Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Heterodera glycines
(soybean cyst nematode)

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Datasheet

Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Heterodera glycines
  • Preferred Common Name
  • soybean cyst nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Class: Secernentea
  •         Order: Tylenchida
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The soybean cyst nematode H. glycines is a known major pest of soybean in regions of the USA particularly semi-arid areas. The nematode has now been found as a pest of soybean outside the USA in Argentina, Br
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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode); low-temperature scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of nematode and its egg.
TitleAdult
CaptionHeterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode); low-temperature scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of nematode and its egg.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USDA-ARS
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode); low-temperature scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of nematode and its egg.
AdultHeterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode); low-temperature scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of nematode and its egg.Public Domain - Released by the USDA-ARS
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode); segment of soybean root infected with soybean cyst nematode. Signs of infection are brown-white females or cysts with egg masses that are attached to root surfaces. (From the Atlas on Ultrastructure of Infective Juveniles of the Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines by Burton Y. Endo)
TitleInfected soybean root
CaptionHeterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode); segment of soybean root infected with soybean cyst nematode. Signs of infection are brown-white females or cysts with egg masses that are attached to root surfaces. (From the Atlas on Ultrastructure of Infective Juveniles of the Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines by Burton Y. Endo)
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USDA-ARS
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode); segment of soybean root infected with soybean cyst nematode. Signs of infection are brown-white females or cysts with egg masses that are attached to root surfaces. (From the Atlas on Ultrastructure of Infective Juveniles of the Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines by Burton Y. Endo)
Infected soybean rootHeterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode); segment of soybean root infected with soybean cyst nematode. Signs of infection are brown-white females or cysts with egg masses that are attached to root surfaces. (From the Atlas on Ultrastructure of Infective Juveniles of the Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines by Burton Y. Endo)Public Domain - Released by the USDA-ARS
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode); cyst containing eggs.
TitleCyst
CaptionHeterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode); cyst containing eggs.
Copyright©Reckenholz
Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode); cyst containing eggs.
CystHeterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode); cyst containing eggs.©Reckenholz

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, 1952

Preferred Common Name

  • soybean cyst nematode

International Common Names

  • English: soyabean cyst nematode
  • Spanish: heterodera de la soja; nematodo de la soya
  • French: anguillule à kyste du soja; nématode de la fève soya; nématode du soja

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Aelchen, Sojabohnenzysten-; Nematode, Sojabohnenzysten-
  • Italy: anguillula de la soia
  • Japan: daizu-iwo-byo; daizu-sisuto-sentyu; tsukiyobo

EPPO code

  • HETDGL (Heterodera glycines)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The soybean cyst nematode H. glycines is a known major pest of soybean in regions of the USA particularly semi-arid areas. The nematode has now been found as a pest of soybean outside the USA in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, China, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, Korea, Paraguay and the former Soviet Union. Other hosts include Phaseolus beans. It can survive in a semi-dried state and is easily spread in soil or on plant material. It is a pest in temperate areas and does not develop below 15°C or above 33°C. Once introduced, the populations of the nematode can rapidly increase as it will complete 6-7 generations per growing season.

 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Class: Secernentea
  •                 Order: Tylenchida
  •                     Family: Heteroderidae
  •                         Genus: Heterodera
  •                             Species: Heterodera glycines

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Ichinohe (1952) first formally described the species from soyabean, Hokkaido, Japan. In the original description a holotype was not designated, but Ichinohe (1961) rectified this when he selected one of the syntypes. Previous to Ichinohe's description, the nematode had been known for many years, although under the name of Heterodera schachtii. There are no synonyms of this species and it has not been synonymized with any other.

Description

Top of page Dimensions (after Ichinohe, 1952, 1955; Hirschmann, 1956; Burrows and Stone, 1985).

Cysts: Japanese population: L = 700±60 µm; maximum width = 490±54 µm; length/width = 1.43 (1.20-1.61). USA population: L = 340-920 µm; length/width = 1.19-2.05; vulval slit = 49.7 (43-56) µm; fenestral length = 53.7 (37-65) µm; fenestral width = 40.5 (33-48) µm.

Second stage juveniles: Japanese population: L = 471 (437-504 ) µm; width = 18.3 (18.0-18.5); stylet = 23.1 µm; tail length = 45.0 (42-47) µm. USA population: L = 440 (375-490) µm; stylet length = 23.0 (22.0-24.0) µm; tail length = 50.4 (42.0-59.4) µm; length hyaline tail terminus = 26.6 (20.0-33.0) µm.

Description (after Burrows and Stone, 1985).

