Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus
(spiral nematode)

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Datasheet

Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus (spiral nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spiral nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •         Genus: Helicotylenchus
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus (Steiner, 1914) Golden, 1956

Preferred Common Name

  • spiral nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Helicotylenchus bradys Thorne & Malek, 1968
  • Helicotylenchus microlobus Perry in Perry et al., 1956
  • Helicotylenchus phalerus Anderson, 1974
  • Tylenchorynchus robustus var. pseudorobustus (Steiner, 1914) Micoletzky, 1922
  • Tylenchus (Tylenchorhynchus) pseudorobustus Steiner, 1914
  • Tylenchus pseudorobustus Steiner, 1914

EPPO code

  • HELYPS (Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •                 Genus: Helicotylenchus
  •                     Species: Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
BeninPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
CameroonPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentAli et al. (1973); CABI and EPPO (2003)
Côte d'IvoirePresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
EgyptPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); Ibrahim and Handoo (2016)
GambiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
GhanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
KenyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
LiberiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
MadagascarPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
MalawiPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
NigeriaPresentBridge (1972); Caveness (1974); CABI and EPPO (2003)
South AfricaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
SudanPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
TanzaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
UgandaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
ZambiaPresentLawn et al. (1988); CABI and EPPO (2003)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
ChinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-GuangdongPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-JiangsuPresentTeng WenFeng et al. (2013); CABI and EPPO (2003)
IndiaPresentSWARUP and SETHI (1968); Lal and Khan (1989); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-HaryanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-ManipurPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-Tamil NaduPresentSivakumar et al. (2003)
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-UttarakhandPresentRathour et al. (2006)
IranPresentKheiri (1972); CABI and EPPO (2003); Mirghasemi et al. (2014)
IraqPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2003)
IsraelPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2003)
JordanPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
NepalPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
North KoreaPresentChoi (1975); CABI and EPPO (2003)
PakistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
PhilippinesPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
SingaporePresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
South KoreaPresentChoi (1975); CABI and EPPO (2003)
TaiwanPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
ThailandPresentPholcharoen and Boonduang (1972); CABI and EPPO (2003)
TurkeyPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
VietnamPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)

Europe

AustriaPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2003)
BelgiumPresentGeraert (1967); CABI and EPPO (2003)
CzechiaPresentFauna Europaea (2014)
FinlandPresentKurppa (1988); CABI and EPPO (2003)
FrancePresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2003)
GermanyPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
GreecePresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
ItalyPresentMancini and Moretti (1977); Castillo et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2003)
NetherlandsPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2003)
PolandPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
PortugalPresentAbrantes et al. (1978); CABI and EPPO (2003)
SlovakiaPresentFauna Europaea (2014)
SloveniaPresentFauna Europaea (2014)
SpainPresentCastillo et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2003)
SwitzerlandPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
United KingdomPresentJones (1978); CABI and EPPO (2003)

North America

BelizePresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
CanadaPresentAnderson (1974); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-ManitobaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-Nova ScotiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-OntarioPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
CubaPresentDecker et al. (1970); CABI and EPPO (2003)
DominicaPresentEdmunds (1969); CABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
Dominican RepublicPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
MartiniquePresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
Saint LuciaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentSchotman (1989); CABI and EPPO (2003)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentSchotman (1989); CABI and EPPO (2003)
United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-ArkansasPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-CaliforniaPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
-FloridaPresentOverman et al. (1971); McSorley (1979); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-GeorgiaPresentCHURCHILL and RUEHLE (1971); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-IllinoisPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
-IndianaPresentMcSorley (1978); Alby et al. (1980); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-IowaPresentCastaner (1966); Schmitt and Norton (1972); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-KansasPresentDickerson et al. (1978); Todd and Tisserat (1990); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-LouisianaPresentRebois and Golden (1978); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-MainePresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
-MarylandPresentFeldmesser and Golden (1974); CABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
-MinnesotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
-MississippiPresentRebois and Golden (1978); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-MissouriPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-New HampshirePresentNorton and Hoffmann (1974); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-New YorkPresentFeldmesser and Golden (1974); CABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
-North DakotaPresentDonald and Hosford (1980); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-Rhode IslandPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-South DakotaPresentThorne and Malek (1968); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-TennesseePresentSher (1966); Ponchillia (1975); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-TexasPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-VermontPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); CABI (Undated)
-WashingtonPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-WisconsinPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2003)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
FijiPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
New ZealandPresentYeates (1973); Yeates and Wouts (1992); CABI and EPPO (2003)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)

