Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, 1952
Preferred Common Name
- soybean cyst nematode
International Common Names
- English: soyabean cyst nematode
- Spanish: heterodera de la soja; nematodo de la soya
- French: anguillule à kyste du soja; nématode de la fève soya; nématode du soja
Local Common Names
- Germany: Aelchen, Sojabohnenzysten-; Nematode, Sojabohnenzysten-
- Italy: anguillula de la soia
- Japan: daizu-iwo-byo; daizu-sisuto-sentyu; tsukiyobo
- HETDGL (Heterodera glycines)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Nematoda
- Class: Secernentea
- Order: Tylenchida
- Family: Heteroderidae
- Genus: Heterodera
- Species: Heterodera glycines
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Ichinohe (1952) first formally described the species from soyabean, Hokkaido, Japan. In the original description a holotype was not designated, but Ichinohe (1961) rectified this when he selected one of the syntypes. Previous to Ichinohe's description, the nematode had been known for many years, although under the name of Heterodera schachtii. There are no synonyms of this species and it has not been synonymized with any other.
DescriptionTop of page
Cysts: Japanese population: L = 700±60 µm; maximum width = 490±54 µm; length/width = 1.43 (1.20-1.61). USA population: L = 340-920 µm; length/width = 1.19-2.05; vulval slit = 49.7 (43-56) µm; fenestral length = 53.7 (37-65) µm; fenestral width = 40.5 (33-48) µm.
Second stage juveniles: Japanese population: L = 471 (437-504 ) µm; width = 18.3 (18.0-18.5); stylet = 23.1 µm; tail length = 45.0 (42-47) µm. USA population: L = 440 (375-490) µm; stylet length = 23.0 (22.0-24.0) µm; tail length = 50.4 (42.0-59.4) µm; length hyaline tail terminus = 26.6 (20.0-33.0) µm.
Description (after Burrows and Stone, 1985).
Female: Morphology typical of the genus. Body swollen, lemon-shaped with projecting neck containing the oesophagus and part of the oesophageal glands. Body without annulation or lateral incisures, but covered with reticulate ridges. Females white on emergence from the root cortex, turning pale yellow as eggs develop. Gelatinous matrix or egg sac present containing up to 200 eggs. Sub-crystalline layer prominent. Head skeleton hexaradiate, stylet slender with posteriorly projecting knobs. Median bulb large and subspherical. Vulva and anus carried on an obtuse cone-shaped projection opposite the neck. Vulva a transverse slit on the vulval cone terminus, surrounded dorsally and ventrally by thin walled crescent-shaped areas, the semifenestrae. On death, the female body wall tans to form a brown, tough walled cyst.
Cyst: Lemon shaped with protruding neck and vulval cone. Outer cyst wall with a rugose pattern of zigzag lines. Ambifenestrate. Vulval region may be intact on younger cysts, but in older specimens the thin walled cuticle of the terminal region is lost leaving an open fenestra crossed by the vulval bridge bearing the vulval slit and dividing the fenestra into two semifenestrae. Bullae prominent, elongate, at or just below the level of the well-developed underbridge.
Male: Vermiform with short, bluntly rounded tail region. Cuticle regularly annulated. Lateral field with four incisures. Head offset with 4-5 annules and strong head skeleton. Stylet robust with knobs laterally to anteriorly projecting. Dorsal oesophageal gland opening 4 µm posterior to stylet base. Excretory pore funnel shaped and 14.5 µm from head. Dorsal oesophageal gland lobe overlapping intestine ventrally. Spicules strongly developed; gubernaculum present.
Second stage juvenile: Vermiform with four incisures in the lateral field, the incisures reducing to three anteriorly and posteriorly. Head offset with 3 or 4 annules. Labial disc dumb-bell shaped. Stylet robust with anteriorly directed knobs. Anterior and posterior cephalids located 2nd to 3rd and 7th to 9th annules respectively. Tail tapering uniformly to a finely rounded terminus; hyaline portion about 50% of tail length.
