Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Heterodera avenae
(cereal cyst eelworm)



Heterodera avenae (cereal cyst eelworm)


  • Last modified
  • 18 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Heterodera avenae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cereal cyst eelworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Class: Secernentea
  •         Order: Tylenchida

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Reproduced from Williams TD, Siddiqi MR, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 2. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
TitleH. avenae - line drawing
CaptionReproduced from Williams TD, Siddiqi MR, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 2. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
CopyrightCAB International
Reproduced from Williams TD, Siddiqi MR, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 2. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
H. avenae - line drawingReproduced from Williams TD, Siddiqi MR, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 2. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.CAB International


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Heterodera avenae Wollenweber, 1924

Preferred Common Name

  • cereal cyst eelworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Bidera avenae (Wollenweber, 1924) Krall & Krall, 1978
  • Bidera ustinovi (Kirjanova, 1969) Krall & Krall, 1978
  • Heterodera major (Schmidt) Franklin
  • Heterodera schachtii maior (O.Schmidt, 1930)
  • Heterodera schachtii var. avenae Wollenweber, 1924
  • Heterodera ustinovi Kirjanova, 1969

International Common Names

  • English: cereal cyst nematode; oat cyst nematode; oat root eelworm
  • Spanish: heterodera del trigo; nematodo de la avena
  • French: anguillule a kyste de l'orge; nematode des racines des cereales

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: havrecystenematod
  • Finland: kaura-ankeroinen
  • Germany: Haferzysten-Aelchen; Haferzysten-Nematode
  • Italy: anguillula dell'orzo
  • Japan: mugi-sisuto-sentyu
  • Netherlands: havercystenaaltje
  • Norway: havrecystenematode
  • Sweden: havrecystnematod

EPPO code

  • HETDMA (Heterodera avenae)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Class: Secernentea
  •                 Order: Tylenchida
  •                     Family: Heteroderidae
  •                         Genus: Heterodera
  •                             Species: Heterodera avenae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ChinaPresentWang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Nei MengguPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-QinghaiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-ShanxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
IndiaPresentPrasad et al., 1959; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-DelhiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-GujaratPresentPatel et al., 2004
-HaryanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentBishnoi and Bajaj, 2004
-Indian PunjabPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014; Harish et al., 2015
-RajasthanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
IranWidespreadFarivar and Shakeri, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
IsraelWidespreadMinz, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
JapanWidespreadIchinohe, 1954; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
KazakhstanWidespreadSagitov, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
PakistanWidespreadMaqbool, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentAl-Hazmi et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentHassan et al., 2008
TurkeyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014


AlgeriaPresentLamberti et al., 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
EgyptPresentIbrahim et al., 2017
LibyaPresentSiddiqi & Khan, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoWidespreadFranklin, 1951; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaWidespreadDelanoue, 1953; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionPutman and Chapman, 1935; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
USARestricted distributionJensen et al., 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-OhioPresentJoseph et al., 2018Heterodera iri on Ohio bentgrass.
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonPresentEPPO, 2014

South America

PeruPresentKrusberg and Hirschmann, 1958; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014


BelgiumPresentBrand et al., 1957; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentGrujicic, 1969; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaWidespreadStoyanov, 1967; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)WidespreadKlumpar, 1967
DenmarkWidespreadHansen et al., 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
EstoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
FranceWidespreadRitter, 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
GermanyWidespreadWilke, 1923; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
GreeceWidespreadHirschmann et al., 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
IrelandPresentDuggan, 1962; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadMezetti, 1953; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-SicilyPresentLombardo et al., 2011
LatviaPresentKaktyna and Kaktina, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
MaltaPresentLamberti and Dandria, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsWidespreadRitzemabos, 1891; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentSchoyen, 1926; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
PolandWidespreadWilski, 1960; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
PortugalWidespreadMacara, 1963; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationWidespreadFilipjev, 1925; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Western SiberiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentSabora et al., 1988; Filipjev, 1925; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentEPPO, 2014
SpainPresentTobar, 1963; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SwedenWidespreadIreholm, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandWidespreadSavary, 1957; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
UKWidespreadTheobald, 1908; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
UkraineWidespreadNikitin, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (former)WidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001


