Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Heliotropium europaeum
(common heliotrope)

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Datasheet

Heliotropium europaeum (common heliotrope)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Heliotropium europaeum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common heliotrope
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A mature plant of H. europaeum with many flowering cymes.
TitleMature plant
CaptionA mature plant of H. europaeum with many flowering cymes.
CopyrightR. Lewis
A mature plant of H. europaeum with many flowering cymes.
Mature plantA mature plant of H. europaeum with many flowering cymes.R. Lewis
Heliotropium europaeum infected by C. heliotropiicola, showing typical brown lesions on leaves.
TitleFungal natural enemy|Infected weed
CaptionHeliotropium europaeum infected by C. heliotropiicola, showing typical brown lesions on leaves.
CopyrightS. Hasan
Heliotropium europaeum infected by C. heliotropiicola, showing typical brown lesions on leaves.
Fungal natural enemy|Infected weedHeliotropium europaeum infected by C. heliotropiicola, showing typical brown lesions on leaves.S. Hasan

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Heliotropium europaeum L. (1753)

Preferred Common Name

  • common heliotrope

Other Scientific Names

  • Heliotropium carduchorum C. Koch (1849)
  • Heliotropium commutatum Roemer & Schultes (1819)
  • Heliotropium incanescens Andrz. (1822)
  • Heliotropium stevenianum Andrz. (1822)

International Common Names

  • English: European heliotrope; heliotrope
  • Spanish: verrucaria; verruguera
  • French: héliotrope
  • Portuguese: erva das verrugas; tornassol

Local Common Names

  • Australia: barooga weed; caterpillar weed; potato weed; wanderie curse
  • Bulgaria: obiknovena podsunka
  • Egypt: afeen; afein; aqrabana
  • Germany: Europeische; Sonnenwende
  • Hungary: Europai kunkor
  • Iran: aftab parast; akreer
  • Iraq: European turnsole; i'jairbeh
  • Italy: eliotropio comune; erba porraja
  • Lebanon: afyn; hhash el agrab; sakran; samiryuma; turnsole
  • Madagascar: anangeika
  • Morocco: heliotrope d'erope
  • Netherlands: Europese heliotroop
  • Norway: igrasheliotrop
  • Romania: geliotrop evropeiskii
  • Saudi Arabia: karee
  • Turkey: akrep otu; bambul otu
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): lishajeva trava; posunac; suncanac; sunchac

EPPO code

  • HEOEU (Heliotropium europaeum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Boraginales
  •                         Family: Boraginaceae
  •                             Genus: Heliotropium
  •                                 Species: Heliotropium europaeum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, WidespreadCoste (1937)
EgyptPresentMuschler (1912); Holm et al. (1991)
MoroccoPresentHolm et al. (1991)
NigeriaPresentHolm et al. (1991)
South AfricaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
SudanPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1997)
TunisiaPresentHolm et al. (1997)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentHolm et al. (1997)
ChinaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
IndiaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
IndonesiaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
IranPresent, LocalizedNativeDavis (1978); Holm et al. (1991)
IraqPresentHolm et al. (1991)
IsraelPresentHolm et al. (1991)
JordanPresentHolm et al. (1991)
LebanonPresentHolm et al. (1991)
OmanPresentZadjali et al. (2002)
PakistanPresentHolm et al. (1997)
Saudi ArabiaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
SyriaPresentPost (1933)
TurkeyPresent, WidespreadBrummitt (1972); Davis (1978); Holm et al. (1991)
TurkmenistanPresentBrummitt (1972)
UzbekistanPresentBrummitt (1972)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentBrummitt (1972)
AustriaPresentBrummitt (1972); Davis (1978)
BelgiumPresentBrummitt (1972)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadBrummitt (1972); Peev (1989)
CyprusPresentHolm et al. (1997)
CzechoslovakiaPresentBrummitt (1972)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentBrummitt (1972)
FrancePresentCoste (1937); Brummitt (1972)
-CorsicaPresentCoste (1937); Brummitt (1972)
GermanyPresentBrummitt (1972); Davis (1978)
GreecePresentBrummitt (1972)
HungaryPresentBrummitt (1972)
ItalyPresentBrummitt (1972)
PortugalPresent, WidespreadBrummitt (1972); Franco (1984); Vasconcelos and Sá (1988)
-AzoresPresentBrummitt (1972)
RomaniaPresent, WidespreadGujuleac (1960); Brummitt (1972)
RussiaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
-SiberiaPresentBrummitt (1972)
Serbia and MontenegroPresent, WidespreadCincovic and Kojic (1974)
SpainPresentBrummitt (1972)
-Balearic IslandsPresentBrummitt (1972)
SwitzerlandPresentBrummitt (1972); Davis (1978)
UkrainePresentBrummitt (1972)