DistributionTop of page
H. glycines probably evolved either in China or Japan and from there has been spread to the New World. It is now widely distributed in the USA, China and Japan, particularly in those areas where soyabean is grown on a commercial scale. H. glycines is still spreading into new areas with recent records from South America, for example. The nematode appears to be widespread in Brazil. Liu et al. (1997) provided a review of the history of the nematode in China. H. glycines has recently been reported from Italy (Manachini, 2000).
A record for Arizona, USA (CABI/EPPO, 2000) cited in previous editions of the Compendium was erroneous and has now been removed.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Egypt||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)|
|Taiwan||Absent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)|
|Italy||Present, Few occurrences|
|-Russian Far East||Present|
|United Kingdom||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey|
|-Manitoba||Present, Few occurrences|
|Puerto Rico||Present, Few occurrences||Introduced||1998|
|United States||Present, Localized|
|-Arizona||Absent, Invalid presence record(s)|
|-Mato Grosso do Sul||Present|
|-Rio Grande do Sul||Present|
|Chile||Absent, Invalid presence record(s)|
|Ecuador||Present, Few occurrences|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
The nematode presents a threat to all regions of the world where soyabeans are grown and steps should be taken to prevent introduction in the first instance and to control spread once the nematode is known to be present. The nematode is spread most easily via infested soil and contaminated machinery. Any mechanism that spreads infested soil can be a means of dispersal, including wind, water, migratory birds and peds in seed lots (Riggs and Niblack, 1993). H. glycines is already widespread in most of the countries where soyabean production is a major agricultural activity.
HabitatTop of page
The mature female H. glycines is an obese, sedentary semi-endoparasite of plant roots. Vermiform adult males may be found in the soil. The infective second stage juveniles are found in soil and also within plant roots. The eggs are normally retained in a cyst formed from the cuticle of the dead female. All other stages (i.e. J3 and J4) occur as endoparasites of plant roots.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Natural|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
H. glycines attacks a wide range of Fabaceae. Members of Caryophyllaceae and Scrophulariaceae are also hosts. Riggs and Wrather (1992) gives a list of non-fabaceous hosts comprising 63 species in 50 genera from 22 families.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
H. glycines typically causes stunting of the host and this may be combined with chlorosis. The nematode causes 'yellow dwarf disease' of soyabean, the symptoms appearing in the field about two months subsequent to sowing. Diseased plants may be stunted with yellowed foliage and have fewer lateral roots than normal. In addition, there can be reduced Rhizobium nodulation. Yield is substantially reduced. In severe cases the plant may die.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / reduced size|
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / yellowed or dead|
|Roots / cysts on root surface|
|Whole plant / dwarfing|
|Whole plant / early senescence|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The life cycle is similar to that of other cyst nematodes. The nematode reproduces amphimictically. Adult females are lemon-shaped and are semi-endoparasites of plant roots. After death, the cuticle tans to form a brown cyst that serves to protect the retained eggs, although numerous eggs are also laid in an external gelatinous matrix. Females may produce up to 600 eggs each, 200 of which may be in the egg sac. Eggs may remain viable in the cyst for up to 11 years. After hatching from the egg, the infective second stage juvenile (J2) seeks out a host root and penetrates the cortex. The vermiform nematode then becomes sedentary and feeds via specialized trophic cells formed by the host in response to secretions from the nematode. The developing nematodes become increasingly obese and moult to the J3. Ultimately, the J4 stage is reached. The J4 either moults to the female which remains in position within the root cortex or moults to the vermiform male which escapes from the J4 cuticle and the root and searches for females to mate with. The nematode may complete 6-7 generations per year in temperate growing areas. Noel (1985) and Riggs and Wrather (1992) provide more detail.
H. glycines exists in a considerable number of races (Riggs and Wrather, 1992) which can be distinguished using differential hosts (soyabean cultivars). Such a differential response to cultivars serves to complicate management strategies involving resistant hosts, particularly if more than one nematode race is present. The two most widely used race classifications are those of Riggs and Schmitt (1988) and Niblack et al. (2002).
Optimum temperature for development is 28-31°C, little development occurring at temperatures below 15°C or above 33°C. The optimum temperature for emergence of the J2 from the egg and for root penetration is reported to be 24°C.