South America

ArgentinaPresentVEGA and GALMARINI (1970); CABI and EPPO (2003)
BoliviaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
BrazilPresentZem and Lordello (1976); CABI and EPPO (2003)
-AmazonasPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
-Mato GrossoPresentSilva et al. (2008)
ChilePresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
ColombiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
French GuianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
PeruPresentCABI and EPPO (2003)
VenezuelaPresentSiddiqi (1974); CABI and EPPO (2003)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Pasteuria penetrans Pathogen

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsWith soil Yes
Containers and packaging - woodWith soil Yes
Land vehiclesWith soil Yes
Soil, sand and gravelWith soil Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

Top of page

Abrantes IMO; de Morais MMN; Santos MSM de A, 1978. Nematodos e plantas hospedeiras identificados em Coimbra, Portugal, durante 1972-1977. Ciencia Biologica, 4:23-43.

Alby T; Ferris JM; Ferris VR, 1980. Dispersion and distribution of selected nematodes in soybean fields in Indiana. Journal of Nematology, 12:213-214

Ali SS; Geraert E; Coomans A, 1973. Some spiral nematodes from Africa. Biologisch Jaarboek Dodonaea, 41:53-70.

Amosu JO, 1976. Report of Meloidogyne research at University of Ife, Ile-Ife. Proceedings of the research planning conference on root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp spp., 7-11 June, 1976, Ibadan, Nigeria., 38-40

Anderson RV, 1974. Canadian species of the genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae), their identifying characteristics and descriptions of three new species. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 52(11):1365-1381

Bridge J, 1972. Nematode problems with yams (Dioscorea spp). PANS, 1:89-91.

Brzescki MW, 1971. Nematodes associate with cabbage in Poland. VI. Feeding and reproduction of some species. Zeszyty Problemowe Postepow Nauk Rolniczych, 121:121-124.

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 882.

Castaner D, 1966. The relationship of numbers of Helicotylenchus microlobus to nitrogen soil amendments. Iowa State Journal of Science, 41(2):125-135

Castillo P; G=mez-Barcina A; Vovlas N; Navas A, 1991. Some plant-parasitic nematodes associated with cotton and chickpea in southern Spain with description of Amplimerlinius magnistylus sp. n. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 1(2):195-203; 26 ref.

Castillo P; Vovlas N; Gomez Barcina A, 1993. Nematodos fitoparasitos del kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa). Phytoma (Spain), 46:3-8.

Caveness FE, 1974. Plant-parasitic nematode population differences under no-tillage and tillage soil regimes in western Nigeria. Journal of Nematology, 6(4):138

Choi YE, 1975. A taxonomical and morphological study of plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 14(4. Suppl.):1-19

Churchill RC Jr; Ruehle JL, 1971. Occurrence, parasitism, and pathogenicity of nematodes associated with sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.). Journal of Nematology, 3:189-196.

Decker H; Rodriguez Fuentes ME; Casamayor Garcia R, 1970. Untersuchungen über die Phytonematodenfauna unterschiedlich lang genutzter Zuckerrohr-Monokulturen in Cuba. (Investigation on the phytonematode fauna of sugar cane monocultures of different ages in Cuba). Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Universitat Rostock, 19:561-570.

Dickerson OJ; Franz TJ; Lash LD, 1978. Influence of crop rotation on nematode populations in Kansas. Journal of Nematology, 10(4):284

Donald AP; Hosford RM Jr, 1980. Plant parasitic nematodes of North Dakota. Plant Disease, 64:45-47.

Edmunds JE, 1969. Plant nematode problems of the Windward Islands. In: Peachey JE, ed. Nematodes of Tropical Crops, Technical Communication No. 40. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 142-148.

