligheid van wilde bieten voor het bietencystenaaltje (Heterodera schachtii). Meded. inst. SuikBietTeelt, 21:1-13

Hollrung M, 1890. The testing of agricultural cultivated plants and weeds for their resistance to beet-nematode. Iber. VersStn PflSch. Hall

Ibrahim IKA, Handoo ZA, 2016. Occurrence of phytoparasitic nematodes on some crop plants in northern Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 34(2):163-169

IPPC, 2018. Detection of Heterodera schachtii. In: IPPC Official Pest Report , (No. JPN-07/5) . Rome, Italy: FAO.https://www.ippc.int/

Jaffee BA, Muldoon p, 1989. Suppression of cyst nematode by natural infestation of a nematophagous fungus. Journal of Nematology, 21(4):505-510

Jones FGW, 1945. Soil populations of beet eelworm (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) in relation to cropping. Annals of Applied Biology, 32:351-380

JONES FGW, 1950. Observations on the beet eelworm and other cyst-forming species of Heterodera. Annals of Applied Biology, 37(3):407-440

Jones FGW, Dunning RA, 1972. Sugar beet pests. Bulletin, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, No. 162, 3rd edition:viii + 113 pp

Jones FGW, Jones M, 1964. Pests of Field Crops. London, UK: Edward Arnold Ltd

Jorgenson EC, 1969. Control of the sugarbeet nematode, Heterodera schachtii, on Sugar-beets with organophosphate and carbamate nematicides. Plant Disease Reporter, 53:625-628

Kakaire S, Grove IG, Haydock PPJ, 2012. Effect of temperature on the life cycle of Heterodera schachtii infecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Nematology, 14(7):855-867. http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/10.1163/156854112x631935

Karpinski WJO, 1895. O niektorych szkodnikach i chorobach burakow sukrowych. gazeta Cukrownicza. Poland 4

Kontaxis DG, Thomason IJ, 1978. Chemical control of Heterodera schachtii and sugarbeet production in Imperial Valley, California. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(1):79-82

Krusberg LR, Hirschmann H, 1958. A summary of plant parasitic nematodes in Peru. Plant Disease Reporter, 42:599-608

Kühn, 1881. Die Ergebnisse der Versuche zur Ermittelung der Ursache der Rübenmüdigkeit und zur Erforschung der Natur der Nematoden. Ber. physiol. Lab. landw. Inst. Univ. Halle, 3:1-153

Lombardo S, Colombo A, Rapisarda C, 2008. Severe damage caused by Heterodera schachtii on Brassica oleracea in Sicily. Redia [IX Congress of the Italian Society of Nematology (SIN), Florence, Italy, 22-24 November 2007.], 91:167-169

Lombardo S, Colombo A, Rapisarda C, 2011. Cyst nematodes of the genus Heterodera and Globodera in Sicily. Redia [X Congress of the Italian Society of Nematology (SIN), Naples, Italy, 28-30 October 2010.], 94:137-141. http://www.radia.it-redazione.redia@isza.it

Luc M, Netscher C, 1974. Presence of the sugar-beet nematode at Dakar. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 22(1):24-25

Maas PWT, Heijbroek W, 1982. Biology and pathogenicity of the yellow beet cyst nematode, a host race of Heterodera trifolii on sugar beet in the Netherlands. Nematologica, 28(1):77-93

Mackintosh GM, 1960. The morphology of the brassica root eelworm Heterodera cruciferae Franklin 1945. Nematologica, 5:158-165

MacMillan M, 1931. On the eelworm Heterodera schachtii as potential danger to the sugarbeet industry in Britain. Journal of Helminthology, 9:97-104

MAFF, 1972. Sugar Beet Pests. Advisory Leaflet 162. London, UK: Her Majesty's Stationery Office

Maqbool MA, 1980. Occurrence of eight cyst nematodes on some agricultural crops in Pakistan. Karachi University Journal of Science, 8(1 & 2):103-108; 30 ref

Mesa L, Alvarez Argudin J, 1974. First list of plant-parasitic nematodes for Uruguay. Publicacion Tecnica, Serie: Zoologia Agricola, Direccion u Centro de Investigacion en Sanidad Vegetal, Montevideo, Uruguay, No. 3:7 pp

Millikan CR, 1940. Sugar beet diseases. Progress report of investigations. Journal of Department of Agriculture, Victoria, 38:35-48

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