AustraliaWidespreadDavidson, 1930; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentGrandison and Halliwell, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Roots / cysts on root surface
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acremonium Pathogen Eggs
Arthrobotrys irregularis Predator Eggs
Catenaria auxiliaris Pathogen
Catenaria vermicola Pathogen
Entomophthora Pathogen Adults/Eggs
Hirsutella rhossiliensis Pathogen
Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen
Nematoctonus haptocladus Parasite
Nematophthora gynophila Parasite
Paecilomyces carneus Pathogen
Pasteuria Pathogen Juveniles
Pasteuria penetrans Pathogen Juveniles
Pseudomonas Pathogen
Rhizoglyphus echinopus Predator
Sarocladium strictum Pathogen
Verticillium chlamydosporium Parasite Eggs
Verticillium suchlasporium Pathogen

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsCysts in soil. Yes
Containers and packaging - woodCysts in soil. Yes
Land vehiclesCysts in soil. Yes
MailCysts in soil. Yes
Plants or parts of plantsCysts in soil. Yes
Soil, sand and gravelCysts in soil. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; cysts; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants cysts Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; cysts; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants cysts; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
True seeds (inc. grain) cysts Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches


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Al-Hazmi AS, Ibrahim AAM, Abdul-Razig AT, 1994. Occurrence, morphology and reproduction of Heterodera avenae on wheat and barley in Saudi Arabia. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 12(2):117-129; 26 ref.

Andersen S, Andersen K, 1982. Suggestions for determination and terminology of pathotypes and genes for resistance in cyst-forming nematodes, especially Heterodera avenae. EPPO Bulletin, 12(4):379-386

Baldwin JG, Manuel Mundo-ocampo, 1991. Heteroderinae, cyst-and non-cyst-forming nematodes. In: Nickle WR, ed. Manual of Agricultural Nematology. New York, Basel and Hong Kong: Marcel Dekker Inc., 275-361.

Bishnoi SP, Bajaj HK, 2004. On the species and pathotypes of Heterodera avenae complex of India. Indian Journal of Nematology, 34(2):147-152.

Brande J Vanden, Gillard A, 1957. Importance et repartition en Belgique des nematodes de la sous familie des Heteroderinae. Zfuer Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 64:493-498.

Brown RH, 1984. Ceareal cyst nematode and its chemical control in Australia. Plant Diseases, 68:922-927.

Brown RH, 1987. Control strategies in low-value crops. In: Brown RH, Kerry BR, eds. Principles and practice of nematode control in crops. Australia: Academic Press, 351-387.

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Heterodera avenae. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 823. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Caubel G, Duchesne R, Rivoal R, 1978. Use of aerial photography in nematology. Annales de Phytopathologie, 10(2):273

Davidson J, 1930. Eelworms (Heterodera schachtii) affecting cereals in South Australia. Journal of Department of Agriculture, South Australia, 34:378-385.

Delanoue P, 1953. L' anguillulose des cereales. Moyens susceptibles d'en limiter les degates en Tunisie Agricole, 23.

Duggan JJ, 1962. The occurrence and control of plant parasitic nematodes in Ireland. Irish Crop Protection Conference, Dublin (1962), 180-186.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Farivar H, Shakeri M, 1994. A survey of cereal cyst nematode in Iran. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 12(1):73-78; 10 ref.

Filipjev IN, 1925. Sveklovicnaja nematoda i opasnost ee dalnejsego Zanosa USSR (Resjume daklada, Citannogo V Karantinnoj Sekzii Vses. entomofitopattol. Sovecenija). Izd. Gos. Inst. Oytn. Agronomii, Leningrad, 3:154-155.