Emiligy IA; Norton DC, 1973. Survival and reproduction of some nematodes as affected by muck and organic acids. Journal of Nematology, 5:50-54.

Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2. Web Service available online at http://www.faunaeur.org.

Feldmesser J; Golden AM, 1974. Bionomics and control of nematodes in a large turf area. Journal of Nematology, 6(4):139

FERRIS VR; BERNARD RL, 1971. Effect of soil type on population densities of nematodes in soybean rotation fields. Journal of Nematology, 3:123-128.

Geraert E, 1967. Results of the study on the ecology of plant-parasitic and free-living soil nematodes. Annal. Soc. r. zool. Bel., 97:59-64.

Hashim Z, 1983. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) in Jordan and an attempt to chemical control. Nematologia Mediterranea, 11(2):199-200

Ibrahim IKA; Handoo ZA, 2016. Occurrence of phytoparasitic nematodes on some crop plants in northern Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 34(2):163-169.

Jones RK, 1978. Histological and ultrastructural changes in cereal roots caused by feeding of Helicotylenchus spp. Nematologica, 24(4):393-397

Kheiri A, 1972. Plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) from Iran. Biologisch Jaarboek Dodonaea, 40:224-239.

Kurppa S, 1988. Distribution of migratory plant parasitic nematodes in cultivated Finnish soils. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae, 27(4):315-322; 20 ref.

Lal A; Khan E, 1989. Species of Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 and Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 (Nematoda : Tylenchida) found associated with forest trees in northern India. Indian Journal of Nematology, 19(1):44-50; 5 ref.

Lawn A; Noel GR; Sinclair JB, 1988. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sunflower and maize in the Republic of Zambia. Nematropica, 18(2):143-154; 17 ref.

Mancini G; Moretti F, 1977. Il genere Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 in Piemonte e Valle d'Aosta, nota I. Redia, 59:225-228.

McSorley R, 1978. Components of a management program for nematodes on corn. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39B(5):2123-2124

McSorley R, 1979. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with bananas and plantains in Southern Florida. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(8):663-665

Mirghasemi SN; Seraji A; Jamali S; Choshali AH, 2014. Reported some new species of plant parasitic nematodes from rhizosphere of tea plantation in Iran. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB), 5(9):37-46. http://www.innspub.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/IJB-V5No9-p37-46.pdf

Norton DC, 1977. Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus as a pathogen on corn, and its densities on corn and soybean. Iowa State Journal of Research, 51(3):279-285

Norton DC; Hoffmann JK, 1974. Distribution of selected plant parasitic nematodes relative to vegetation and edaphic factors. Journal of Nematology, 6(2):81-86.

Overman AJ; Bryan HH; Harkness RW, 1971. Effect of off-season culture on weeds, nematodes, and potato yields on marl soils. Proceedings, Florida State Horticultural Society, 84:135-139

Pholcharoen S; Boonduang A, 1972. Identification of plant parasitic nematodes of Thailand. II. Hoplolaimidae. A. Genus Helicotylenchus. Plant Protection Service Technical Bulletin, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok, Thailand, No. 3:6 pp.

Ponchillia PE, 1975. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with burley tobacco in Tennessee. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(3):219-220

Rathour KS; Jola Pandey; Sudershan Ganguly, 2006. Community structure of plant parasitic nematodes in Champawat District of Uttaranchal, India. Indian Journal of Nematology, 36(1):89-93.

Rebois RV; Golden AM, 1978. Nematode occurrences in soybean fields in Mississippi and Louisiana. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(5):433-437

Rössner J, 1972. Vertickalverteilung wandernder Wurzelnematoden im Boden in AbhSngigkeit von Wassergehalt und Durchwurzelung. Nematologica, 18:360-372.

Schmitt DP; Norton DC, 1972. Relationships of plant-parasitic nematodes to sites in native Iowa prairies. Journal of Nematology, 4:200-206.

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

Sher SA, 1966. Revision of the Hoplolaiminae (Nematoda) VI. Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. Nematologica, 12:1-56.

