Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus
(spiral nematode)



Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus (spiral nematode)


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spiral nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •         Genus: Helicotylenchus
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus (Steiner, 1914) Golden, 1956

Preferred Common Name

  • spiral nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Helicotylenchus bradys Thorne & Malek, 1968
  • Helicotylenchus microlobus Perry in Perry et al., 1956
  • Helicotylenchus phalerus Anderson, 1974
  • Tylenchorynchus robustus var. pseudorobustus (Steiner, 1914) Micoletzky, 1922
  • Tylenchus (Tylenchorhynchus) pseudorobustus Steiner, 1914
  • Tylenchus pseudorobustus Steiner, 1914

EPPO code

  • HELYPS (Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •                 Genus: Helicotylenchus
  •                     Species: Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


AfghanistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-JiangsuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; Teng et al., 2013
IndiaPresentSwarup and Sethi, 1968; Lal and Khan, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-HaryanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ManipurPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Tamil NaduPresentSivakumar et al., 2003
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-UttarakhandPresentRathour et al., 2006
IranPresentKheiri, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003; Mirghasemi et al., 2014
IraqWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
IsraelPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
JordanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Korea, DPRPresentChoi, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Korea, Republic ofPresentChoi, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
NepalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
PakistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
PhilippinesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SingaporePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
TaiwanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
ThailandPresentPholcharoen and Boonduag, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003
TurkeyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
VietnamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003


AlgeriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
BeninPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
CameroonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentAli et al., 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Côte d'IvoirePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
EgyptPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; Ibrahim and Handoo, 2016
GambiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
GhanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
GuineaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
KenyaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
LiberiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MadagascarPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MalawiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
NigeriaPresentBridge, 1972; Caveness, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003
South AfricaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SudanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
TanzaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
UgandaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
ZambiaPresentLawn et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003

North America

CanadaPresentAnderson, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ManitobaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Nova ScotiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-OntarioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ArkansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-CaliforniaPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-FloridaPresentOverman et al., 1971; McSorley, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-GeorgiaPresentChurchill and Ruehle, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-IllinoisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-IndianaPresentMcSorley, 1978; Alby et al., 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-IowaPresentCastaner, 1966; Schmitt and Norton, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-KansasPresentDickerson et al., 1978; Todd and Tisserat, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-LouisianaPresentRebois and Golden, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-MainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-MarylandPresentFeldmesser and Golden, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-MinnesotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-MississippiPresentRebois and Golden, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-MissouriPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-New HampshirePresentNorton and Hoffmann, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-New YorkPresentFeldmesser and Golden, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-North DakotaPresentDonald and Hosford, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Rhode IslandPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-South DakotaPresentTHORNE and MALEK, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-TennesseePresentSher, 1966; Ponchillia, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-TexasPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-VermontPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-WashingtonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-WisconsinPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
CubaPresentDecker et al., 1970; CABI/EPPO, 2003
DominicaPresentEdmunds, 1969; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Dominican RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MartiniquePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Saint LuciaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentSchotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Trinidad and TobagoPresentSchotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003

South America

ArgentinaPresentVega and Galmarini, 1970; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BoliviaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
BrazilPresentZem and Lordello, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-AmazonasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Mato GrossoPresentSilva et al., 2008
ChilePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
ColombiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
French GuianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
PeruPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
VenezuelaPresentSiddiqi, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2003


AustriaPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BelgiumPresentGeraert, 1967; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Czech RepublicPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
FinlandPresentKurppa, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2003
FrancePresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
GermanyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
GreecePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
ItalyPresentMancini and Moretti, 1977; Castillo et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003
NetherlandsPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PolandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
PortugalPresentAbrantes et al., 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SlovakiaPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
SloveniaPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
SpainPresentCastillo et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SwitzerlandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
UKPresentJones, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003


American SamoaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
FijiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
New ZealandPresentYeates, 1973; Yeates and Wouts, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Pasteuria penetrans Pathogen

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsWith soil Yes
Containers and packaging - woodWith soil Yes
Land vehiclesWith soil Yes
Soil, sand and gravelWith soil Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)


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Abrantes IMO; de Morais MMN; Santos MSM de A, 1978. Nematodos e plantas hospedeiras identificados em Coimbra, Portugal, durante 1972-1977. Ciencia Biologica, 4:23-43.

Alby T; Ferris JM; Ferris VR, 1980. Dispersion and distribution of selected nematodes in soybean fields in Indiana. Journal of Nematology, 12:213-214

Ali SS; Geraert E; Coomans A, 1973. Some spiral nematodes from Africa. Biologisch Jaarboek Dodonaea, 41:53-70.

