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Datasheet

Helicotylenchus multicinctus
(banana spiral nematode)

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Datasheet

Helicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Helicotylenchus multicinctus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • banana spiral nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •         Genus: Helicotylenchus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
C-F, H & I. Topotypes; remainder specimens from banana from Samoa Island. A, B, C. Adults in relaxed body posture. D. Head end, female. E. Oesophageal region, female. F. Oesophageal region, male. G, H. Tail ends, male. I-K. Tail ends, female.

Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 23. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
TitleAdult - line drawing
CaptionC-F, H & I. Topotypes; remainder specimens from banana from Samoa Island. A, B, C. Adults in relaxed body posture. D. Head end, female. E. Oesophageal region, female. F. Oesophageal region, male. G, H. Tail ends, male. I-K. Tail ends, female. Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 23. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
CopyrightCAB International
C-F, H & I. Topotypes; remainder specimens from banana from Samoa Island. A, B, C. Adults in relaxed body posture. D. Head end, female. E. Oesophageal region, female. F. Oesophageal region, male. G, H. Tail ends, male. I-K. Tail ends, female.

Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 23. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Adult - line drawingC-F, H & I. Topotypes; remainder specimens from banana from Samoa Island. A, B, C. Adults in relaxed body posture. D. Head end, female. E. Oesophageal region, female. F. Oesophageal region, male. G, H. Tail ends, male. I-K. Tail ends, female. Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1973. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 23. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.CAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Helicotylenchus multicinctus (Cobb, 1893) Golden, 1956

Preferred Common Name

  • banana spiral nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Anguillulina multicincta (Cobb) T. Goodey, 1932
  • Helicotylenchus iperoiguensis (Carvalho) Andrássy, 1958
  • Rotylenchus iperoiguensis Carvalho, 1956
  • Rotylenchus multicinctus (Cobb) Filipjev, 1936
  • Tylenchorhyncus multicinctus (Cobb) Micoletzky, 1922
  • Tylenchus multicinctus Cobb, 1983

International Common Names

  • English: spiral nematode

EPPO code

  • HELYMU (Helicotylenchus multicinctus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •                 Genus: Helicotylenchus
  •                     Species: Helicotylenchus multicinctus

Description

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Adult Females

Body of heat-killed specimens arcuate or C-shaped; annules distinct, lateral field with four incisures, not areolated. Lip region hemispherical, with 3-5 annuli; framework heavily sclerotized; cephalids usually indistinct. Stylet well developed, 21-24 µm long, with 5-6-µm-wide basal knobs, appearing anteriorly flattened or concave. Oesophagus with rounded metacorpus, and glandular part overlapping intestine ventrally, with subventral glands posterior to dorsal. Dorsal oesophageal gland outlet about 26-35% of total spear length. Excretory pore at level of oesophago-intestinal junction; hemizonid 0-3 body annules anterior to it. Genital apparatus composed of two symmetrical ovaries; sometimes the posterior ovary may appear reduced, but is still functional. Spermathecae rounded, usually filled with sperms. Vulva is a depressed transverse slit on ventral side of the body. Tail slightly tapering, with anus marked by a slight depression; terminus annulated, hemispherical in shape, with dorsal margin more curved than ventral; 6-13 cuticular rings on ventral side. Phasmids punctate, 1-6 annuli anterior to anus.

Adult Males

Abundant, similar to females, except for genital characters. Testis single, outstretched. Caudal alae crenate, enveloping tail but not protruding beyond it in lateral view. Spicules weakly cephalated. Gubernaculum simple.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
Burkina FasoPresent, Widespread
BurundiPresent
CameroonPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent, Widespread
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GabonPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresent, Widespread
RéunionPresent
RwandaPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
SeychellesPresent
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent, Widespread
TunisiaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

BangladeshPresent
BruneiPresent
ChinaPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-SichuanPresent
Cocos IslandsPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-GujaratPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-OdishaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TripuraPresent
-West BengalPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JordanPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresent
OmanPresent, Widespread
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Sri LankaPresent
ThailandPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresent, Localized