North America

Sint MaartenPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1997)
United StatesPresentFernald (1950); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
-AlabamaPresentFernald (1950)
-CaliforniaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
-FloridaPresentFernald (1950)
-GeorgiaPresentFernald (1950)
-MarylandPresentFernald (1950)
-New JerseyPresentFernald (1950)
-North CarolinaPresentFernald (1950)
-South CarolinaPresentFernald (1950)
-TexasPresentHulzler and Lemke (1991)
-VirginiaPresentFernald (1950)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadMEADLY (1968); Holm et al. (1991); Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992); Holm et al. (1997); CABI (Undated)
-New South WalesPresent, WidespreadParsons and Cuthbertson (1992); CABI (Undated)
-QueenslandPresent, LocalizedNativeParsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
-South AustraliaPresent, WidespreadParsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
-VictoriaPresent, WidespreadEwart (1930); Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992); CABI (Undated)
-Western AustraliaPresent, LocalizedNativeMEADLY (1968); Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992)
New ZealandPresentHolm et al. (1997)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cercospora taurica Pathogen Fruits/pods/Growing point/Inflorescence/Leaves/Stems
Ethmia distigmatella Herbivore Seeds
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. heliotropae Pathogen Whole plant
Longitarsus albineus Herbivore Whole plant
Pachycerus madidus Herbivore Leaves/Roots
Uromyces distigmatella Pathogen Fruits/pods/Growing point/Inflorescence/Leaves/Stems
Uromyces heliotropii Pathogen Australia
Utethesia pulchella Herbivore Inflorescence/Leaves

References

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Al-Obaedi JFW; Askari AR; Stephan ZA; Obeidi JFW Al, 1987. Some plant extracts for the control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. Nematologia Mediterranea, 15 (1):149-153.

Bentham G, 1969. Flora Australiensis. A Description of the Plants of the Australian Territory. Vol. 4. London, UK: Reeve & Co.

Black JM, 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae-Compositae. Adelaide, Australia: Government Printer.

Bonnemaison L, 1972. Les Ennemis Animaux des Plantes Cultivées et des ForOts. Vol. II. ColéoptFres et LépidoptFres. Paris, France: Editions Sep.

Brummitt RK, 1972. Heliotropium L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea, Vol. 3. Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 84-86.

Bull LB; Dick AT; Keast JC; Edgar G, 1956. An experimental investigation of the hepatotoxic and other effects on sheep of consumption of Heliotropium europaeum L. :heliotrope poisoning of sheep. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 7:381-332.

Burbidge NT; Gray M, 1970. Flora of the Australian Capital Territory. Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Chamberlain WE, 1933. The blood picture in acute cases of enzootic toxaemic jaundice in sheep. Australian Veterinary Journal, 9:2-9.

Chupp CC, 1953. A Monograph of the fungus genus Cercospora. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University.

Cincovic T; Kojic M, 1974. Boraginaceae. In: Josifovic M, ed. Flora SR Serbije (Flora of Socialist Republic of Serbia) Vol VI. Belgrade, Yugoslavia: SANU (Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts), 1-71.

Coste H, 1937. Flore de la France. Vol. II. Paris, France: Libraire des Sciences et des Arts.

CSIRO, 1993. Report of research 1991-1993: Biological control of weeds of European origin. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Division of Entomology.