Franklin MT, 1951. The Cyst Forming Species of "Heterodera". Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Franklin MT, Thorne G, Oostenbrink M, 1959. Proposal to stabilize the scientific name of the cereal-root eelworm (Class : Nematoda). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, 17:76-85.

Fu Bo, Yuan HongXia, Zhang Yu, Hou XingSong, Nian GaoLei, Zhang Peng, Xing XiaoPing, Sun BingJian, Riley IT, Li HongLian, 2011. Molecular characterisation of cereal cyst nematodes in winter wheat on the Huang-Huai floodplain of China using RFLP and rDNA-ITS sequence analyses. Australasian Plant Pathology, 40(3):277-285.

Grandison GS, Halliwell HG, 1975. New pest of cereals. New Zealand Journal of Agriculture, 130(1):64-65

Grujici G, 1966. Phyto parasitic nematodes on the territory of the S. R. of Serbia with special reference to bioecologic investigation of Heterodera schachtii and Anguina tritici (Steinbuch) Filipjev. Bulletin Scientifique Section A. Sciences Naturelles, Techniques, et Medicales., 11:272-273.

Hansen K, 1897. Nematoder i Havre. Ugeskrift foer Landmaend, 17-19.

Hansen LM, Lamberti F (ed. ), Taylor CE, 1986. Incidence of Heterodera avenae in spring barley fields in Denmark. Cyst nematodes. No. 291, NATO ASI Series. Series A, Life Sciences; vol. 121. Based on the proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute on cyst nematodes held in Martina Franca, Italy, 21 September-2 October 1985. New York, USA: Plenum Press.

Harish Siag, Jaspreet Singh, Kaur DJ, 2015. Distribution of important plant parasitic nematodes associated with wheat in Punjab. Plant Disease Research, 30(2):169-176.

Hassan GA, Al-Assas K, Jamal M, 2008. A survey of cyst nematode species in wheat fields in Al-Hassakah governorate, north east Syria. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 26(2):118-122.

Hirshmann HN, Paschkali Kourtzi, Triantaphyllou AC, 1966. A survey of plant parasitic nematodes in Greece. Annual Institut Phytopath. Benaki, N. S., 7:144-156.

Ibrahim, I. K. A., Handoo, Z. A., Basyony, A. B. A., 2017. The cyst nematodes Heterodera and Globodera species in Egypt., 35(2), 151-154. doi: 10.18681/pjn.v35.i02.p151-154

Ichinohe M, 1954. Heterodera avenae detected in Japan. Annual Report, Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, 5:83.

Indra Rajvanshi, Sharma GL, 2000. Management of cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae in barley through chemical. Current Nematology, 11(1/2):35-37; 7 ref.

Indra Rajvanshi, Sharma GL, Ramesh Chand, Bishnoi SP, 2001. Management of Heterodera avenae through botanicals in wheat and barley. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 9(2):362-363; 4 ref.

Ireholm A, 1990. Pathotypes of cereal cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp., in Sweden. Vaxtskyddsrapporter, Jordbruk, (No. 58):70 pp. S-75077 Uppsala, Sweden: Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.

Jensen HJ, Eshtiaghi H, Koepsell PA, Goetze N, 1975. The oat cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae, occurs in oats in Oregon. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(1):1-3

Jordaan EM, Berg E Van Den, Wale D de, 1992. Plant parasitic nematodes on field crops in South Africa 5. Wheat. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 15:531-537.

Joseph, S., Akyazi, F., Habtewld, A., Mekete, T., Creswell, T., Ruhl, G. E., Faghihi, J., 2018. First report of cyst nematode (Heterodera iri) in Ohio., 102(5), 1042. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-11-17-1846-PDN

Kaktyna D, Kaktina D, 1972. Nematode cysts in soils of Latvian SSR. Tezisy Soveschchaniya, Moskva, Dekabr, 94-95.

Kellgren A, 1897. Nematoder pa havre. Landmannen, 9:210-212.

