Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Helicotylenchus dihystera
(common spiral nematode)

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Datasheet

Helicotylenchus dihystera (common spiral nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Helicotylenchus dihystera
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common spiral nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •         Genus: Helicotylenchus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
H. dihystera, topotype females. 

Reproduced from CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|Line drawing of Topotype females. 

Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 9. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL.
TitleH. dihystera - line drawing
CaptionH. dihystera, topotype females. Reproduced from CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|Line drawing of Topotype females. Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 9. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL.
CopyrightCAB International
H. dihystera, topotype females. 

Reproduced from CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|Line drawing of Topotype females. 

Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 9. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL.
H. dihystera - line drawingH. dihystera, topotype females. Reproduced from CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|Line drawing of Topotype females. Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 9. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL.CAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Helicotylenchus dihystera (Cobb, 1893) Sher, 1961

Preferred Common Name

  • common spiral nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Aphelenchus dubius var. peruensis Steiner, 1920
  • Helicotylenchus crenatus Das, 1960
  • Helicotylenchus flatus Roman, 1965
  • Helicotylenchus nannus Steiner, 1945
  • Helicotylenchus paraconcavus Rashid and Khan, 1974
  • Helicotylenchus punicae Swarup and Sethi, 1968
  • Tylenchus dihystera Cobb, 1893
  • Tylenchus olaae Cobb, 1906
  • Tylenchus spiralis Cassidy, 1930

International Common Names

  • English: nematode, common spiral; spiral nematode
  • French: anguillule spirale

Local Common Names

  • Japan: nami-rasen-sentyu

EPPO code

  • HELYDH (Helicotylenchus dihystera)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •                 Genus: Helicotylenchus
  •                     Species: Helicotylenchus dihystera

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 20 Mar 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentSiddiqi (1972); CABI and EPPO (2010)
BeninPresentBaimey et al. (2009); CABI and EPPO (2010)
Burkina FasoPresentCadet (1986); CABI and EPPO (2010)
BurundiPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
CameroonPresentAli and Geraert (1975); CABI and EPPO (2010)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentAli et al. (1973); CABI and EPPO (2010)
Côte d'IvoirePresent, WidespreadSher (1966); Fortuner and Queneherve (1980); Adiko (1988); CABI and EPPO (2010)
EgyptPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
EthiopiaPresentMarais et al. (2005); CABI and EPPO (2010)
GambiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
GhanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
KenyaPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2010)
LiberiaPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2010)
MadagascarPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2010)
MalawiPresentSiddiqi (1972); CABI and EPPO (2010)
MauritiusPresent, WidespreadChinappen et al. (1988); CABI and EPPO (2010)
MoroccoPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2010)
MozambiquePresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
NigeriaPresent, WidespreadSher (1966); Caveness (1967); Siddiqi (1972); Ali et al. (1973); CABI and EPPO (2010)
RéunionPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
RwandaPresentBerg et al. (2003); CABI and EPPO (2010)
Saint HelenaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
SenegalPresent, WidespreadSher (1966); Cadet and Floret (1995); CABI and EPPO (2010)
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadSher (1966); Willers and Neething (1994); CABI and EPPO (2010); CABI (Undated)
SudanPresentZeidan and Geraert (1990); CABI and EPPO (2010)
TanzaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
TogoPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
ZambiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
ZimbabwePresentSiddiqi (1972); CABI and EPPO (2010)

Asia

BangladeshPresentKhan et al. (2006); CABI and EPPO (2010)
BhutanPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
BruneiPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
ChinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-FujianPresentWang ShaoJun and Cai QiuJin (2005); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-GuangdongPresent, WidespreadYin (1992); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-Inner MongoliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-JiangsuPresent, WidespreadXu et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2010); Teng WenFeng et al. (2013); CABI (Undated)
-SichuanPresent, WidespreadLi (1994); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-YunnanPresentZhou YinLi et al. (2007); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-ZhejiangPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
IndiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-Andhra PradeshPresentRao et al. (2007); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-AssamPresent, WidespreadChoudhury and Phukan (1990); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-BiharPresentAhmad et al. (1988); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-DelhiPresentRao and Swarup (1974); Rao and Swarup (1974a); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-HaryanaPresentBaghel and Bhatti (1982); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-Himachal PradeshPresent, WidespreadPrasad et al. (1987); Nagesh et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentWaliullah (2005); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-JharkhandPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-KeralaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2010)Original citation: Rashid & Khan, 1974
-ManipurPresentDevi (2009); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-NagalandPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-OdishaPresent, WidespreadRay (1982); Ray et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-PunjabPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Harish Siag et al. (2015)
-RajasthanPresentNandwana et al. (2005); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-SikkimPresentBaqri (1991); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-Tamil NaduPresent, WidespreadSrinivasan and Muthukrishnan (1975); Sundaram and Velayutham (1988); CABI and EPPO (2010); CABI (Undated)
-TripuraPresentNath et al. (2008); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-Uttar PradeshPresent, WidespreadHasan and Jain (1987); Azmi (1990); CABI and EPPO (2010); CABI (Undated);
-UttarakhandPresentRathour et al. (2006); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-West BengalPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Gantait et al. (2010)
IndonesiaPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2010)
IranPresentAli et al. (1973); CABI and EPPO (2010); Mirghasemi et al. (2014)
IraqPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
IsraelPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2010)
JapanPresent, WidespreadSher (1966); Sano (1982); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-KyushuPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
KazakhstanPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
KyrgyzstanPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadSher (1966); Sauer and Winoto (1975); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-SarawakPresentSiddiqi (1972); CABI and EPPO (2010)
NepalPresentPudasaini and Bert (2000); CABI and EPPO (2010)
North KoreaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
PakistanPresent, WidespreadFiroza and Maqbool (1995); CABI and EPPO (2010); CABI (Undated)
PhilippinesPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
SingaporePresent, WidespreadAVA (2001); CABI and EPPO (2010)
South KoreaPresentKim (2003); CABI and EPPO (2010)
Sri LankaPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2010)
TaiwanPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
ThailandPresent, WidespreadRatanaprapa and Boonduang (1975); CABI and EPPO (2010); CABI (Undated)
TurkeyPresentEvlİce and Kepenekcİ (2006); CABI and EPPO (2010)
UzbekistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
VietnamPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2010)