Europe

BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CyprusPresent
CzechiaPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MoldovaPresent
PortugalPresent
-MadeiraPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
-Central RussiaPresent
-Russian Far EastPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
MontserratPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-ArkansasPresent, Few occurrences
-CaliforniaPresent
-DelawarePresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-New JerseyPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
FijiPresent
KiribatiPresent
NiuePresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent
TuvaluPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-AcrePresent
-AlagoasPresent
-AmazonasPresent
-BahiaPresent
-CearaPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParaPresent
-PernambucoPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent, Widespread
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
French GuianaPresent
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
VenezuelaPresent

Hosts/Species Affected

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H. multicinctus is regarded as an important parasite of bananas in almost every banana-growing area of the world. It has also been recorded to have a wide host range (Goodey et al., 1965). Recently, Gowen and Quénéhervé (1990) found it in Côte d'Ivoire, in association with 12 hosts. In Cuba, the nematode was detected in 32 host plants, including beets, common beans, carrots, cowpeas, garlic, hairy cotton, head cabbages, lettuces, melons, peas, rape and watermelons (Stoyanov, 1967).

The nematode attacks suckers (= rhizomes), primary and secondary roots. Quénéhervé and Cadet (1985a) also noticed lesions in the corm.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Allium sativum (garlic)LiliaceaeOther
    Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet)ChenopodiaceaeOther
      Brassica napus var. napus (rape)BrassicaceaeOther
        Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeOther
          Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeOther
            Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
              Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeOther
                CitrusRutaceaeOther
                  Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeOther
                    Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
                      Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeOther
                        Cola acuminata (cola)SterculiaceaeOther
                          Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeOther
                            Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)PoaceaeWild host
                              Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeOther
                                Dioscorea alata (white yam)DioscoreaceaeOther
                                  Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)ArecaceaeOther
                                    Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeOther
                                      Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                        Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeOther
                                          Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
                                            Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                              Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
                                                  Musa x paradisiaca (plantain)MusaceaeMain
                                                    Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeOther
                                                      Pachystachys lutea (lollypops)AcanthaceaeHabitat/association
                                                        Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
                                                          Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeOther
                                                            Picea (spruces)PinaceaeWild host
                                                              Pinus (pines)PinaceaeWild host
                                                                Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeOther
                                                                  Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeOther
                                                                    Taxus (yew)TaxaceaeWild host
                                                                      Theobroma cacao (cocoa)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                        Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeOther
                                                                          Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther
                                                                            Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeOther

                                                                              Growth Stages

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                                                                              Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                              Symptoms

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                                                                              The damage symptoms are similar to those caused by other serious root endoparasites of the family Pratylenchidae, both on banana plants and plantains. The nematode attacks the outer cortical part of the root causing characteristic necrotic lesions, which are at first yellow in colour and then turn reddish-brown to black. Minz et al. (1960) and Luc and Vilardebó (1961) reported brown root flecks in discoloured tissues, that they indicated were symptomatic of H. multicinctus infestation; later, Zuckerman and Strich-Harari (1963) noticed that these were associated with egg laying within the root cortex. Rarely, in heavy infestations, the root lesions can coalesce and the necrosis becomes extensive, causing distortion followed by decay of the root. Infected plants are stunted and may topple.

                                                                              List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                                              SignLife StagesType
                                                                              Roots / cortex with lesions
                                                                              Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
                                                                              Whole plant / dwarfing
                                                                              Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

                                                                              Biology and Ecology

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                                                                              According to the reports of Minz et al. (1960) and Zuckerman and Strich-Harari (1963), H. multicinctus is able to complete its life cycle within the cortical layer of the roots where all eggs, juveniles and adult stages can be found. Thus it is regarded as an endoparasite, although there is no evidence of nematode migration through the cortical tissues (Blake, 1966).

                                                                              Blake (1966), studying the host-parasite relationships of this species on banana roots, observed that adults inoculated fed within 36 hours upon parenchymatous cells partly embedded in the root; after 4 days they were wholly inside the cortical layer to a depth of about 4-6 cells. Surrounding tissues showed cellular damage consisting of contracted cytoplasm, ruptured walls and enlarged nuclei. Discoloration and necroses often also occurred near the infection points.

                                                                              The introduction of the nematode into new areas occurs by 'seeds', sets or suckers (= rhizomes), usually brought from old infested plantations; infected planting material is the main means of dissemination. Strich-Harari et al. (1966) studied the spread of nematodes in a growing plant, whereas Stoyanov (1967) observed that the nematode can also survive for 4 months without the host plant.