Female: Morphology typical of the genus. Body swollen, lemon-shaped with projecting neck containing the oesophagus and part of the oesophageal glands. Body without annulation or lateral incisures, but covered with reticulate ridges. Females white on emergence from the root cortex, turning pale yellow as eggs develop. Gelatinous matrix or egg sac present containing up to 200 eggs. Sub-crystalline layer prominent. Head skeleton hexaradiate, stylet slender with posteriorly projecting knobs. Median bulb large and subspherical. Vulva and anus carried on an obtuse cone-shaped projection opposite the neck. Vulva a transverse slit on the vulval cone terminus, surrounded dorsally and ventrally by thin walled crescent-shaped areas, the semifenestrae. On death, the female body wall tans to form a brown, tough walled cyst.

Cyst: Lemon shaped with protruding neck and vulval cone. Outer cyst wall with a rugose pattern of zigzag lines. Ambifenestrate. Vulval region may be intact on younger cysts, but in older specimens the thin walled cuticle of the terminal region is lost leaving an open fenestra crossed by the vulval bridge bearing the vulval slit and dividing the fenestra into two semifenestrae. Bullae prominent, elongate, at or just below the level of the well-developed underbridge.

Male: Vermiform with short, bluntly rounded tail region. Cuticle regularly annulated. Lateral field with four incisures. Head offset with 4-5 annules and strong head skeleton. Stylet robust with knobs laterally to anteriorly projecting. Dorsal oesophageal gland opening 4 µm posterior to stylet base. Excretory pore funnel shaped and 14.5 µm from head. Dorsal oesophageal gland lobe overlapping intestine ventrally. Spicules strongly developed; gubernaculum present.

Second stage juvenile: Vermiform with four incisures in the lateral field, the incisures reducing to three anteriorly and posteriorly. Head offset with 3 or 4 annules. Labial disc dumb-bell shaped. Stylet robust with anteriorly directed knobs. Anterior and posterior cephalids located 2nd to 3rd and 7th to 9th annules respectively. Tail tapering uniformly to a finely rounded terminus; hyaline portion about 50% of tail length.

Distribution

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H. glycines probably evolved either in China or Japan and from there has been spread to the New World. It is now widely distributed in the USA, China and Japan, particularly in those areas where soyabean is grown on a commercial scale. H. glycines is still spreading into new areas with recent records from South America, for example. The nematode appears to be widespread in Brazil. Liu et al. (1997) provided a review of the history of the nematode in China. H. glycines has recently been reported from Italy (Manachini, 2000).

A record for Arizona, USA (CABI/EPPO, 2000) cited in previous editions of the Compendium was erroneous and has now been removed.
 

 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaRestricted distributionIntroduced1938Nakata and Asuyana, 1938; Liu et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresentLiu et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-GansuPresentPeng et al., 2016
-HebeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentLiu et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentLiu et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2011; Shi and Zheng, 2013; EPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentLiu et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentLiu et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentLiu et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentLiu et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Nei MengguPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-NingxiaPresentPeng et al., 2016
-ShaanxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentLiu et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-ShanxiPresentLiu et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
IndiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaRestricted distributionNishizawa, 1984; Noel, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-JavaPresentNishizawa, 1984; Noel, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
IranPresentMaafi et al., 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
JapanRestricted distributionIntroduced1881Ichinohe, 1952; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresentIchinohe, 1952; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentSato and Tsuruta, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentNakamura et al., 1982; Iwahori et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentYokoo, 1936; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
MongoliaPresentLiu et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2011
TaiwanAbsent, unreliable recordHung, 1958; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014

Africa

EgyptRestricted distributionDiab, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionNoel, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentNoel, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentMimee et al., 2014
USARestricted distributionWinstead et al., 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-AlabamaPresentRiggs, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-ArizonaAbsent, invalid recordCABI/EPPO, 2011
-ArkansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011
-DelawarePresentMulrooney, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentRiggs, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentMotsinger et al., 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-IllinoisPresentRiggs, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentRiggs, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-IowaPresentNoel, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-KansasPresentSim and Todd, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-KentuckyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentRiggs, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentWarner et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-MinnesotaPresentAnon., 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014; Yan et al., 2017
-MississippiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-MissouriPresentHegge, 1957; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-NebraskaPresentPowers and Wysong, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentWang et al., 2017
-North CarolinaPresentWinstead et al., 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-North DakotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentNoel, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-OklahomaPresentRiggs, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentRiggs, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-South DakotaPresentSmolik et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-TennesseePresentEpps, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaPresentAnon., 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentNoel, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Puerto RicoPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1998Smith and Chavarria-Carvajal, 1999; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentGomez-Tovar and Medina, 1983; Wrather et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
BrazilRestricted distributionIntroduced1991Lordello et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-BahiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011
-GoiasPresentMendes and Dickson, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-MaranhaoPresentCunha et al., 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Mato GrossoPresentMendes and Dickson, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentMendes and Dickson, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Minas GeraisPresentMendes and Dickson, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-ParanaPresentWain and Silva, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Rio Grande do SulPresentWain and Silva, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-TocantinsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2011
ChileAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
ColombiaPresentGomez-Tovar and Medina, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
EcuadorPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
ParaguayRestricted distributionCenturión et al., 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014

