Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Hemileia vastatrix
(coffee leaf rust)

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Datasheet

Hemileia vastatrix (coffee leaf rust)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hemileia vastatrix
  • Preferred Common Name
  • coffee leaf rust
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Leaf rust on coffee plant.
TitleSymptoms on coffee leaf
CaptionLeaf rust on coffee plant.
CopyrightCTC/Zeneca
Leaf rust on coffee plant.
Symptoms on coffee leafLeaf rust on coffee plant.CTC/Zeneca
Coffee leaf rust.
TitleSymptoms on coffee leaf
CaptionCoffee leaf rust.
CopyrightCTC/Zeneca
Coffee leaf rust.
Symptoms on coffee leafCoffee leaf rust.CTC/Zeneca
Yellow to orange powdery blotches appear on the underside of leaves.
TitleSymptoms on coffee branch
CaptionYellow to orange powdery blotches appear on the underside of leaves.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Yellow to orange powdery blotches appear on the underside of leaves.
Symptoms on coffee branchYellow to orange powdery blotches appear on the underside of leaves.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Rust lesions consist of many individual uredinia which grow through the stomata and are scattered within the rust lesions on the underside of leaves.
TitleLeaf lesions showing powdery uredinia
CaptionRust lesions consist of many individual uredinia which grow through the stomata and are scattered within the rust lesions on the underside of leaves.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Rust lesions consist of many individual uredinia which grow through the stomata and are scattered within the rust lesions on the underside of leaves.
Leaf lesions showing powdery urediniaRust lesions consist of many individual uredinia which grow through the stomata and are scattered within the rust lesions on the underside of leaves. ©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
H. vastatrix uredinium with maturing urediniospores. Developing urediniospores are produced in spherical clusters and are packed together somewhat like segments of an orange. Spores measure 18-28 x 28-36 µm and are yellow.
TitleElectron micrograph of maturing spores
CaptionH. vastatrix uredinium with maturing urediniospores. Developing urediniospores are produced in spherical clusters and are packed together somewhat like segments of an orange. Spores measure 18-28 x 28-36 µm and are yellow.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
H. vastatrix uredinium with maturing urediniospores. Developing urediniospores are produced in spherical clusters and are packed together somewhat like segments of an orange. Spores measure 18-28 x 28-36 µm and are yellow.
Electron micrograph of maturing sporesH. vastatrix uredinium with maturing urediniospores. Developing urediniospores are produced in spherical clusters and are packed together somewhat like segments of an orange. Spores measure 18-28 x 28-36 µm and are yellow.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley & Broome

Preferred Common Name

  • coffee leaf rust

International Common Names

  • English: coffee rust; leaf rust of coffee; orange coffee rust
  • Spanish: roya del cafeto
  • French: rouille de la feuille du caféier; rouille vriae des cafeiras
  • Portuguese: ferrugem do cafeeiro

Local Common Names

  • Germany: kaffeeblatt krankheit
  • Italy: ruggine del cafe

EPPO code

  • HEMIVA (Hemileia vastatrix)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Genus: Hemileia
  •                             Species: Hemileia vastatrix

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
BurundiPresent
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicPresent
ComorosPresent, Widespread
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EritreaPresent, Widespread
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
LiberiaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
RwandaPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
Sierra LeonePresent, Localized
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

BangladeshPresent
BruneiPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-YunnanPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Widespread
-JavaPresent
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresent
-Maluku IslandsPresent
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresent, Widespread
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
MyanmarPresent
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent
YemenPresent

North America

BelizePresent
Costa RicaPresent, Widespread
CubaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent, Localized
El SalvadorPresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent, Localized
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent, Localized
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent, Widespread
Puerto RicoPresent
United States
-HawaiiPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent, Localized
SamoaPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-AcrePresent
-BahiaPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-ParanaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-RondoniaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent, Widespread
EcuadorPresent
ParaguayPresent
PeruPresent
VenezuelaPresent, Localized

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / discoloration of bark

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alcaligenes faecalis Pathogen
Bacillus megaterium Pathogen
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen
Cladosporium hemileiae Pathogen
Cochliobolus carbonum Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Eudarluca caricis Pathogen
Paranectria hemileiae Pathogen
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist
Puccinia oxalidis Pathogen
Puccinia psidii Pathogen
Ustilago maydis Pathogen
Verticillium leptobactrum Pathogen
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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1986. Outbreaks and new records: Cuba, outbreak of coffee leaf rust. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 34(1):65

Alarcon R, Carrion G, 1994. The use of Verticillium lecanii in coffee plantations as biological control of coffee rust. Fitopatologia, 29(1):82-85

Anon, 1986b. Outbreaks and new records. Jamaica. Coffee leaf rust. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 34:216