Amosu JO, 1976. Report of Meloidogyne research at University of Ife, Ile-Ife. Proceedings of the research planning conference on root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp spp., 7-11 June, 1976, Ibadan, Nigeria., 38-40

Anderson RV, 1974. Canadian species of the genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae), their identifying characteristics and descriptions of three new species. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 52(11):1365-1381

Bridge J, 1972. Nematode problems with yams (Dioscorea spp). PANS, 1:89-91.

Brzescki MW, 1971. Nematodes associate with cabbage in Poland. VI. Feeding and reproduction of some species. Zeszyty Problemowe Postepow Nauk Rolniczych, 121:121-124.

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 882.

Castaner D, 1966. The relationship of numbers of Helicotylenchus microlobus to nitrogen soil amendments. Iowa State Journal of Science, 41(2):125-135

Castillo P; G=mez-Barcina A; Vovlas N; Navas A, 1991. Some plant-parasitic nematodes associated with cotton and chickpea in southern Spain with description of Amplimerlinius magnistylus sp. n. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 1(2):195-203; 26 ref.

Castillo P; Vovlas N; Gomez Barcina A, 1993. Nematodos fitoparasitos del kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa). Phytoma (Spain), 46:3-8.

Caveness FE, 1974. Plant-parasitic nematode population differences under no-tillage and tillage soil regimes in western Nigeria. Journal of Nematology, 6(4):138

Choi YE, 1975. A taxonomical and morphological study of plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 14(4. Suppl.):1-19

Churchill RC Jr; Ruehle JL, 1971. Occurrence, parasitism, and pathogenicity of nematodes associated with sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.). Journal of Nematology, 3:189-196.

Decker H; Rodriguez Fuentes ME; Casamayor Garcia R, 1970. Untersuchungen über die Phytonematodenfauna unterschiedlich lang genutzter Zuckerrohr-Monokulturen in Cuba. (Investigation on the phytonematode fauna of sugar cane monocultures of different ages in Cuba). Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Universitat Rostock, 19:561-570.

Dickerson OJ; Franz TJ; Lash LD, 1978. Influence of crop rotation on nematode populations in Kansas. Journal of Nematology, 10(4):284

Donald AP; Hosford RM Jr, 1980. Plant parasitic nematodes of North Dakota. Plant Disease, 64:45-47.

Edmunds JE, 1969. Plant nematode problems of the Windward Islands. In: Peachey JE, ed. Nematodes of Tropical Crops, Technical Communication No. 40. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 142-148.

Emiligy IA; Norton DC, 1973. Survival and reproduction of some nematodes as affected by muck and organic acids. Journal of Nematology, 5:50-54.

Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2. Web Service available online at

Feldmesser J; Golden AM, 1974. Bionomics and control of nematodes in a large turf area. Journal of Nematology, 6(4):139

FERRIS VR; BERNARD RL, 1971. Effect of soil type on population densities of nematodes in soybean rotation fields. Journal of Nematology, 3:123-128.

Geraert E, 1967. Results of the study on the ecology of plant-parasitic and free-living soil nematodes. Annal. Soc. r. zool. Bel., 97:59-64.

Hashim Z, 1983. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) in Jordan and an attempt to chemical control. Nematologia Mediterranea, 11(2):199-200

Ibrahim IKA; Handoo ZA, 2016. Occurrence of phytoparasitic nematodes on some crop plants in northern Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 34(2):163-169.

Jones RK, 1978. Histological and ultrastructural changes in cereal roots caused by feeding of Helicotylenchus spp. Nematologica, 24(4):393-397

Kheiri A, 1972. Plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) from Iran. Biologisch Jaarboek Dodonaea, 40:224-239.

Kurppa S, 1988. Distribution of migratory plant parasitic nematodes in cultivated Finnish soils. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae, 27(4):315-322; 20 ref.

Lal A; Khan E, 1989. Species of Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 and Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 (Nematoda : Tylenchida) found associated with forest trees in northern India. Indian Journal of Nematology, 19(1):44-50; 5 ref.

Lawn A; Noel GR; Sinclair JB, 1988. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sunflower and maize in the Republic of Zambia. Nematropica, 18(2):143-154; 17 ref.

Mancini G; Moretti F, 1977. Il genere Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 in Piemonte e Valle d'Aosta, nota I. Redia, 59:225-228.

McSorley R, 1978. Components of a management program for nematodes on corn. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39B(5):2123-2124

McSorley R, 1979. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with bananas and plantains in Southern Florida. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(8):663-665

Mirghasemi SN; Seraji A; Jamali S; Choshali AH, 2014. Reported some new species of plant parasitic nematodes from rhizosphere of tea plantation in Iran. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB), 5(9):37-46.