Europe

ItalyPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Italy (mainland)Present, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2011
Russian FederationRestricted distributionNoel, 1985; Kazachenko, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentKazachenko, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
UKAbsent, confirmed by surveyCABI/EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

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The nematode presents a threat to all regions of the world where soyabeans are grown and steps should be taken to prevent introduction in the first instance and to control spread once the nematode is known to be present. The nematode is spread most easily via infested soil and contaminated machinery. Any mechanism that spreads infested soil can be a means of dispersal, including wind, water, migratory birds and peds in seed lots (Riggs and Niblack, 1993). H. glycines is already widespread in most of the countries where soyabean production is a major agricultural activity.

Habitat

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The mature female H. glycines is an obese, sedentary semi-endoparasite of plant roots. Vermiform adult males may be found in the soil. The infective second stage juveniles are found in soil and also within plant roots. The eggs are normally retained in a cyst formed from the cuticle of the dead female. All other stages (i.e. J3 and J4) occur as endoparasites of plant roots.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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H. glycines attacks a wide range of Fabaceae. Members of Caryophyllaceae and Scrophulariaceae are also hosts. Riggs and Wrather (1992) gives a list of non-fabaceous hosts comprising 63 species in 50 genera from 22 families.

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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H. glycines typically causes stunting of the host and this may be combined with chlorosis. The nematode causes 'yellow dwarf disease' of soyabean, the symptoms appearing in the field about two months subsequent to sowing. Diseased plants may be stunted with yellowed foliage and have fewer lateral roots than normal. In addition, there can be reduced Rhizobium nodulation. Yield is substantially reduced. In severe cases the plant may die.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / reduced size
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / cysts on root surface
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

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The life cycle is similar to that of other cyst nematodes. The nematode reproduces amphimictically. Adult females are lemon-shaped and are semi-endoparasites of plant roots. After death, the cuticle tans to form a brown cyst that serves to protect the retained eggs, although numerous eggs are also laid in an external gelatinous matrix. Females may produce up to 600 eggs each, 200 of which may be in the egg sac. Eggs may remain viable in the cyst for up to 11 years. After hatching from the egg, the infective second stage juvenile (J2) seeks out a host root and penetrates the cortex. The vermiform nematode then becomes sedentary and feeds via specialized trophic cells formed by the host in response to secretions from the nematode. The developing nematodes become increasingly obese and moult to the J3. Ultimately, the J4 stage is reached. The J4 either moults to the female which remains in position within the root cortex or moults to the vermiform male which escapes from the J4 cuticle and the root and searches for females to mate with. The nematode may complete 6-7 generations per year in temperate growing areas. Noel (1985) and Riggs and Wrather (1992) provide more detail.

H. glycines exists in a considerable number of races (Riggs and Wrather, 1992) which can be distinguished using differential hosts (soyabean cultivars). Such a differential response to cultivars serves to complicate management strategies involving resistant hosts, particularly if more than one nematode race is present. The two most widely used race classifications are those of Riggs and Schmitt (1988) and Niblack et al. (2002).

Optimum temperature for development is 28-31°C, little development occurring at temperatures below 15°C or above 33°C. The optimum temperature for emergence of the J2 from the egg and for root penetration is reported to be 24°C.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Arthrobotrys dactyloides Predator
Chaetomium jodhpurense Pathogen
Chaetomium spiralotrichum Pathogen
Cunninghamella echinulata Pathogen
Cunninghamella elegans Pathogen
Dictyochaeta heteroderae Pathogen
Glomus fasciculatum Antagonist
Glomus microcarpum Antagonist
Glomus mosseae Antagonist
Neocosmospora heteroderae Pathogen
Paecilomyces lilacinus Parasite
Phoma heteroderae Pathogen
Pochonia chlamydosporia Parasite Eggs