Siddiqi MR, 1974. Plant-parasitic nematodes of sugarcane in northwestern Venezuela. Nematropica, 4(1):6

Siddiqui IA; Sher SA; French AM, 1973. Distribution of plant parasitic nematodes in California. Sacramento, USA: Division of Plant Industry, Department of Food and Agriculture, 1-324.

Silva RA; Oliveira CMG; Inomoto MM, 2008. Fauna of plant-parasitic nematodes in natural and cultivated areas of the Amazon forest, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. (Fauna de fitonematóides em áreas preservadas e cultivadas da floresta amazônica no Estado de Mato Grosso.) Tropical Plant Pathology, 33(3):204-211. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1982-56762008000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=pt

Sivakumar M; Poornima K; Mani MP; Maheswari RU, 2003. Diversity of plant parasitic nematodes in western Ghats of Tamil Nadu. In: Proceedings of National Symposium on Biodiversity and Management of Nematodes in Cropping Systems for Sustainable Agriculture, Jaipur, India, 11-13 November, 2002 [ed. by Singh, R. V.\Pankaj\Dhawan, S. C.\Gaur, H. S.]. New Delhi, India: Division of Nematology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, 15-18.

Swarup G; Sethi CL, 1968. Plant-parasitic nematodes of north-western India. II. The genus Helicotylenchus. Bulletin of Entomology, Loyola Collection, Madras, 9:76-80.

Teng WenFeng; Tan JiaJin; Ye JianRen, 2013. Species survey of Hoplolaimidae parasites in rhizosphere soil of garden trees in Nanjing city. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University (Natural Sciences Edition), 37(3):82-86. http://njlydxxb.periodicals.net.cn/default.html

THORNE G; MALEK RB, 1968. Nematodes of the northern Great Plains. Part I. Tylenchida (Nemata: Secernentea). Tech. Bull. S. Dak. agrie. Exp. Stn, 31. 111 pp.

Todd TC; Tisserat NA, 1990. Occurrence, spatial distribution, and pathogenicity of some phytoparasitic nematodes on creeping bentgrass putting greens in Kansas. Plant Disease, 74(9):660-663; 22 ref.

Van Den Berg E; Heyns J, 1975. South African Hoplolaiminae. 4. The genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. Phytophylactica, 7(1):35-52

Vega E; Galmarini HR, 1970. Reconocimiento de los nematodes que parasitan los cultivos horticolas de los departamentos de San Carlos y Tunuy n, Mendoza (Argentina). Idia, 272:17-41.

Vovlas N; Inserra RN, 1985. Single modified food cell induced by Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus in corn roots. Journal of Nematology, 17:371-373.

Vovlas N; Larizza A, 1994. Embryogenic patterns and parasitic habits of Helicotylenchus oleae and H. pseudorobustus. Afro-Asian Journal of Nematology, 4(1):17-21; 6 ref.

Yeates GW, 1973. Morphometrics and growth in eight New Zealand soil nematode populations. New Zealand Journal of Science, 16(3):711-725

Yeates GW; Wouts WM, 1992. Helicoytlenchus spp. (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from managed soils in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science, 19:13-23.

Zem AC; Lordello LGE, 1976. Nematodes associated with weed plants in Brazil. Anais da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", 33:597-615

Distribution References

Abrantes I M O, De Morais M M N, Santos M S N de A, 1978. Nematodes and host plants identified in Coimbra, Portugal in the 1972-1977 period. (Nematodos e plantas hospedeiras identificados em Coimbra, Portugal, durante 1972-1977.). Ciencia Biologica. 23-43.

Alby T, Ferris J M, Ferris V R, 1980. Dispersion and distribution of selected nematodes in soybean fields in Indiana. Journal of Nematology. 213-214.

Ali S S, Geraert E, Coomans A, 1973. Some spiral nematodes from Africa. Biologisch Jaarboek Dodonaea. 53-70.

Anderson R V, 1974. Canadian species of the genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae), their identifying characteristics and descriptions of three new species. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 52 (11), 1365-1381. DOI:10.1139/z74-174

Bridge J, 1972. Nematode problems with yams (Dioscorea spp). In: PANS, 1 89-91.