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Verticillium lecanii is reported to colonize soyabean cyst nematode females and egg masses (Meyer and Wergin, 1998). Pasteuria sp. n. is also reported as naturally infesting J2 H. glycines in the USA (Atibalentja et al., 1998) and Pasteuria nishizawae was reported attacking the nematode in Korea (Lee et al., 1998). Costa et al. (1997) listed species of fungi associated with H. glycines cysts in Brazil. Amongst the fungi isolated were Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. variotti and Dactylaria sp. Nour et al. (2003) investigated bacterial communities associated with nematode cysts and speculated that some may have potential as biocontrol agents.
Pathway CausesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
|Clothing, footwear and possessions||Cysts in soil.||Yes|
|Containers and packaging - wood||Cysts in soil.||Yes|
|Debris and waste associated with human activities||Yes||Yes|
|Land vehicles||Cysts in soil.||Yes|
|Machinery and equipment||Yes|
|Cysts in soil.||Yes|
|Plants or parts of plants||Cysts in soil.||Yes|
|Soil, sand and gravel||Cysts in soil.||Yes|
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes||adults; cysts; juveniles||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||cysts||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Roots||adults; cysts; eggs; juveniles||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||cysts; juveniles||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||adults; cysts; juveniles||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||cysts||Yes||Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
Impact SummaryTop of page
ImpactTop of page
Reported yield losses on soyabean vary from 10-70% in Japan (Ichinohe, 1955; Inagaki, 1977). All soyabean growing areas in the USA are at risk and the nematode is still spreading into previously uninfested areas. Losses in the southeastern USA were estimated at US $88.4 million in 1990 (Sciumbato, 1991). Wrather et al. (1997) provided loss estimates for the top 10 soyabean producing countries and concluded that, worldwide, H. glycines was the most important constraint on yield. Wrather et al. (2003) reported on losses due to H. glycines and other diseases on soybean in the USA and Ontario, Canada from 1999-2002. They found that highest yield losses were caused by H. glycines in both the USA and Canada, the reduction in yield in the USA in 2002 amounting to US $784 million. In the USA yield losses were estimated at 4.2 million tons in 1999 and 3.6 million tons in 2001.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
- Difficult/costly to control
Uses ListTop of page
- Research model
DiagnosisTop of page
The presence of the species would normally be done by examination of the cysts once these have been extracted from the soil or removed from the roots. In practical terms, cyst nematodes recovered from fields where soyabeans have been grown are assumed to belong to H. glycines. Molecular probes were developed by Besal et al. (1988) and much work has been done subsequently on the nematode genome for the purpose of diagnostics and understanding nematode virulence and pathogenicity (see Silva et al., 2000; Abdelnoor et al., 2001; Niblack et al., 2006). A diagnostic protocol for Heterodera glycines is described in EPPO (2008).
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
H. glycines is superficially similar to other members of the genus Heterodera. Species differentiation within this genus can be difficult and is best left to experienced individuals. Characters used include the dimension of the cyst, structure of the vulval cone and its associated features and second stage juvenile morphometrics and morphology.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
H. glycines has a relatively limited host range and can thus be managed by appropriate crop rotation with non-hosts. A two year rotation with a non-host is usually sufficient to reduce populations to a non-damaging level. Resistant varieties of soyabean have also been developed and much screening work, both traditional and molecularly based, has been undertaken for resistance within accessions of Glycine max and in related species of the genus. The large number of races exhibited by the soyabean cyst nematode compromises resistance in the field to some extent. Chemical control may not be economically viable as soyabean is a low return crop. The best management strategy involves rotation with non-hosts and use of resistant varieties of soyabean. Schmitt and Noel (1984), Riggs and Niblack (1993), Sikora et al. (2005) and Niblack et al. (2006) provide good overviews of the nematode.
ReferencesTop of page
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Hegge AH, 1957. Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, in Missouri. In: Plant Disease Reporter, 41 201.
Hershman D E, Heinz R D, Kennedy B S, 2008. Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, populations adapting to resistant soybean cultivars in Kentucky. Plant Disease. 92 (10), 1475. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-10-1475B
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11/12/2008 Updated by:
David Hunt, CAB Europe - UK, Bakeham Lane, Egham, Surrey TW20 9TY, UK
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