Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Heterodera sacchari
(sugarcane cyst nematode)



Heterodera sacchari (sugarcane cyst nematode)


  • Last modified
  • 15 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Heterodera sacchari
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sugarcane cyst nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Class: Secernentea
  •         Order: Tylenchida

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TitleJuvenile of H. sacchari, anterior end
Copyright©J. Bridge/CABI BioScience
Juvenile of H. sacchari, anterior end©J. Bridge/CABI BioScience


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Heterodera sacchari Luc & Merny, 1963

Preferred Common Name

  • sugarcane cyst nematode

EPPO code

  • HETDSA (Heterodera sacchari)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Class: Secernentea
  •                 Order: Tylenchida
  •                     Family: Heteroderidae
  •                         Genus: Heterodera
  •                             Species: Heterodera sacchari

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


IndiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
-DelhiPresentSwarup et al., 1964; CABI/EPPO, 2001
PakistanPresentMaqbool, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2001
ThailandPresentPLANTI, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001


BeninPresentCoyne et al., 1996a; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Burkina FasoWidespreadCadet and Merny, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2001
ChadPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
CongoPresentLuc and Merny, 1963; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Côte d'IvoireWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001
GambiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
GhanaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001
LiberiaRestricted distributionLamberti et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001
NigeriaWidespreadJerath, 1968; Odihirin, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2001
SenegalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001

Central America and Caribbean

Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, unreliable recordSingh, 1974

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / cysts on root surface
Roots / proliferation roots in ball
Roots / reduced root system
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Myrothecium verrucaria
Paracyclops affinis Predator

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsCysts in soil. Yes
Containers and packaging - woodCysts in soil. Yes
Land vehiclesCysts in soil. Yes
MailCysts in soil. Yes
Soil, sand and gravelCysts in soil. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Yes
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)


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Babatola JO, 1983. Rice cultivars and Heterodera sacchari. Nematologia Mediterranea, 11(1):103-105

Babatola JO, 1984. Rice nematode problems in Nigeria: their occurrence, distribution and pathogenesis. Tropical Pest Management, 30(3):256-265

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Heterodera sacchari. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 839, edition 1. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cadet P; Merny G, 1978. Influence of some factors on sex-ratio in Heterodera oryzae and H. sacchari (Nematoda: Heteroderidae). Revue de Nematologie, 1(2):143-149

Coyne DL; Plowright RA, 1998. The cyst nematode Heterodera sacchari in rainfed rice production in West Africa; distribution, crop loss assessment and management. Proceedings of the 24th International Symposium of the European Society of Nematologists, 4-9 August, 1998.

Coyne DL; Plowright RA; Fofana I, 1996. Preliminary investigations of nematodes associated with rice in Guinea, Benin and Togo. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 6(1):70-73; 16 ref.

Coyne DL; Thio B; Fofana B, 1996b. Reaction of nine rice cultivars to cyst nematodes and weeds. Annual Report for 1995, West African Rice Development Association, 70-71. UK: Devonshire Press.

Fortuner R; Couturier G, 1983. Plant parasitic nematodes of the forest of Tai (Ivory Coast). Revue de Nematologie, 6(1):3-10

Fortuner R; Merny G, 1973. Nematode root-parasites associated with rice in lower Casamance (Senegal) and Gambia. Cahiers de l'Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, Biologie, No. 21:3-20

Garabedian S; Hague NGM, 1984. The effect of weekly exposures to non-volatile nematicides and sugarcane root diffusate on the hatching of Heterodera sacchari. Revue de Nematologie, 7(1):95-96

Ibrahim SK; Perry RN, 1992. Observations on the desiccation survival of second stage juveniles of the rice cyst nematode, Heterodera sacchari, H. oryzae and H. oryzicola. Nematologica, 38(3):328-334; 20 ref.

Ibrahim SK; Perry RN; Plowright RA; Rowe J, 1993. Hatching behaviour of the rice cyst nematodes Heterodera sacchari and H. oryzicola in relation to age of host plant. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 16(1):23-29; 16 ref.

Jerath; ML, 1968. Hererodera sacchari, a cyst nematode pest of sugarcane ne to Nigeria. Plant Disease Reporter, 52:237-239.

Lamberti F; Ciancio A; Tuopay DK; Boiboi JB; Vovlas N; Bleve-Zacheo T; Elia F, 1991. Nematode threats to rice in Liberia. Nematologia Mediterranea, 19(2):291-303; 8 ref.

Luc M, 1974. Heterodera sacchari. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 4, No. 48:3 pp.

Luc M; Merny G, 1963. Heterodera sacchari n.sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchoidea) parasite de la canne à sucre au Congo-Brazzaville. Nematologica, 9:31-37.

Maqbool MA, 1980. Occurrence of eight cyst nematodes on some agricultural crops in Pakistan. Karachi University Journal of Science, 8(1 & 2):103-108; 30 ref.

Mohammad HY, 1988. The relationship between the biology of Meloidogyne graminicola and Heterodera sacchari and nematocide treatments. Index to Theses Accepted for Higher Degrees in the Universities of Great Britain and Ireland, 37(3):1236; [Publ. 1987].

Mohammad HY; Hague NGM TI, 1987. The effect of nematicide on root invasion by Meloidogyne graminicola and Heterodera sacchari. Nematologica, 33:244-247.

Netscher C, 1969. L'ovogénFse et la reproduction chez Heterodera oryzae et H. sacchari (Nematoda: Heteroderidae). Nematologica, 15:10-14.

Odihirin RA, 1975. Occurrence of Heterodera cyst nematode (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) on wild grasses in sothern Nigeria. Occasional Publication, Nigerian Society for Plant Protection, No. 1:24-25

Odihirin RA, 1977. Irrigation water as a means for the dissemination of the sugar cane cyst nematode Heterodera sacchari at Bacita Sugar Estate. Occasional Publication, Nigerian Society for Plant Protection, No. 2:58

PLANTI, 1987 Heterodera sp. recorded in Thailand. ASEAN Plant Quarantine Centre and Training Institute. PLANTI News, 6:12.

Reversat G; Destombes D, 1995. Resistance to Heterodera sacchari in rice. Nematologica, 41:333-334.

Salawu EO, 1992. Effect of Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera sacchari singly and combined on the growth of sugarcane. Nematologia Mediterranea, 20(2):187-188; 9 ref.

Salawu EO, 1994. Development and life cycle of Heterodera sacchari Luc & Merny, 1963 on sugarcane. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 12(2):131-136; 13 ref.

Shepherd A, 1986. Extraction of free living stages from soil. In: Southey JF, ed. Laboratory Methods for Work with Plant and Soil Nematodes. Reference Book 402, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, UK: Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 31-49.

Singh ND, 1974. Nematode pests of sugarcane new to Trinidad. Plant Disease Reporter, 58(2):122

Swarup G; Prasad SK; Raski DJ, 1964. Some Heterodera species from India. Plant Disease Reporter, 48:235.

Distribution Maps

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