Anon, 1989. Outbreaks and new records. Puerto Rico. Infestation of coffee leaf rust, Hemileaia vastatrix. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 37:97

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Becker S, Mulinge SK, Kranz J, 1975. Evidence that uredospores of Hemileia vastatrix Berk. and Br. are wind-borne. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 82(4):359-360

Bock KR, 1962. Seasonal periodicity of coffee leaf rust and factors affecting the severity of outbreaks in Kenya colony. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 45:289-300

Bowden J, Gregory PH, Johnson CG, 1971. Possible wind transport of coffee leaf rust across the Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 229:500-501

Burdekin DA, 1960. Wind and water dispersal of coffee leaf rust in Tanganyika. Kenya Coffee, 25:212-213

CABI, EPPO, 1998. Hemileia vastatrix. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 9). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 5

CABI/EPPO, 2016. Hemileia vastatrix. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.October. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 5 (Edition 10)

Cabral, P. G. C., Zambolim, E. M., Zambolim, L., Lelis, T. P., Capucho, A. S., Caixeta, E. T., 2009. Identification of a new race of Hemileia vastatrix in Brazil. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 4(1), 129-130. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/208.htm

Capucho, A. S., Zambolim, E. M., Freitas, R. L., Haddad, F., Caixeta, E. T., Zambolim, L., 2012. Identification of race XXXIII of Hemileia vastatrix on Coffea arabica catimor derivatives in Brazil. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1), 189-191. doi: 10.1007/s13314-012-0081-7

Carefoot GL, Sprott ER, 1969. Famine in the wind - Plant disease and human history. London, UK: Angus and Robertson

Carvalho A, Eskes AB, Castillo ZJ, Streenivasan M, Echeverri JH, Fernandex CE, Fazouli LC, 1989. Breeding programmes around the world (Chapter 7). In: Kushalappa AC, Eskes AB, eds. Coffee rust: epidemiology, resistance and management. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press, 293-335

Carvalho VL de, Chalfoun SM, Castro HA de, 1996. Influencia da producao na incidencia da ferrugem-do-cafeeiro. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 31: 401-405

Chalfoun SM, 1981. Relation between different indices of rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br.) infection and yield of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plants in some localities of Minas Gerais State. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 6(2):137-142

Crowe TJ, 1963. Possible insect vectors of uredospores of Hemileia vastarix in Kenya. Transactions of British Mycological Society, 46:24-26

Echeverri JHR, 1980. La roya en El Salavador. Promecafe, 6:3

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Eskes AB, 1982. Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust. In: F Lamberti, JM Waller, N van der Graaff, eds. Durable Resistance in Crops. New York, USA: Plenum, 291-315

Eskes AB, 1989. Natural enemies and biological control. Coffee rust: epidemiology, resistance and management [edited by Kushalappa, A. C. and Eskes, A. B.] Boca Raton, Florida, USA; CRC Press, Inc., 161-169

Eskes AB, 1989. Resistance. Coffee rust: epidemiology, resistance and management [edited by Kushalappa, A. C. and Eskes, A. B.] Boca Raton, Florida, USA; CRC Press, Inc., 171-291

Feliu E, 1988. Outbreaks and new records. Hispaniola island. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 36(4):187

FNIA (Fundo Nacional de Investigacions Agropecuarias), 1985. Plan Nacional de Investigacion Rubro y Cafe, FUNIAP Brahmon, Venezuela, 79

Fomba SN, Hussaini SH, 1991. Coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Broome) now in Sierra Leone. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 39(2-3):118-119

Fulton RH, 1984. Coffee Rust in the Americas. Symposium Book No. 2. St Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society, 120

Guzzo SD, Harakava R, Kida K, Martins EMF, Roveratti DS, 1999. Protection of coffee plants against Hemileia vastatrix by benzalkonium chloride (quaternary ammonium compound). Summa Phytopathologica, 25(4):339-345; 26 ref

Hakiza GJ, 1997. Characterisation of the epidemiology of coffee leaf rust caused by Hemileia vastatrix on robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) in Uganda. PhD thesis. Reading, UK: University of Reading

Holliday P, 1980. Fungus diseases of tropical crops. Fungus diseases of tropical crops. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

King'ori PN, Masaba DM, 1994. Current status of coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix) in Kenya. Kenya Coffee, 59(697):1877-1887

Kushalappa AC, 1989. Biology and epidemiology. Coffee rust: epidemiology, resistance and management [edited by Kushalappa, A. C. and Eskes, A. B.] Boca Raton, Florida, USA; CRC Press, Inc., 13-80

Kushalappa AC, 1989. Rust management: an epidemiological approach and chemical control. Coffee rust: epidemiology, resistance and management [edited by Kushalappa, A. C. and Eskes, A. B.] Boca Raton, Florida, USA; CRC Press, Inc., 81-139