Klumpar J, 1967. Skodlivost a hubeni hadatek v Polnich plodinach. Za Vysokou urodu, 15:26-28.

Krall' EL, Krall' KhA, 1974. Heterodera avenae in Estonia. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 9:50

Krall' EL, Krall' KhA, 1978. Revision of the plant nematodes of the family Heteroderidae on the basis of the trophic specialization of these parasites and their co-evolution with their host plants. Fitogel'mintologicheskie issledovaniya. "Nauka". Moscow USSR, 39-56

Krusberg LR, Hirschmann H, 1958. A summary of plant parasitic nematodes in Peru. Plant Disease Reporter, 42:599-608.

Kuhn J, 1874. Uber das Vorkommen Von Rubennematoden an den wurzeln der Halmfruchte.Z. Wiss. Landw-Arch. Kgl. Preuss. Landesokon. Kolleg, 3:47-50.

Lamberti F, Dandria D, 1979. Plant parasitic nematodes in the Maltese islands and the problems they cause. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 18:71-76.

Lamberti F, Greco N, Zaouchi H, 1975. A nematological survey of date palms and other major crops in Algeria. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 23(5):156-160.

Lili Z, Duchesne J, Nicolas H, Rivoal R, 1991. Detection infrarouge thermique des maladies du ble' d'hiver. OEPP Bulletin, 21:659-672.

Lombardo S, Colombo A, Rapisarda C, 2011. Cyst nematodes of the genus Heterodera and Globodera in Sicily. Redia [X Congress of the Italian Society of Nematology (SIN), Naples, Italy, 28-30 October 2010.], 94:137-141.

Luc M, Maggenti AR, Fortuner R, 1988. A reappraisal of Tylenchina (Nemata). 9. The family Heteroderidae Filip'ev & Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941. Revue de Nématologie, 11(2):159-176.

Macara AM, 1963. Algumas consideracoes sobre nematodes, nomeadamente os de interesse agricole : Sua dissemina cao e importanicia. Agros, 46:99-140.

Maqbool MA, 1981. Occurrence of root-knot and cyst nematodes in Pakistan. Nematologia Mediterranea, 9(2):211-212

Mc Leod RW, 1986. Cereal cyst nematode detected in Central New South-Wales. New South Wales Department of Agriculture, Biology Branch Plant Disease Survey, 26-27.

McLeod RW, Khair GT, 1977. Observations on the morphology of Heterodera avenae in Australia. Nematologica, 23(3):382-389

Meagher JW, 1977. World dissemination of the cereal-cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) and its potential as a pathogen of wheat. Journal of Nematology, 9(1):9-15

Meagher JW, 1982. Yield loss caused by Heterodera avenae in cereal crops grown in a Mediterranean climate. Bulletin OEPP, 12(4):325-331

Mezetti A, 1953. Osservazioni sullangullulosi radicale dei cerearli in Italia. Ann. della sperimentazione Agraria N. S., 7:743-758.

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Wang MZ, Peng DL, Wu XQ, 1991. Studies on a wheat cyst nematode disease. I. Identification of pathogen. Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University, 10(4):352-356; 4 ref.

Wilke, 1923. Beobachtugen uber das diesjahrige Aufreten des Ruben-nematode, Heterodera schachtii Schmidt an Getreide Dtsch. Landw. Presse, 50:374.

Williams TD, Siddiqi MR, 1972. Heterodera avenae, C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant parasitic nematodes Set 1, No.2. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Wilski A, 1960. Przyczynek do Wystepowania matwika Zbozowego (Heterodera avenae Wollenweber, 1924 = H. major) na terenie Wojewodztwa Bydgoskiego. Biul. Uor., 10:185-191.

Wilski A, 1977. Cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae Woll., 1924. Matwik zbozowy Heterodera avenae Woll., 1924. Polska Akademia Nauk, Komitet Ochrony Roslin. Warsaw Poland, 19 pp.

Distribution Maps

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