Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Helicotylenchus multicinctus
(banana spiral nematode)



Helicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode)


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Helicotylenchus multicinctus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • banana spiral nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •         Genus: Helicotylenchus

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C-F, H & I. Topotypes; remainder specimens from banana from Samoa Island. A, B, C. Adults in relaxed body posture. D. Head end, female. E. Oesophageal region, female. F. Oesophageal region, male. G, H. Tail ends, male. I-K. Tail ends, female.

Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 23. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
TitleAdult - line drawing
CaptionC-F, H & I. Topotypes; remainder specimens from banana from Samoa Island. A, B, C. Adults in relaxed body posture. D. Head end, female. E. Oesophageal region, female. F. Oesophageal region, male. G, H. Tail ends, male. I-K. Tail ends, female. Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 23. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
CopyrightCAB International
C-F, H & I. Topotypes; remainder specimens from banana from Samoa Island. A, B, C. Adults in relaxed body posture. D. Head end, female. E. Oesophageal region, female. F. Oesophageal region, male. G, H. Tail ends, male. I-K. Tail ends, female.

Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 23. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Adult - line drawingC-F, H & I. Topotypes; remainder specimens from banana from Samoa Island. A, B, C. Adults in relaxed body posture. D. Head end, female. E. Oesophageal region, female. F. Oesophageal region, male. G, H. Tail ends, male. I-K. Tail ends, female. Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 23. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.CAB International


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Helicotylenchus multicinctus (Cobb, 1893) Golden, 1956

Preferred Common Name

  • banana spiral nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Anguillulina multicincta (Cobb) T. Goodey, 1932
  • Helicotylenchus iperoiguensis (Carvalho) Andrássy, 1958
  • Rotylenchus iperoiguensis Carvalho, 1956
  • Rotylenchus multicinctus (Cobb) Filipjev, 1936
  • Tylenchorhyncus multicinctus (Cobb) Micoletzky, 1922
  • Tylenchus multicinctus Cobb, 1983

International Common Names

  • English: spiral nematode

EPPO code

  • HELYMU (Helicotylenchus multicinctus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •                 Genus: Helicotylenchus
  •                     Species: Helicotylenchus multicinctus


Top of page Adult Females

Body of heat-killed specimens arcuate or C-shaped; annules distinct, lateral field with four incisures, not areolated. Lip region hemispherical, with 3-5 annuli; framework heavily sclerotized; cephalids usually indistinct. Stylet well developed, 21-24 µm long, with 5-6-µm-wide basal knobs, appearing anteriorly flattened or concave. Oesophagus with rounded metacorpus, and glandular part overlapping intestine ventrally, with subventral glands posterior to dorsal. Dorsal oesophageal gland outlet about 26-35% of total spear length. Excretory pore at level of oesophago-intestinal junction; hemizonid 0-3 body annules anterior to it. Genital apparatus composed of two symmetrical ovaries; sometimes the posterior ovary may appear reduced, but is still functional. Spermathecae rounded, usually filled with sperms. Vulva is a depressed transverse slit on ventral side of the body. Tail slightly tapering, with anus marked by a slight depression; terminus annulated, hemispherical in shape, with dorsal margin more curved than ventral; 6-13 cuticular rings on ventral side. Phasmids punctate, 1-6 annuli anterior to anus.

Adult Males

Abundant, similar to females, except for genital characters. Testis single, outstretched. Caudal alae crenate, enveloping tail but not protruding beyond it in lateral view. Spicules weakly cephalated. Gubernaculum simple.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


BangladeshPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Brunei DarussalamPresentSiddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-SichuanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Cocos IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
IndiaPresentMukherjee & Dasgupta,1983; Sher,1966; Siddiqi,1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-GujaratPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-KarnatakaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-KeralaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-OdishaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-TripuraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-West BengalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
IranPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
IsraelPresentStrich-Harari et al., 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
JordanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
LebanonPresentSikora & Schlosser, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MalaysiaPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
OmanWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
PakistanPresentSiddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PhilippinesPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Sri LankaPresentSiddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ThailandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
UzbekistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
VietnamRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2003


AngolaPresentSiddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BeninPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Burkina FasoWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
BurundiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
CameroonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; Banful et al., 2008
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Côte d'IvoireWidespreadSher, 1966; Siddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
EgyptPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
EthiopiaPresentSiddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
GhanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
KenyaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MadagascarPresentLuc, 1959; Vilardebó and Guérout, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MalawiPresentSiddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MauritiusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MozambiquePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
NigeriaWidespreadSiddiqi, 1973; Caveness and Badra, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2003
RéunionPresentVilardebó and Guérout, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2003
RwandaPresentBerg et al., 2003
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentVovlas et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SeychellesPresentSiddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SomaliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
South AfricaPresentVan den Berg & Heyns, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Canary IslandsPresentDe Guiran & Vilardebó, 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SudanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
TanzaniaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
TunisiaPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
UgandaPresentSiddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
West AfricaPresentVilardebó and Guérout, 1976
ZambiaPresentMartin, 1958; Siddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
ZimbabwePresentMartin, 1958; Siddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003

North America

MexicoPresentWehunt and Edwards, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2003
USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-AlabamaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ArkansasPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2003
-CaliforniaPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-DelawarePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-FloridaPresentSher, 1966; McSorley and Parrado, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-GeorgiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-HawaiiPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-MarylandPresentMay et al., 1960; Hutchinson et al., 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-MassachusettsPresentMay et al., 1960; Hutchinson et al., 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-New JerseyPresentMay et al., 1960; Hutchinson et al., 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2003

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentSchotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BarbadosPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
BelizePresentSiddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Costa RicaPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
CubaPresentCPPC; Stoyanov, 1967; Siddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
DominicaPresentSchotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Dominican RepublicPresentSher, 1966; Siddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
El SalvadorPresentSher, 1966; Wehunt and Edwards, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2003
GrenadaPresentSchotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
GuadeloupePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
GuatemalaPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2003
HondurasPresentSher, 1966; Pinochet and Ventura, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2003
JamaicaPresentSiddiqi, 1973; Hutton et al., 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2003
MartiniquePresentTixier et al., 2008
MontserratPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
NicaraguaPresentWehunt and Edwards, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2003
PanamaPresentSher, 1966; Wehunt and Edwards, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Saint LuciaPresentSchotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentSchotman, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCPPC; Bala, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Windward IslandsPresentEdmunds, 1969; Siddiqi, 1973

South America

ArgentinaPresentCostilla et al., 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2003
BoliviaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
BrazilPresentSiddiqi, 1973; Zem and Lordello, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-AcrePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-AlagoasPresentAndrade et al., 2009
-AmazonasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-BahiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-CearaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Espirito SantoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-ParaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-PernambucoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Rio de JaneiroWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Sao PauloPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
ColombiaPresentSher, 1966; Gomez-Tovar, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2003
French GuianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
PeruPresentKrusberg and Hirschman, 1958; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SurinamePresentCPPC; Maas, 1969; Siddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
VenezuelaPresentSiddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003


BelgiumPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
BulgariaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
CyprusPresentPhilis, 1971; Siddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Czech RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
GreecePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
HungaryPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
ItalyPresentVolvas, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2003
LithuaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
MoldovaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
PortugalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-MadeiraPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
RomaniaPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
Russian FederationPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SlovakiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
SloveniaPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
SpainPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
UKPresentSiddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003


American SamoaPresentBrooks, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2003
AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
-New South WalesPresentBlake, 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-QueenslandPresentColbran and Saunders, 1961; Broadley, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2003
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Cook IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
FijiPresentSiddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
KiribatiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
NiuePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
Papua New GuineaPresentBridge and Page, 1984; Troccoli and Geraert, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2003
SamoaPresentSiddiqi, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2003
Solomon IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
TongaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
TuvaluPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003
VanuatuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page H. multicinctus is regarded as an important parasite of bananas in almost every banana-growing area of the world. It has also been recorded to have a wide host range (Goodey et al., 1965). Recently, Gowen and Quénéhervé (1990) found it in Côte d'Ivoire, in association with 12 hosts. In Cuba, the nematode was detected in 32 host plants, including beets, common beans, carrots, cowpeas, garlic, hairy cotton, head cabbages, lettuces, melons, peas, rape and watermelons (Stoyanov, 1967).

The nematode attacks suckers (= rhizomes), primary and secondary roots. Quénéhervé and Cadet (1985a) also noticed lesions in the corm.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Allium sativum (garlic)LiliaceaeOther
Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet)ChenopodiaceaeOther
Brassica napus var. napus (rape)BrassicaceaeOther
Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeOther
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeOther
Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeOther
Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeOther
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeOther
Cola acuminata (cola)SterculiaceaeOther
Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)PoaceaeWild host
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeOther
Dioscorea alata (white yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)ArecaceaeOther
Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeOther
Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeOther
Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)MusaceaeMain
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeOther
Pachystachys lutea (lollypops)AcanthaceaeHabitat/association
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeOther
Picea (spruces)PinaceaeWild host
Pinus (pines)PinaceaeWild host
Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeOther
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeOther
Taxus (yew)TaxaceaeWild host
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)MalvaceaeOther
Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeOther
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage


Top of page The damage symptoms are similar to those caused by other serious root endoparasites of the family Pratylenchidae, both on banana plants and plantains. The nematode attacks the outer cortical part of the root causing characteristic necrotic lesions, which are at first yellow in colour and then turn reddish-brown to black. Minz et al. (1960) and Luc and Vilardebó (1961) reported brown root flecks in discoloured tissues, that they indicated were symptomatic of H. multicinctus infestation; later, Zuckerman and Strich-Harari (1963) noticed that these were associated with egg laying within the root cortex. Rarely, in heavy infestations, the root lesions can coalesce and the necrosis becomes extensive, causing distortion followed by decay of the root. Infected plants are stunted and may topple.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

Biology and Ecology

Top of page According to the reports of Minz et al. (1960) and Zuckerman and Strich-Harari (1963), H. multicinctus is able to complete its life cycle within the cortical layer of the roots where all eggs, juveniles and adult stages can be found. Thus it is regarded as an endoparasite, although there is no evidence of nematode migration through the cortical tissues (Blake, 1966).

Blake (1966), studying the host-parasite relationships of this species on banana roots, observed that adults inoculated fed within 36 hours upon parenchymatous cells partly embedded in the root; after 4 days they were wholly inside the cortical layer to a depth of about 4-6 cells. Surrounding tissues showed cellular damage consisting of contracted cytoplasm, ruptured walls and enlarged nuclei. Discoloration and necroses often also occurred near the infection points.

The introduction of the nematode into new areas occurs by 'seeds', sets or suckers (= rhizomes), usually brought from old infested plantations; infected planting material is the main means of dissemination. Strich-Harari et al. (1966) studied the spread of nematodes in a growing plant, whereas Stoyanov (1967) observed that the nematode can also survive for 4 months without the host plant.

Life Cycle

The life cycle of H. multicinctus was studied in detail by Zuckerman and Strich-Harari (1963). Groups of 8-26 eggs, orientated parallel to the long cell axes, were frequently observed in discoloured cortical tissues. Gravid females, held in tap water at 30°C, laid eggs within 24 hours, and 48-51 hours later the hatch occurred. The second-stage juvenile is characterized by having a ventral digitate tail process, which disappears during the second moult. The third-stage juvenile has a convex-conoid tail, without any projection, and a gonad primordium averaging 2-6 cells. In the fourth-stage juvenile the gonad is longer than 60 µm, and during the fourth moult its development is completed. Adult males and females reproduce sexually by amphimixis.

For a review of selected papers see Siddiqi (1973) and McSorley and Parrado (1986); a more comprehensive review, including other major damaging endoparasitic nematodes, is by Gowen and Quénéhervé (1990).

Seedborne Aspects

Top of page There is no evidence that H. multicinctus is seedborne.

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsWith banana rhizones Yes
Containers and packaging - woodIn soil from banana grower Yes
Land vehiclesIn soil from banana grower Yes
MailWith banana rhizones Yes
Soil, sand and gravelWith banana rhizones Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)


Top of page Minz et al. (1960) first reported a decline of banana (Musa AAA, Cavendish) plantations in the Jordan Valley, with substantial losses in yield within 3 years. Their data are the most reliable because the spiral nematode occurred in the absence of Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus coffeae, the other two major pests of banana. Colbran and Saunders (1961) and Edmunds (1969) reported that H. multicinctus, together with other nematodes, caused considerable reduction in banana production in Australia and the Windward Islands, respectively. H. multicinctus seems also to be a major nematological problem on banana and plantains in several locations, such as Florida, Argentina, Cuba, South Africa, Cyprus, India and Pakistan (McSorley and Parrado, 1986). Vovlas et al. (1994) reported it as the most important nematode associated with banana in Sao Tomé.

Although H. multicinctus has been reported to cause considerable root damage in many banana-growing areas of the world, estimates of crop losses are not available because of the close association between species, and their interactions with environmental factors.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Because of the endoparasitic habits of the species, populations of H. multicinctus can be detected by collecting soil, especially samples from around the root system, with appropriate tools (trowel, soil sampling tube, spade, shovel). Living specimens can be extracted from viable root tissues, either under a dissecting microscope or by following the extraction procedures illustrated in general nematology handbooks.

Generally, the Baermann funnel method is suitable for extracting motile specimens from soil and roots, whereas centrifugal flotation and flotation-sieving techniques are effective for soil and tissue extractions.