Norton DC, 1977. Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus as a pathogen on corn, and its densities on corn and soybean. Iowa State Journal of Research, 51(3):279-285

Norton DC; Hoffmann JK, 1974. Distribution of selected plant parasitic nematodes relative to vegetation and edaphic factors. Journal of Nematology, 6(2):81-86.

Overman AJ; Bryan HH; Harkness RW, 1971. Effect of off-season culture on weeds, nematodes, and potato yields on marl soils. Proceedings, Florida State Horticultural Society, 84:135-139

Pholcharoen S; Boonduang A, 1972. Identification of plant parasitic nematodes of Thailand. II. Hoplolaimidae. A. Genus Helicotylenchus. Plant Protection Service Technical Bulletin, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok, Thailand, No. 3:6 pp.

Ponchillia PE, 1975. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with burley tobacco in Tennessee. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(3):219-220

Rathour KS; Jola Pandey; Sudershan Ganguly, 2006. Community structure of plant parasitic nematodes in Champawat District of Uttaranchal, India. Indian Journal of Nematology, 36(1):89-93.

Rebois RV; Golden AM, 1978. Nematode occurrences in soybean fields in Mississippi and Louisiana. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(5):433-437

Rössner J, 1972. Vertickalverteilung wandernder Wurzelnematoden im Boden in AbhSngigkeit von Wassergehalt und Durchwurzelung. Nematologica, 18:360-372.

Schmitt DP; Norton DC, 1972. Relationships of plant-parasitic nematodes to sites in native Iowa prairies. Journal of Nematology, 4:200-206.

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

Sher SA, 1966. Revision of the Hoplolaiminae (Nematoda) VI. Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. Nematologica, 12:1-56.

Siddiqi MR, 1974. Plant-parasitic nematodes of sugarcane in northwestern Venezuela. Nematropica, 4(1):6

Siddiqui IA; Sher SA; French AM, 1973. Distribution of plant parasitic nematodes in California. Sacramento, USA: Division of Plant Industry, Department of Food and Agriculture, 1-324.

Silva RA; Oliveira CMG; Inomoto MM, 2008. Fauna of plant-parasitic nematodes in natural and cultivated areas of the Amazon forest, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. (Fauna de fitonematóides em áreas preservadas e cultivadas da floresta amazônica no Estado de Mato Grosso.) Tropical Plant Pathology, 33(3):204-211.

Sivakumar M; Poornima K; Mani MP; Maheswari RU, 2003. Diversity of plant parasitic nematodes in western Ghats of Tamil Nadu. In: Proceedings of National Symposium on Biodiversity and Management of Nematodes in Cropping Systems for Sustainable Agriculture, Jaipur, India, 11-13 November, 2002 [ed. by Singh, R. V.\Pankaj\Dhawan, S. C.\Gaur, H. S.]. New Delhi, India: Division of Nematology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, 15-18.

Swarup G; Sethi CL, 1968. Plant-parasitic nematodes of north-western India. II. The genus Helicotylenchus. Bulletin of Entomology, Loyola Collection, Madras, 9:76-80.

Teng WenFeng; Tan JiaJin; Ye JianRen, 2013. Species survey of Hoplolaimidae parasites in rhizosphere soil of garden trees in Nanjing city. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University (Natural Sciences Edition), 37(3):82-86.

THORNE G; MALEK RB, 1968. Nematodes of the northern Great Plains. Part I. Tylenchida (Nemata: Secernentea). Tech. Bull. S. Dak. agrie. Exp. Stn, 31. 111 pp.

Todd TC; Tisserat NA, 1990. Occurrence, spatial distribution, and pathogenicity of some phytoparasitic nematodes on creeping bentgrass putting greens in Kansas. Plant Disease, 74(9):660-663; 22 ref.

Van Den Berg E; Heyns J, 1975. South African Hoplolaiminae. 4. The genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. Phytophylactica, 7(1):35-52

Vega E; Galmarini HR, 1970. Reconocimiento de los nematodes que parasitan los cultivos horticolas de los departamentos de San Carlos y Tunuy n, Mendoza (Argentina). Idia, 272:17-41.

Vovlas N; Inserra RN, 1985. Single modified food cell induced by Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus in corn roots. Journal of Nematology, 17:371-373.

Vovlas N; Larizza A, 1994. Embryogenic patterns and parasitic habits of Helicotylenchus oleae and H. pseudorobustus. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 4(1):17-21; 6 ref.

Yeates GW, 1973. Morphometrics and growth in eight New Zealand soil nematode populations. New Zealand Journal of Science, 16(3):711-725

Yeates GW; Wouts WM, 1992. Helicoytlenchus spp. (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from managed soils in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science, 19:13-23.

Zem AC; Lordello LGE, 1976. Nematodes associated with weed plants in Brazil. Anais da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", 33:597-615

Distribution Maps

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