                                                                              Life Cycle

                                                                              The life cycle of H. multicinctus was studied in detail by Zuckerman and Strich-Harari (1963). Groups of 8-26 eggs, orientated parallel to the long cell axes, were frequently observed in discoloured cortical tissues. Gravid females, held in tap water at 30°C, laid eggs within 24 hours, and 48-51 hours later the hatch occurred. The second-stage juvenile is characterized by having a ventral digitate tail process, which disappears during the second moult. The third-stage juvenile has a convex-conoid tail, without any projection, and a gonad primordium averaging 2-6 cells. In the fourth-stage juvenile the gonad is longer than 60 µm, and during the fourth moult its development is completed. Adult males and females reproduce sexually by amphimixis.

                                                                              For a review of selected papers see Siddiqi (1973) and McSorley and Parrado (1986); a more comprehensive review, including other major damaging endoparasitic nematodes, is by Gowen and Quénéhervé (1990).

                                                                              Seedborne Aspects

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                                                                              There is no evidence that H. multicinctus is seedborne.

                                                                              Pathway Vectors

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                                                                              VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                              Clothing, footwear and possessionsWith banana rhizones Yes
                                                                              Containers and packaging - woodIn soil from banana grower Yes
                                                                              Land vehiclesIn soil from banana grower Yes
                                                                              MailWith banana rhizones Yes
                                                                              Soil, sand and gravelWith banana rhizones Yes

                                                                              Plant Trade

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                                                                              Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                              Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                              Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                              Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                              Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                              Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                              Bark
                                                                              Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                                                                              Fruits (inc. pods)
                                                                              Leaves
                                                                              Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
                                                                              True seeds (inc. grain)
                                                                              Wood

                                                                              Impact

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                                                                              Minz et al. (1960) first reported a decline of banana (Musa AAA, Cavendish) plantations in the Jordan Valley, with substantial losses in yield within 3 years. Their data are the most reliable because the spiral nematode occurred in the absence of Radopholus similis and Pratylenchus coffeae, the other two major pests of banana. Colbran and Saunders (1961) and Edmunds (1969) reported that H. multicinctus, together with other nematodes, caused considerable reduction in banana production in Australia and the Windward Islands, respectively. H. multicinctus seems also to be a major nematological problem on banana and plantains in several locations, such as Florida, Argentina, Cuba, South Africa, Cyprus, India and Pakistan (McSorley and Parrado, 1986). Vovlas et al. (1994) reported it as the most important nematode associated with banana in Sao Tomé.

                                                                              Although H. multicinctus has been reported to cause considerable root damage in many banana-growing areas of the world, estimates of crop losses are not available because of the close association between species, and their interactions with environmental factors.

                                                                              Detection and Inspection

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                                                                              Because of the endoparasitic habits of the species, populations of H. multicinctus can be detected by collecting soil, especially samples from around the root system, with appropriate tools (trowel, soil sampling tube, spade, shovel). Living specimens can be extracted from viable root tissues, either under a dissecting microscope or by following the extraction procedures illustrated in general nematology handbooks.

                                                                              Generally, the Baermann funnel method is suitable for extracting motile specimens from soil and roots, whereas centrifugal flotation and flotation-sieving techniques are effective for soil and tissue extractions.

                                                                              Prevention and Control

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                                                                              Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                              Chemical Control

                                                                              Nematicides are one of the most important means of controlling H. multicinctus and other plant parasitic nematodes on bananas, and are generally widely used by growers producing fruit for the international export trade. Minz et al. (1960), Strich-Harari et al. (1966), Luc and Vilardebó (1961) and Philis (1971) reported nematicidal trials on banana using DBCP; different degrees of efficacy were found due to the influence of local conditions and environmental factors. For toxicological reasons this fumigant has recently been banned from use.

                                                                              For a review of selected papers see Siddiqi (1973) and McSorley and Parrado (1986); a more comprehensive review, including other major damaging endoparasitic nematodes, is by Gowen and Quénéhervé (1990).