Kushalappa AC, Eskes AB(Editors), 1989. Coffee rust: epidemiology, resistance and management. Boca Raton, Florida, USA; CRC Press, Inc., 345 pp

Large EC, 1940. Coffee rust in Ceylon. In: Advance of the Fungi. London, UK: Jonathan Cape, pp196-207

Laundon GF, Waterston JM, 1964. Hemileia vastatrix. CMI Descriptionsof Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 1. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Llano A, 1977. The orange coffee rust in Nicaragua. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(12):999-1002

Martinez JA, Palazzo DA, Karazawa M, 1977. Importance of the wind in the release and dissemination of spores of Hemileia vastatrix Berk & Br. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 2(1):35-42

Mayne WW, 1930. Seasonal periodicity of coffee leaf disease (Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br.). Bulletin of the Mysore Coffee Experiment Station, No. 4

Monaco LC, 1977. Consequences of the introduction of coffee rust into Brazil. In: PR Day, ed. The Genetic Basis of Epidemics in Agriculture. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 287:57-71

Muthappa B, Kannan KN, Javed ZUR, Matiello JB, Mansk Z, 1989. Chemical control practices around the world. Coffee rust: epidemiology, resistance and management [edited by Kushalappa, A. C. and Eskes, A. B.] Boca Raton, Florida, USA; CRC Press, Inc., 141-159

Muthappa BN, Kokoa P, 1989. Outbreak of coffee leaf rust in Papua New Guinea in 1986. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 37(4):159-163

Muthiah S, 1993. A Planting Century: the first hundred years of the United Planters Association of Southern India. Madras, India: Affiliated East-West Press Pvt. Ltd

Narasimhaswamy RL, 1961. La herrumbre del café (Hemileia) in la India. Café (Turralba), 3: 41-45

Nutman FJ, Roberts FM, 1970. Coffee Leaf Rust. PANS 16: 607-624

Nutman FJ, Roberts FM, Bock KR, 1960. Methods of uredospore dispersal of coffee leaf rust fungus, Hemileia vastatrix. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 43:509-515

Porras NC, Leguizamon CJE, Martinez MM, 1999. Induccion de resistencia por Pseudomonas spp. en plantulas de cafT contra la roya del cafeto Hemileia vastarix Berk. y Br. [Induction of resistance by Pseudomonas spp in coffee plantlets against coffee rust Hemileia vastatrix Berk and Br.] Ascolfi Informa, 25:12-14

Rajendran RB, 1967. A new type of nuclear life cycle in Hemileia vastatrix. Mycologia, 59:279-285

Rayner RW, 1961a. Germination and penetration studies on coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berk & Br.). Annals of Applied Biology, 49:497-505

Rayner RW, 1961b. Spore liberation and dispersal of coffee rust, Hemileia vastatrix. Nature, 191:725

Rayner RW, 1962. The control of coffee rust in Kenya by fungicides. Annals of Applied Biology, 50:245-261

Rayner RW, 1972. Micologia Historia y Biologia de la Roya del Cafeto. Publicacion Miscelanea No. 94. Turialba, Costa Rica: IICA

Rodrigues CJ Jr, Bettancourt AJ, Rijo L, 1975. Races of the pathogen and resistance to coffee rust. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 13:49-70

Salazar Yepes, M., Carvalho Júnior, A. A. de, 2013. Uredinales (rust fungi) biota of the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Brazil: an analysis of composition, species diversity and altitudinal distribution. Caldasia, 35(1), 165-176. http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0366-52322013000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Schieber E, 1972. Economic impact of coffee rust in Latin America. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 10: 491-510

Schieber E, Zentmyer GA, 1984. Coffee rust in the western hemisphere. Plant Disease, 68(2):89-93

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp

Sierra CA, Montoya EC, Velez RC, 1995. Nivel de dano y umbral economico para la roya del cafeto (Hemileia vastatrix Berk. y Br.). Fitopatologia Colombiana, 19: 43-48

Silva-Acuña, R., Maffia, L. A., Zambolim, L., Berger, R. D., 1999. Incidence-severity relationships in the pathosystem Coffea arabica-Hemileia vastatrix. Plant Disease, 83(2), 186-188. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1999.83.2.186

Souza AFde, Zambolim L, Jesus Júnior VCde, Cecon PR, 2011. Chemical approaches to manage coffee leaf rust in drip irrigated trees. Australasian Plant Pathology, 40(3):293-300. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r75m850x733j8898/

Van der Vossen HAM, Walyaro DJ, 1981. The coffee breeding programme in Kenya. A review of progress made since 1971 and plan of action for the coming years. Kenya Coffee, 46:113-130