CABI, EPPO, 2003. Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 882.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Castaner D, 1966. The relationship of numbers of Helicotylenchus microlobus to nitrogen soil amendments. Iowa State Journal of Science. 41 (2), 125-135.

Castillo P, Vovlas N, Gomez Barcina A, 1993. (Nematodos fitoparasitos del kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa)). In: Phytoma (Spain), 46 3-8.

Caveness F E, 1974. Plant-parasitic nematode population differences under no-tillage and tillage soil regimes in western Nigeria. In: Journal of Nematology, 6 (4) 138.

Choi Y E, 1975. A taxonomical and morphological study of plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Protection. 14 (4. Suppl.), 1-19.

CHURCHILL R C JR, RUEHLE J L, 1971. Occurrence, parasitism, and pathogenicity of nematodes associated with sycamore (Platanus ocddentalis L.). Journal of Nematology. 189-196.

Decker H, Rodriguez Fuentes M E, Casamayor Garcia R, 1970. Investigations on the phytonematode fauna of sugar cane monocultures of different ages in Cuba. (Untersuchungen uber die Phytonematodenfauna unterschiedlich lang genutzter Zuckerrohr-Monokulturen in Cuba.). Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Universitat Rostock. 19 (8), 561-570.

Dickerson O J, Franz T J, Lash L D, 1978. Influence of crop rotation on nematode populations in Kansas. In: Journal of Nematology [17th Ann. Meet., Soc. Nematol., Hot Springs, Arkansas, 7-10 Aug. 1978.], 10 (4) 284.

Donald P A, Hosford R M Jr, 1980. Plant parasitic nematodes of North Dakota. Plant Disease. 64 (1), 45-47. DOI:10.1094/PD-64-45

Edmunds J E, 1969. Plant nematode problems of the Windward Islands. In: Nematodes of tropical crops, [ed. by Peachey J E]. 142-148 pp.

Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2., http://www.faunaeur.org

Feldmesser J, Golden A M, 1974. Bionomics and control of nematodes in a large turf area. In: Journal of Nematology, 6 (4) 139.

Geraert E, 1967. Results of the study on the ecology of plant-parasitic and free-living soil nematodes. In: Annal. Soc. r. zool. Bel. 97 59-64.

Ibrahim I K A, Handoo Z A, 2016. Occurrence of phytoparasitic nematodes on some crop plants in northern Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 34 (2), 163-169.

Jones R K, 1978. Histological and ultrastructural changes in cereal roots caused by feeding of Helicotylenchus spp. Nematologica. 24 (4), 393-397.

Kheiri A, 1972. Plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) from Iran. Biologisch Jaarboek Dodonaea. 224-239.

Kurppa S, 1988. Distribution of migratory plant parasitic nematodes in cultivated Finnish soils. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae. 27 (4), 315-322.

Lal A, Khan E, 1989. Species of Pratylenchus Filipjev, 1936 and Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 (Nematoda : Tylenchida) found associated with forest trees in northern India. Indian Journal of Nematology. 19 (1), 44-50.

Lawn A, Noel G R, Sinclair J B, 1988. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sunflower and maize in the Republic of Zambia. Nematropica. 18 (2), 143-154.

Mancini G, Moretti F, 1977. (Il genere Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 in Piemonte e Valle d'Aosta, nota I). In: Redia, 59 225-228.

McSorley R, 1978. Components of a management program for nematodes on corn. Dissertation Abstracts International. 39B (5), 2123-2124.

McSorley R, 1979. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with bananas and plantains in Southern Florida. Plant Disease Reporter. 63 (8), 663-665.

Mirghasemi S N, Seraji A, Jamali S, Choshali A H, 2014. Reported some new species of plant parasitic nematodes from rhizosphere of tea plantation in Iran. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB). 5 (9), 37-46. http://www.innspub.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/IJB-V5No9-p37-46.pdf

Norton D C, Hoffmann J K, 1974. Distribution of selected plant parasitic nematodes relative to vegetation and edaphic factors. Journal of Nematology. 6 (2), 81-86.

Overman A J, Bryan H H, Harkness R W, 1971. Effect of off-season culture on weeds, nematodes, and potato yields on marl soils. Proceedings, Florida State Horticultural Society. 135-139.

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