                                                                              References

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                                                                              Andrade FWRde; Amorim EPda R; Eloy AP; Rufino MJ, 2009. Occurence of banana diseases in the state of Alagoas. (Ocorrência de doenças em bananeiras no estado de Alagoas.) Summa Phytopathologica, 35(4):305-309. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/sp/v35n4/a08v35n4.pdf

                                                                              Bala G, 1984. Occurrence of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with crops of agricultural importance in Trinidad. Nematropica, 14(1):37-45

                                                                              Banful B; Hauser S; Kanga FN; Kumaga F; Ofori K, 2008. Soil population of Helicotylenchus multicinctus under Pueraria phaseoloides, Flemingia macrophylla and natural bush fallows and their effect on plantain yield in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 25(3):209-221. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/01448765.2008.9755049

                                                                              Berg Evan den; Marais M; Gaidashova S; Tiedt LR, 2003. Hoplolaimidae Filip'ev, 1934 (Nemata) from Rwandan banana fields. African Plant Protection, 9(1):31-42.

                                                                              Blake CD, 1961. Root rot of bananas caused by Radopholus similis (Cobb) and its control in New South Wales. Nematologica, 6:295-310.

                                                                              Blake CD, 1966. The histological changes in banana roots caused by Radopholus similis and Helicotylenchus multicinctus. Nematologica, 12:129-137.

                                                                              Bridge J; Page SLJ, 1984. Plant nematode pests of crops in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Plant Protection in the Tropics, 1:99-109.

                                                                              Broadley RA, 1979. Non-volatile nematicides for control of burrowing nematode in banana plantations in north Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 19(100):626-630

                                                                              Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

                                                                              CABI/EPPO, 2003. Helicotylenchus multicinctus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 881. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

                                                                              Caveness FE; Badra T, 1980. Control of Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne javanica in established plantain and nematode survival as influenced by rainfall. Nematropica, 10(1):10-14

                                                                              Colbran RC; Saunders GW, 1961. Nematode root-rot of bananas. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 87:22-24.

                                                                              Costilla MA; Ojeda SG; Gomez TH, 1979. Helicotylenchus multicinctus en raices de banano en Argentina. Nematropica, 9:138-139.

                                                                              De Guiran G; Vilardebo A, 1963. Les bananiers aux Iles Canaries. Les nématodes parasites du bananier. Fruits, 17:263-277.

                                                                              Edmunds JE, 1969. Plant nematode problems of the Windward Islands. In: Peachey JE, ed. Nematodes of Tropical Crops, Technical Communication No. 40. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 142-148.

                                                                              Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2. Web Service available online at http://www.faunaeur.org.

                                                                              Gomez-Tovar J, 1980. Determinacion de la infestacion de fitonematodos en plantaciones bananeras de Uraba, Colombia. Fitopatolgia Colombiana, 9:19-32.

                                                                              Gowen S; Queneherve P, 1990. Nematode parasites of bananas, plantains and abaca. In: Luc M, Sikora RA, Bridge J, eds. Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 431-460.

                                                                              Hutchinson MT; Reed JP; Streu HT; Di Edwardo AA; Schroeder PH, 1961. Plant parasitic nematodes of New Jersey. New Jersey Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin, 796:1-33.

                                                                              Hutton DG; Plummer EE; Falconer PR, 1978. The nematodes associated with plantains in Jamaica. Nematropica, 8:14

                                                                              Krusberg LR; Hirschman H, 1958. A survey of plant parasitic nematodes in Peru. Plant Disease Reporter, 42:599-608.

                                                                              Luc M, 1959. Németodes parasites au soupconnés de parasitisme enver les plantes de Medagascar. Bull. Inst. Rech. Agron. Madagascar, 3:89-102.

                                                                              Maas PWT, 1969. Two important cases of nematode infestation in Surinam. In: Peachey JE, ed. Nematodes of Tropical Crops. Technical Communication, Commonwealth Bureau of Helminthology, No.40, 149-154.

                                                                              Martin GC, 1958. Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Nematologica, 3:332-349.

                                                                              May WF; Crittenden HW; Jenkins WR, 1960. Distribution of stylet-bearing nematodes in the Northeastern United States. New Jersey Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin, 795:1-62.

                                                                              McSorley R, 1979. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with bananas and plantains in Southern Florida. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(8):663-665

                                                                              McSorley R; Parrado JL, 1983. The spiral nematode, Helicotylenchus multicinctus, on bananas in Florida and its control. Proceedings Florida State Horticultural Society, 96:201-207.

                                                                              McSorley R; Parrado JL, 1986. Helicotylenchus multicinctus on bananas: an international problem. Nematropica, 16:73-91.

                                                                              Minz G; Ziv D; Strich-Harari D, 1960. Decline of banana plantations caused by spiral nematodes in the Jordan Valley and its control by DBCP. Ktavim, 10:147-157.