Vazquez GF, 1983. Coffee rust in Mexico. Plant Disease, 67(4):450

Vine BH, Vine PA, Griffiths E, 1973. Some problems of evaluating fungicides for use on coffee in Kenya. Annals of Applied Biology, 75:377-385

Waller JM, 1979. The recent spread of coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br) and attempts to control it. In: DL Ebbels, JE King, eds. Plant Health. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 275-283

Waller JM, 1982. Coffee rust -- epidemiology and control. Crop Protection, 1(4):385-404

Waller JM, Leguizamon J, Gill LF, Aston RA, Cookman GP, Sharp DG, Ford MG, Salt DW, 1994. Laboratory and field development of a CDA spraying system for control of coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix): an overview. In: Hewitt HG, Caseley J, Copping LG, Grayson BT, Tyson D, eds. Comparing Glasshouse and Field Pesticide Performance II. Farnham, Surrey: British Crop Protection Council, 261-266

Wallis JAN, Firman ID, 1962. Spraying Arabica coffee for the control of leaf rust. East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal, 28:89-104

Ward HM, 1882. Researches on the life history of Hemileia vastatrix. Journal of the Linnaean Society, 19:299-335

Wellman FL, 1970. The rust Hemileia vastatrix now firmly established on coffee in Brazil. Plant Disease Reporter, 54:539

Wellman FL, Echandi E, 1981. The coffee rust situation in Latin America in 1980. Phytopathology, 71(9):968-971

Wrigley G, 1988. Coffee. Tropical agriculture series. Harlow, UK: Longman, 309-326

Zambolim L, Silva-Acuna R, Rena AB, Chaves GM, 1992. The effect of yield on starch and sugar in leaves and their subsequent influence on coffee rust development. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 17(1):23-27

Distribution References

Anon, 1989. Outbreaks and new records. Puerto Rico. Infestation of coffee leaf rust, Hemileaia vastatrix. In: FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 37 97.

Aristizábal L F, Johnson M A, 2022. Monitoring coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix) on commercial coffee farms in Hawaii: early insights from the first year of disease incursion. Agronomy. 12 (5), DOI:10.3390/agronomy12051134

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services., Singapore: Plant Health Centre Agri-food & Veterinary Authority.

CABI, EPPO, 1998. Hemileia vastatrix. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 5. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20066500005

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cabral P G C, Zambolim E M, Zambolim L, Lelis T P, Capucho A S, Caixeta E T, 2009. Identification of a new race of Hemileia vastatrix in Brazil. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 4 (1), 129-130. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/208.htm

Capucho A S, Zambolim E M, Freitas R L, Haddad F, Caixeta E T, Zambolim L, 2012. Identification of race XXXIII of Hemileia vastatrix on Coffea arabica catimor derivatives in Brazil. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 7 (1), 189-191. DOI:10.1007/s13314-012-0081-7

Echeverri JHR, 1980. (La roya en El Salavador). In: Promecafe, 6 3.

EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Feliu E, 1988. Outbreaks and new records. Hispaniola island. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 36 (4), 187.

FNIA (Fundo Nacional de Investigacions Agropecuarias), 1985. (Plan Nacional de Investigacion Rubro y Cafe)., Venezuela: FUNIAP Brahmon. 79.

Fomba S N, Hussaini S H, 1991. Coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Broome) now in Sierra Leone. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 39 (2-3), 118-119.

King'ori P N, Masaba D M, 1994. Current status of coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix) in Kenya. Kenya Coffee. 59 (697), 1877-1887.

Llano A, 1977. The orange coffee rust in Nicaragua. Plant Disease Reporter. 61 (12), 999-1002.

Muthappa B N, Kokoa P, 1989. Outbreak of coffee leaf rust in Papua New Guinea in 1986. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 37 (4), 159-163.

Salazar Yepes M, Carvalho Júnior A A de, 2013. Uredinales (rust fungi) biota of the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Brazil: an analysis of composition, species diversity and altitudinal distribution. Caldasia. 35 (1), 165-176. http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0366-52322013000100012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Silva-Acuña R, Maffia L A, Zambolim L, Berger R D, 1999. Incidence-severity relationships in the pathosystem Coffea arabica-Hemileia vastatrix. Plant Disease. 83 (2), 186-188. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.1999.83.2.186

Vazquez G F, 1983. Coffee rust in Mexico. Plant Disease. 67 (4), 450. DOI:10.1094/PD-67-450

Waller JM, 1979. The recent spread of coffee rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br) and attempts to control it. In: Plant Health, [ed. by Ebbels DL, King JE]. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. 275-283.

Wellman F L, Echandi E, 1981. The coffee rust situation in Latin America in 1980. Phytopathology. 71 (9), 968-971. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-71-968

Distribution Maps

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