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Verticillium lecanii is reported to colonize soyabean cyst nematode females and egg masses (Meyer and Wergin, 1998). Pasteuria sp. n. is also reported as naturally infesting J2 H. glycines in the USA (Atibalentja et al., 1998) and Pasteuria nishizawae was reported attacking the nematode in Korea (Lee et al., 1998). Costa et al. (1997) listed species of fungi associated with H. glycines cysts in Brazil. Amongst the fungi isolated were Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. variotti and Dactylaria sp. Nour et al. (2003) investigated bacterial communities associated with nematode cysts and speculated that some may have potential as biocontrol agents.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagation Yes Yes
Crop production Yes Yes
Flooding and other natural disasters Yes
Nursery trade Yes Yes
Research Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aircraft Yes Yes
Clothing, footwear and possessionsCysts in soil. Yes
Containers and packaging - woodCysts in soil. Yes
Debris and waste associated with human activities Yes Yes
Germplasm Yes Yes
Land vehiclesCysts in soil. Yes
Machinery and equipment Yes
MailCysts in soil. Yes
Plants or parts of plantsCysts in soil. Yes
Soil, sand and gravelCysts in soil. Yes
Water Yes
Wind Yes Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants cysts Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; cysts; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants cysts; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; cysts; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
True seeds (inc. grain) cysts Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Impact

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Reported yield losses on soyabean vary from 10-70% in Japan (Ichinohe, 1955; Inagaki, 1977). All soyabean growing areas in the USA are at risk and the nematode is still spreading into previously uninfested areas. Losses in the southeastern USA were estimated at US $88.4 million in 1990 (Sciumbato, 1991). Wrather et al. (1997) provided loss estimates for the top 10 soyabean producing countries and concluded that, worldwide, H. glycines was the most important constraint on yield. Wrather et al. (2003) reported on losses due to H. glycines and other diseases on soybean in the USA and Ontario, Canada from 1999-2002. They found that highest yield losses were caused by H. glycines in both the USA and Canada, the reduction in yield in the USA in 2002 amounting to US $784 million. In the USA yield losses were estimated at 4.2 million tons in 1999 and 3.6 million tons in 2001.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

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General

  • Research model

Diagnosis

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The presence of the species would normally be done by examination of the cysts once these have been extracted from the soil or removed from the roots. In practical terms, cyst nematodes recovered from fields where soyabeans have been grown are assumed to belong to H. glycines. Molecular probes were developed by Besal et al. (1988) and much work has been done subsequently on the nematode genome for the purpose of diagnostics and understanding nematode virulence and pathogenicity (see Silva et al., 2000; Abdelnoor et al., 2001; Niblack et al., 2006). A diagnostic protocol for Heterodera glycines is described in EPPO (2008).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page The nematodes may be recovered from the soil or plant roots using standard nematological techniques. The white or yellow cysts are readily visible protruding from the roots of infected plants.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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H. glycines is superficially similar to other members of the genus Heterodera. Species differentiation within this genus can be difficult and is best left to experienced individuals. Characters used include the dimension of the cyst, structure of the vulval cone and its associated features and second stage juvenile morphometrics and morphology.

Prevention and Control

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H. glycines has a relatively limited host range and can thus be managed by appropriate crop rotation with non-hosts. A two year rotation with a non-host is usually sufficient to reduce populations to a non-damaging level. Resistant varieties of soyabean have also been developed and much screening work, both traditional and molecularly based, has been undertaken for resistance within accessions of Glycine max and in related species of the genus. The large number of races exhibited by the soyabean cyst nematode compromises resistance in the field to some extent. Chemical control may not be economically viable as soyabean is a low return crop. The best management strategy involves rotation with non-hosts and use of resistant varieties of soyabean. Schmitt and Noel (1984), Riggs and Niblack (1993), Sikora et al. (2005) and Niblack et al. (2006) provide good overviews of the nematode.

 

References

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Abdelnoor RV, Dias WP, Silva JFV, Marin SRR, Kiihl RAde S, 2001. Molecular characterization of soybean cyst nematode populations with different parasitism index to the Hartwig cultivar. (Caracterização molecular de populações do nematóide-de-cisto-da-soja com diferentes índices de parasitismo na cultivar Hartwig.) Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 36(2):331-337.

Anon., 1961. Soybean cyst nematode progress in research and control. ARS Special Report, 22-72.

Anon., 1980. Focus - The latest in plant pathology and nematology. Plant Disease, 64(1):13

Atibalentja N, Noel GR, Liao TF, Gertner GZ, 1998. Population changes in Heterodera glycines and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria sp. in naturally infested soil. Journal of Nematology, 30(1):81-92; 42 ref.

Besal EA, Powers TO, Radice AD, Sandall LJ, 1988. A DNA hybridization probe for detection of soybean cyst nematode. Phytopathology, 78(9):1136-1139; 12 ref.

Burrows PR, Stone AR, 1985. Heterodera glycines. CIH Description of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, set 8(No. 118). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2011. Heterodera glycines. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 802 (Edition 2).

Centurión FM, Shimizu K, Momota Y, 2004. First record of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe from Paraguay. Japanese Journal of Nematology, 34(1):39-42.

Costa SB, Campos VP, Menezes M, 1997. Fungi associated with soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines in Brazil. Nematologia Brasileira, 21(2):31-37; 15 ref.

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