Cullen JM, 1989. Report on the Host-specificity of the Weevil Pachycerus cordiger Germar (Curculionidae-Cleoninae): A Candidate for the Biological Control of Heliotropium europaeum L. Resp. Australia: Australian Quarantine & Inspection Service, Department of Primary Industries & Energy.

Cullen JM; Delfosse ES, 1990. Progress and prospects in biological control of weeds. Proceedings of the 9th Australian Weeds Conference, 452-476.

Davis PH, 1978. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegian Islands Vol VI. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.

Delfosse ES, 1985. Re-evaluation of the biological control program for Heliotropium europpum in Australia. Proceedings of the VI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds Ottawa, Canada; Agriculture Canada, 735-742

Delfosse ES; Cullen JM, 1981. New activities in biological control of weeds in Australia. 1. Common heliotrope, Heliotropium europpum. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia, 545-561.

Delfosse ES; Lewis RC; Hasan S, 1995. Release of Uromyces heliotropii in Australia for biological control of common heliotrope. In: Delfosse ES, Scott PR, ed. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Canterbury, New Zealand. Melbourne, Australia: DSIR/CSIRO, 329-336.

Everist SL, 1974. Poisonous Plants of Australia. Sydney, Australia: Angus & Robertson.

Ewart AJ, 1930. Flora of Victoria. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press.

Farahbakhsh G, 1961. A Checklist of Economically Important Insects and other Enemies of Plants and Agricultural Products in Iran. Tehran, Iran: Department of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture.

Fernald ML, 1950. A Handbook of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Central and Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada: Gray's Manual of Botany. 8th edn. New York, USA: American Book Company.

Franco JA, 1984. Nova Flora de Portugal (Continente e Atores). Lisbon, Portugal: Author's Edition.

Gardner CA, 1931. Ennumeratio Plantarum Australie Occidentalis. A Systematic Census of the Plants occurring in Western Australia. Perth, Australia:Government Printer.

Gaumann E, 1959. Die Rospilze Mitteleuropas. BeitrSge zur Kryptogamenflora de Schweiz, 12:1-1407.

Grechkanev O; Rodionov V, 1971. Heliotropium europaeum in allelopathy. In: Grozinsky A, ed. Biochemical and Physiological Bases for Plant Interactions in Phytocenosis, Vol II. Kiev, Ukraine: Naukova Dunka Press.

Gujuleac M, 1960. Heliotropiaceae van Tieghem. In: Savulescu T, ed. Flora of People's Republic of Romania Vol VII. Romania: Academy of People's Republic of Romania.

Hasan S, 1985. Prospects for biological control of Heliotropium europpum by fungal pathogens. In: Delfosse ES, ed. Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Vancouver, Canada. Vancouver, Canada: Agriculture Canada, 617-623.

Hasan S, 1992. An update of the biological control of common heliotrope in Australia using plant pathogens. Proceedings of the 1st International Weed Control Congress Melbourne, Australia: Weed Science Society of Victoria, Vol. 2:212-214

Hasan S; Aracil E, 1991. Biology and effectiveness of Uromyces heliotropii, a potential biological control agent for Heliotropium europaeum. New Phytologist, 118:559-563.

Hasan S; Cullen JM, 1984. Heliotropium europpum and its control by natural enemies. Comptes Rendus du 7 Fme Colloque International sur l'écologie la Biologie et la Systématique des Mauvaises Herbes. Paris, France: COLUMA/EWRS, Vol. 1:117-122.

Hasan S; Delfosse ES, 1995. Susceptibility of the Australian native, Heliotropium crispatum, to the rust fungus Uromyces heliotropii introduced to control common heliotrope, Heliotropium europaeum. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 5(2):165-174

Hasan S; Delfosse ES; Aracil E; Lewis RC, 1992. Host-specificity of Uromyces heliotropii, a fungal agent for the biological control of common heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum) in Australia. Annals of Applied Biology, 121(3):697-705

Hasan S; Jordan M; Brun L; Sheppard AW, 1995. Axenic culture and influence of wetness period and inoculum concentration on infection and development of Cercospora blight of Heliotropium europaeum. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 101:491-496.