                                                                              Mukherjee B; Dasgupta MK, 1983. Community analyses of nematodes associated with banana plantations in the Hooghly district, West Bengal, India. Nematologia Mediterranea, 11(1):43-48

                                                                              Philis J, 1971. Control of root-knot and spiral nematodes on bananas in Cyprus. Plant Disease Reporter, 55:707-710.

                                                                              Pinochet J; Ventura O, 1980. Nematodes associated with agricultural crops in Honduras. Turrialba, 30(1):43-47

                                                                              Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

                                                                              Sher SA, 1966. Revision of the Hoplolaiminae (Nematoda) VI. Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. Nematologica, 12:1-56.

                                                                              Siddiqi MR, 1973. Helicotylenchus multicinctus. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2, No. 23 Commonwealth Institute of Helminthology, St. Albans, 1-3.

                                                                              Sikora RA; Shlosser E, 1973. Nematodes and fungi associated with root systems in a state of decline in Lebanon. Plant Disease Reporter, 57:615-618.

                                                                              Stoyanov D, 1967. Especies de nématodos par sitos del platano en Cuba y posibilidades de su control. Revista Agricultura, Habana, 1:9-47.

                                                                              Strich-Harari D; Minz G; Peled A, 1966. The spread of spiral nematodes in banana roots and their control. Israel Journal of Agricultural Research, 16:89-94.

                                                                              Tixier P; Salmon F; Chabrier C; Quénéhervé P, 2008. Modelling pest dynamics of new crop cultivars: the FB920 banana with the Helicotylenchus multicinctus-Radopholus similis nematode complex in Martinique. Crop Protection, 27(11):1427-1431. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

                                                                              Troccoli A; Geraert E, 1995. Some species of Tylenchida (Nematoda) from Papua New Guinea. Nematologia Mediterranea, 23(2):283-298; 19 ref.

                                                                              Van Den Berg E; Heyns J, 1975. South African Hoplolaiminae. 4. The genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. Phytophylactica, 7(1):35-52

                                                                              Vilardebó A; Guérout R, 1976. Nematode species in West Africa, Madagascar and Reunion, with some comments on their biology. Nematropica, 6:53-54.

                                                                              Vovlas N, 1983. Morphology of a local population of Helicotylenchus multicinctus from Southern Italy. Revue de Nematologie, 6(2):327-329

                                                                              Vovlas N; Frisullo S; Santos MSN de A; Abrantes IM de O; Espirito Santo SN, 1994. Ceratocystis paradoxa and Helicotylenchus multicinctus associated with root systems of declining bananas in the Republica Democratica de Sao Tome e Principe. Nematologia Mediterranea, 22(1):119-121

                                                                              Wehunt EJ; Edwards DI, 1968. Radopholus similis and other nematode species on banana. In: Smart GC, Perry VG eds. Tropical Nematology. Gainesville, USA: University of Florida Press, 1-19.

                                                                              Zem AC; Lordello LGE, 1981. A survey of nematodes parasitic on banana plants in Brazil. Nematropica, 11:92.

                                                                              Zuckerman BM; Strich-Harari D, 1963. The life stages of Helicotylenchus multicinctus (Cobb) in banana roots. Nematologica, 9:347-353.

                                                                              Distribution References

                                                                              Andrade F W R de, Amorim E P da R, Eloy A P, Rufino M J, 2009. Occurence of banana diseases in the state of Alagoas. (Ocorrência de doenças em bananeiras no estado de Alagoas.). Summa Phytopathologica. 35 (4), 305-309. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/sp/v35n4/a08v35n4.pdf DOI:10.1590/S0100-54052009000400008

                                                                              Bala G, 1984. Occurrence of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with crops of agricultural importance in Trinidad. Nematropica. 14 (1), 37-45.

                                                                              Banful B, Hauser S, Kanga F N, Kumaga F, Ofori K, 2008. Soil population of Helicotylenchus multicinctus under Pueraria phaseoloides, Flemingia macrophylla and natural bush fallows and their effect on plantain yield in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture. 25 (3), 209-221. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/01448765.2008.9755049 DOI:10.1080/01448765.2008.9755049

                                                                              Berg E van den, Marais M, Gaidashova S, Tiedt L R, 2003. Hoplolaimidae Filip'ev, 1934 (Nemata) from Rwandan banana fields. African Plant Protection. 9 (1), 31-42.