Prevention and Control

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Chemical Control

Nematicides are one of the most important means of controlling H. multicinctus and other plant parasitic nematodes on bananas, and are generally widely used by growers producing fruit for the international export trade. Minz et al. (1960), Strich-Harari et al. (1966), Luc and Vilardebó (1961) and Philis (1971) reported nematicidal trials on banana using DBCP; different degrees of efficacy were found due to the influence of local conditions and environmental factors. For toxicological reasons this fumigant has recently been banned from use.

For a review of selected papers see Siddiqi (1973) and McSorley and Parrado (1986); a more comprehensive review, including other major damaging endoparasitic nematodes, is by Gowen and Quénéhervé (1990).


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Andrade FWRde; Amorim EPda R; Eloy AP; Rufino MJ, 2009. Occurence of banana diseases in the state of Alagoas. (Ocorrência de doenças em bananeiras no estado de Alagoas.) Summa Phytopathologica, 35(4):305-309.

Bala G, 1984. Occurrence of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with crops of agricultural importance in Trinidad. Nematropica, 14(1):37-45

Banful B; Hauser S; Kanga FN; Kumaga F; Ofori K, 2008. Soil population of Helicotylenchus multicinctus under Pueraria phaseoloides, Flemingia macrophylla and natural bush fallows and their effect on plantain yield in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 25(3):209-221.

Berg Evan den; Marais M; Gaidashova S; Tiedt LR, 2003. Hoplolaimidae Filip'ev, 1934 (Nemata) from Rwandan banana fields. African Plant Protection, 9(1):31-42.

Blake CD, 1961. Root rot of bananas caused by Radopholus similis (Cobb) and its control in New South Wales. Nematologica, 6:295-310.

Blake CD, 1966. The histological changes in banana roots caused by Radopholus similis and Helicotylenchus multicinctus. Nematologica, 12:129-137.

Bridge J; Page SLJ, 1984. Plant nematode pests of crops in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Plant Protection in the Tropics, 1:99-109.

Broadley RA, 1979. Non-volatile nematicides for control of burrowing nematode in banana plantations in north Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 19(100):626-630

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Helicotylenchus multicinctus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 881. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Caveness FE; Badra T, 1980. Control of Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne javanica in established plantain and nematode survival as influenced by rainfall. Nematropica, 10(1):10-14

Colbran RC; Saunders GW, 1961. Nematode root-rot of bananas. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 87:22-24.

Costilla MA; Ojeda SG; Gomez TH, 1979. Helicotylenchus multicinctus en raices de banano en Argentina. Nematropica, 9:138-139.

De Guiran G; Vilardebo A, 1963. Les bananiers aux Iles Canaries. Les nématodes parasites du bananier. Fruits, 17:263-277.

Edmunds JE, 1969. Plant nematode problems of the Windward Islands. In: Peachey JE, ed. Nematodes of Tropical Crops, Technical Communication No. 40. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 142-148.

Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2. Web Service available online at

Gomez-Tovar J, 1980. Determinacion de la infestacion de fitonematodos en plantaciones bananeras de Uraba, Colombia. Fitopatolgia Colombiana, 9:19-32.

Gowen S; Queneherve P, 1990. Nematode parasites of bananas, plantains and abaca. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 431-460.

Hutchinson MT; Reed JP; Streu HT; Di Edwardo AA; Schroeder PH, 1961. Plant parasitic nematodes of New Jersey. New Jersey Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin, 796:1-33.

Hutton DG; Plummer EE; Falconer PR, 1978. The nematodes associated with plantains in Jamaica. Nematropica, 8:14

Krusberg LR; Hirschman H, 1958. A survey of plant parasitic nematodes in Peru. Plant Disease Reporter, 42:599-608.

Luc M, 1959. Németodes parasites au soupconnés de parasitisme enver les plantes de Medagascar. Bull. Inst. Rech. Agron. Madagascar, 3:89-102.

Maas PWT, 1969. Two important cases of nematode infestation in Surinam. In: Peachey JE, ed. Nematodes of Tropical Crops. Technical Communication, Commonwealth Bureau of Helminthology, No.40, 149-154.

Martin GC, 1958. Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Nematologica, 3:332-349.

May WF; Crittenden HW; Jenkins WR, 1960. Distribution of stylet-bearing nematodes in the Northeastern United States. New Jersey Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin, 795:1-62.

McSorley R, 1979. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with bananas and plantains in Southern Florida. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(8):663-665

McSorley R; Parrado JL, 1983. The spiral nematode, Helicotylenchus multicinctus, on bananas in Florida and its control. Proceedings Florida State Horticultural Society, 96:201-207.

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