Holm LG; Doll J; Holm E; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company.

Howell JM; Deol HS; Dorling PR, 1991. Experimental copper and Heliotropium europaeum intoxication in sheep: clinical syndromes and trace element concentrations. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 42(6):979-992; 26 ref.

Huber JT, 1981. Observations on the heliotrope flea beetle, Longitarsus albineus (Col.: Chrysomelidae) with tests of its host specificity. Entomophaga, 26(3):265-273

Hulzler PL; Lemke DE, 1991. Recent collections of Heliotropium europaeum (Boraginaceae) from Texas. SIDA, 14(4):618-619.

Kojic M; Janjic V; Stepic R, 1996. Weeds and their Control. Belgrade, Yugoslavia: ISPSZ Birografika.

Lanigan G, 1971. Metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloid in the ovine rumen: 3. Competitive relationship between heliotrine and methanogenesis in rumen fluid in vitro. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 22:123-130.

Lanigan G; Payne A; Peterson J, 1978. Antimethanogenic drugs and Heliotropium europaeum poisoning in penned sheep. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 29:1281-1292.

Leys AR; Amor RL; Barnett AG; Plater B, 1990. Evaluation of herbicides for control of summer-growing weeds on fallows in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 30(2):271-279

Meadly GRW, 1968. Common heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum L.). The Journal of Agriculture of Western Australia, 9(3):121-124.

Muschler R, 1912. A Manual Flora of Egypt. Vol 2. Berlin, Germany: R. Frielander & Sohn.

Netzer D; Weintal C, 1987. Fusarium wilt of common heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum). Phytoparasitica, 15(2):139-140; 8 ref.

O'Dowd DJ; Edgar JA, 1989. Seasonal dynamics in the pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Heliotropium europaeum. Australian Journal of Ecology, 14:95-105.

Orchard HE, 1949. Common heliotrope or potato weed (Heliotropium europaeum L.) and its distribution in South Australia. Journal of the Department of Agriculture of South Australia, 52:437.

Palii VF; Avanesova GA, 1975. Flea-beetles - Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Halticinae. (Key to genera and injurious species). Zemlyanye bloshki - Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Halticinae. (Opredelitel' rodov i vrednykh vidov). Izdatel'stvo 'FAN'. Tashkent Uzbek SSR, 112 pp.

Pammel LH, 1911. A manual of poisonous plants, chiefly of eastern North America: With brief notes on economic and medicinal plants, and numerous illustrations. Iowa, USA: Torch Press.

Parsons WT; Cuthbertson EG, 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 692 pp.

Peev D, 1989. Heliotropium L. In: Kuzmanov B, ed. Flora of People's Republic of Bulgaria. Vol. IX. Sofia, Bulgaria: Academy of Sciences, 107-111.

Pons N; Sutton BC, 1996. Cercospora and similar fungi on Heliotropium weeds. Mycological Research, 100(7):815-820; 29 ref.

Post GE, 1933. Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinaï. JE Dinsmore, Beirut, Liban.

Seaman JT; Walker KH, 1985. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning of cattle and horses in New South Wales. Plant toxicology. Proceedings of the Australia-U.S.A. poisonous plants symposium, Brisbane, Australia, May 14-18, 1984., 235-246; 20 ref.

Sheppard AW; Brun LA; Lewis RC, 1996. A demographic comparison of common heliotrope, Heliotropium europaeum L: southern Australia and southern France. Eleventh Australian Weeds Conference Proceedings. Melbourne, Australia: Weed Society of Victoria, 286-290.

Sheppard AW; Lewis RC; Delfosse ES, 1993. The establishment of Uromyces heliotropii Sred., a biological control agent of Heliotropium europaeum. Proceedings of the 10th Australian and 14th Asian-Pacific Weed Conference. Brisbane, Australia: Weed Society of Queensland, 89-93.