                                                                              BLAKE C D, 1961. Root rot of bananas caused by Radopholus similis (Cobb) and its control in New South Wales. Nematologica. 6 (4), 295-310.

                                                                              Bridge J, Page S L M, 1984. Plant nematode pests of crops in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Plant Protection in the Tropics. 1 (2), 99-109.

                                                                              Broadley R A, 1979. Non-volatile nematicides for control of burrowing nematode in banana plantations in north Queensland. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry. 19 (100), 626-630.

                                                                              Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. In: Land Grant Technical Report No. 44, Pago Pago, American Samoa, American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

                                                                              CABI, EPPO, 2003. Helicotylenchus multicinctus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 881. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20066500881

                                                                              CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                              CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

                                                                              Caveness F E, Badra T, 1980. Control of Helicotylenchus multicinctus and Meloidogyne javanica in established plantain and nematode survival as influenced by rainfall. Nematropica. 10 (1), 10-14.

                                                                              COLBRAN R C, SAUNDERS G W, 1961. Nematode root-rot of bananas. Queensland Agricultural Journal. 87 (1), 22-24.

                                                                              Costilla M A, Gonzalez de Ojeda S, Gomez T H de, 1979. Helicotylenchus multicinctus in banana roots in northeastern Argentina. (Helicotylenchus multicinctus en raices de banano en el noroeste de Argentina.). Nematropica. 9 (2), 138-139.

                                                                              Fauna Europaea, 2014. Fauna Europaea version 2., http://www.faunaeur.org

                                                                              Gebrehiwot Nega, Seifu Fetena, 2015. Root necrosis assessment of plant parasitic nematodes of banana (Musa spp.) at Arbaminch, Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare. 5 (15), 76-80. http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JBAH/article/view/25108/25713

                                                                              Gomez Tovar J, 1980. Determination of infestations by plant-parasitic nematodes in banana plantations in Uraba, Colombia. (Determinacion de la infestacion de fitonematodos en plantaciones bananeras de Uraba, Colombia.). Fitopatologia Colombiana. 9 (1), 19-32.

                                                                              Hutchinson MT, Reed JP, Streu HT, Di Edwardo AA, Schroeder PH, 1961. Plant parasitic nematodes of New Jersey. In: New Jersey Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin, 796 1-33.

                                                                              Hutton D G, Plummer E E, Falconer P R, 1978. The nematodes associated with plantains in Jamaica. Nematropica. 14.

                                                                              Kamira M, Hauser S, Asten P van, Coyne D, Talwana H L, 2013. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with banana and plantain in eastern and western Democratic Republic of Congo. Nematropica. 43 (2), 216-225. http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/82710/79654

                                                                              KRUSBERG L R, HIRSCHMANN H, 1958. A survey of plant parasitic nematodes in Peru. Plant Disease Reporter. 42 (5), 599-608.

                                                                              Lima R da S, Muniz M de F S, Cunha e Castro J M da, Oliveira E R L de, Oliveira P G de, Siqueira K M S de, Machado A C Z, Costa J G da, 2013. Frequencies and population densities of the major phytonematodes associated with banana in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Nematropica. 43 (2), 186-193. http://journals.fcla.edu/nematropica/article/view/82707/79651

                                                                              Loubana P M, Sarah J L, Sakwe P, Mavoungou J F, Gnonhouri P, Boisseau M, Foure E, 2007. Study of the genetic diversity of plant parasitic nematodes on bananas and plantains in Central and West Africa. In: 8th African Crop Science Society Conference, El-Minia, Egypt, 27-31 October 2007 [8th African Crop Science Society Conference, El-Minia, Egypt, 27-31 October 2007.], [ed. by Ahmed K Z]. El-Minia, Egypt: African Crop Science Society. 783-786.

                                                                              Luc M, 1959. (Németodes parasites au soupconnés de parasitisme enver les plantes de Medagascar). In: Bull. Inst. Rech. Agron. Madagascar, 3 89-102.

                                                                              Maas PWT, 1969. Two important cases of nematode infestation in Surinam. In: Nematodes of Tropical Crops. Technical Communication, Commonwealth Bureau of Helminthology, 40 [ed. by Peachey JE]. 149-154.

                                                                              Mani A, Handoo Z A, Livingston S, 2005. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in the Sultanate of Oman. Nematropica. 35 (2), 135-144. http://palmm.fcla.edu/nematode/

                                                                              Martin GC, 1958. Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. In: Nematologica, 3 332-349.

                                                                              May WF, Crittenden HW, Jenkins WR, 1960. Distribution of stylet-bearing nematodes in the Northeastern United States. In: New Jersey Agricultural Experimental Station Bulletin, 795 1-62.

                                                                              McSorley R, Parrado J L, 1983. The spiral nematode, Helicotylenchus multicinctus, on bananas in Florida and its control. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society. 201-207.

                                                                              Mekete T, Sikora R A, Kiewnick S, Hallmann J, 2008. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with coffee (Coffea arabica L., Rubiaceae) in Ethiopia. Nematropica. 38 (2), 177-186. http://fulltext10.fcla.edu/DLData/SN/SN00995444/0038_002/177-186.pdf

                                                                              Mekete T, Sikora R A, Kiewnick S, Hallmann J, 2008a. Description of plant parasitic nematodes associated with coffee in Ethiopia. Nematologia Mediterranea. 36 (1), 69-77. http://www.edizioniets.com

                                                                              Okech S H O, Gold C S, Speijer P, Ssali H, Karamura E, 2000. Relationships between soil fertility, banana weevil and nematodes in the East African Highland cooking banana in Ntungamo, south western Uganda. Acta Horticulturae. 505-514.

                                                                              PHILIS J, 1971. Control of root-knot and spiral nematodes on bananas in Cyprus. Plant Disease Reporter. 55 (8), 707-710.

                                                                              Pinochet J, Ventura O, 1980. Nematodes associated with agricultural crops in Honduras. Turrialba. 30 (1), 43-47.

                                                                              Reddy K V S, Prasad J S, Speijer P R, Sikora R A, Coyne D L, 2007. Distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes on Musa in Kenya. Infomusa. 16 (1/2), 18-23.

                                                                              Schotman C Y L, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. In: RLAC-PROVEG, 80 pp.

                                                                              Sher SA, 1966. Revision of the Hoplolaiminae (Nematoda) VI. Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. In: Nematologica, 12 1-56.

                                                                              Siddiqi M R, 1973. Helicotylenchus multicinctus. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 2 (No. 23), 3 pp.

                                                                              Stoyanov D, 1967. (Especies de nématodos par sitos del platano en Cuba y posibilidades de su control). In: Revista Agricultura, Habana, 1 9-47.

                                                                              STRICH-HARARI D, MINZ G, PELED A, 1966. The spread of spiral nema-todes in banana roots and their control. Israel Journal of Agricultural Research. 16 (2), 89-94.

                                                                              Tixier P, Salmon F, Chabrier C, Quénéhervé P, 2008. Modelling pest dynamics of new crop cultivars: the FB920 banana with the Helicotylenchus multicinctus-Radopholus similis nematode complex in Martinique. Crop Protection. 27 (11), 1427-1431. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194 DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2008.06.004

                                                                              Troccoli A, Geraert E, 1995. Some species of Tylenchida (Nematoda) from Papua New Guinea. Nematologia Mediterranea. 23 (2), 283-298.

                                                                              Vilardebó A, Guérout R, 1976. Nematode species in West Africa, Madagascar and Reunion, with some comments on their biology. In: Nematropica, 6 53-54.

                                                                              Vovlas N, Frisullo S, Santos M S N de A, Abrantes I M de O, Espirito Santo S N, 1994. Ceratocystis paradoxa and Helicotylenchus multicinctus associated with root systems of declining bananas in the Republica Democratica de São Tomé e Principe. Nematologia Mediterranea. 22 (1), 119-121.

                                                                              Wang K H, Hooks C R R, 2009. Plant-parasitic nematodes and their associated natural enemies within banana (Musa spp.) plantings in Hawaii. Nematropica. 39 (1), 57-73. http://fulltext10.fcla.edu/DLData/SN/SN00995444/0039_001/57-74.pdf

                                                                              WEHUNT E J, EDWARDS D I, 1968. Tropical nematology. [ed. by Smart Jr, G C, Perry V G]. Gainesville: University of Florida Press. 1-19 pp.

                                                                              Zem AC, Lordello LGE, 1981. A survey of nematodes parasitic on banana plants in Brazil. In: Nematropica, 11 92.

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