Thompson EM, 1914. Flowering Plants of Riveriera. London, UK:Green & Co.

Vasconcelos T; Sa G, 1988. Influence of environmental factors in the ecology of Heliotropium europpum L. VIIIe Colloque International sur la biologie, l'ecologie et la systematique des Mauvaises Herbes. Paris, France; ANPP, Vol. 2:335-341.

Vasconcelos T; Sá G; Modesto I, 1984. Effect of temperature, light, depth and duration of burial on the germination of certain weeds. Comptes rendus du 7ème colloque international sur l'écologie, la biologie et la systématique des mauvaises herbes., 13-20; 12 ref.

Wapshere AJ, 1982. Priorities in the selection of agents for the biological control of weeds. Proceedings of the 1982 British Crop Protection Conference - Weeds. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 779-785.

Wilson F, 1960. A review of the biological control of insects and weeds in Australia and Australian New Guinea. Vestnik sel'sko-khozyaistvennoi Nauki, 5:v+102 pp. [Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.]

Zadjali AD; Matrooshi AR; Moghal SM, 2002. Occurrence, distribution and properties of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus. Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Scientific Research - Agricultural Sciences, 7(1):47-51; 24 ref.

Distribution References

Brummitt RK, 1972. Heliotropium L. In: Flora Europaea, Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae, 3 [ed. by Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 84-86.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cincovic T, Kojic M, 1974. Boraginaceae. In: Flora SR Serbije (Flora of Socialist Republic of Serbia), VI [ed. by Josifovic M]. Belgrade, Yugoslavia: SANU (Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts). 1-71.

Coste H, 1937. Flore de la France. Vol. II. Paris, France: Libraire des Sciences et des Arts.

Davis PH, 1978. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegian Islands., VI Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.

Ewart A J, 1930. Flora of Victoria. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press.

Fernald M L, 1950. A Handbook of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Central and Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. New York, USA: American Book Company.

Franco JA, 1984. (Nova Flora de Portugal (Continente e Atores))., Lisbon, Portugal: Author's Edition.

Gujuleac M, 1960. (Heliotropiaceae van Tieghem). In: Flora of People's Republic of Romania, VII [ed. by Savulescu T]. Romania, Academy of People's Republic of Romania.

Holm L G, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1991. A geographic atlas of world weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Co. 391 pp.

Holm L, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho J, Herberger J, 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons. xv + 1129 pp.

Hulzler PL, Lemke DE, 1991. Recent collections of Heliotropium europaeum (Boraginaceae) from Texas. In: SIDA, 14 (4) 618-619.

MEADLY G R W, 1968. Common heliotrope (Heliotropium europaeum). Journal of the Department of Agriculture for Western Australia. 9 (3), 121-4.

Muschler R, 1912. A Manual Flora of Egypt. Vol 2. Berlin, Germany: R. Frielander & Sohn.

Parsons W T, Cuthbertson E G, 1992. Noxious weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkarta Press. 692 pp.

Peev D, 1989. Heliotropium L. In: Flora of People's Republic of Bulgaria, IX [ed. by Kuzmanov B]. Sofia, Bulgaria: Academy of Sciences. 107-111.

Post G E, 1933. Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai. Beirut, Lebanon: J. E. Dinsmore.

Vasconcelos T, Sá G, 1988. Influence of environmental factors in the ecology of Heliotropium europaeum L. (Influence des facteurs de l'environnement sur l'écologie de Heliotropium europaeum L.). In: VIIIe Colloque International sur la Biologie, l'Écologie et la Systématique des Mauvaises Herbes. [VIIIe Colloque International sur la Biologie, l'Écologie et la Systématique des Mauvaises Herbes.], Paris, France: A.N.P.P. 335-341.

Zadjali A D, Matrooshi A R, Moghal S M, 2002. Occurrence, distribution and properties of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus. Sultan Qaboos University Journal for Scientific Research - Agricultural Sciences. 7 (1), 47-51.

Distribution Maps

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