Europe

CyprusPresentFauna Europaea (2014)
CzechiaPresentFauna Europaea (2014)
GermanyPresentBraasch (1987); CABI and EPPO (2010)
ItalyPresentFauna Europaea (2014)
MoldovaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
NetherlandsAbsent, Intercepted onlyCABI and EPPO (2010)
PolandPresent, Few occurrencesCABI and EPPO (2010)
PortugalPresent, WidespreadSiddiqi (1972); CABI and EPPO (2010);
-MadeiraPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2010)
RomaniaPresentIvan (1978); CABI and EPPO (2010)
RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
SlovakiaPresentCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2010)Original citation: Li?ková et al. (2007)
SloveniaPresentFauna Europaea (2014)
SpainPresent, WidespreadPinochet and Cisneros (1986); CABI and EPPO (2010);
-Canary IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
UkrainePresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
United KingdomAbsent, Intercepted onlyCABI and EPPO (2010); PEACHEY and HOOPER (1963)

North America

BarbadosPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
BelizePresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
CanadaPresent, WidespreadSher (1966); Townshend (1984); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-OntarioPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
Costa RicaPresentChen Guardia (1972); CABI and EPPO (2010)
CubaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
DominicaPresent, WidespreadHunt (1977); CABI and EPPO (2010)
El SalvadorPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2010)
GrenadaPresent, WidespreadHunt (1977); CABI and EPPO (2010)
GuadeloupePresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
GuatemalaPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2010)
JamaicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
MartiniquePresentCadet (1990); CABI and EPPO (2010)
MexicoPresent, WidespreadZavaleta-Mejia and Sosa Moss (1979); CABI and EPPO (2010); CABI (Undated)
MontserratPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
PanamaPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2010)
Puerto RicoPresentSher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2010)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
Saint LuciaPresent, WidespreadHunt (1977); CABI and EPPO (2010)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadHunt (1977); CABI and EPPO (2010)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, WidespreadSingh (1976); CABI and EPPO (2010); CABI (Undated)
United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-AlabamaPresent, WidespreadRodriguez-Kabana et al. (1974); Rodriguez-Kabana et al. (1975); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-ArkansasPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-CaliforniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-ColoradoPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadRodriguez-Kabana et al. (1976); Mead (1988); Mead (1989); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-GeorgiaPresent, WidespreadRuehle (1966); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-HawaiiPresent, WidespreadSher (1966); Ko and Schmitt (1996); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-LouisianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-MarylandPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-MississippiPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2010)Original citation: Cuarezma-Terán (1985)
-MissouriPresentWrather et al. (1992); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-South CarolinaPresentZeng et al. (2012)
-South DakotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-TexasPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks (2002); CABI and EPPO (2010)
AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-New South WalesPresent, WidespreadANDERSON (1965); McLeod (1979); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-Northern TerritoryPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-QueenslandPresent, WidespreadSher (1966); Stirling and Nikulin (1993); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-South AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-VictoriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
FijiPresent, WidespreadSher (1966); Siddiqi (1972); Kirby et al. (1980); Orton Williams (1980); CABI and EPPO (2010)
New ZealandPresentWouts and Yeates (1994); CABI and EPPO (2010)
NiuePresent, WidespreadOrton Williams (1980); CABI and EPPO (2010)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
SamoaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
Solomon IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
TongaPresent, WidespreadOrton Williams (1980); CABI and EPPO (2010)

South America

BoliviaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
BrazilPresentMonteiro and Lordello (1976); Brancalion and Lordello (1982); Goes et al. (1982); Goes et al. (1982a); Zem et al. (1984); CABI and EPPO (2010); CABI (Undated);
-AcrePresentSharma et al. (2001); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-BahiaPresent, WidespreadSharma and Sher (1973); Sharma and Loof (1974); Sharma (1975); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-CearaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-Espirito SantoPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-GoiasPresentSharma and Amabile (2004); Machado et al. (2000); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNeves and Huang ShiouPin (2005); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-Minas GeraisPresentNeves and Huang ShiouPin (2005); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-ParaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-ParanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-PernambucoPresentMoura et al. (2005); CABI and EPPO (2010)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-Santa CatarinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-Sao PauloPresentTihohod et al. (1992); CABI and EPPO (2010); CABI (Undated)
ChilePresentGallo D. (1979); CABI and EPPO (2010)
ColombiaPresent, WidespreadTrevathan et al. (1985); CABI and EPPO (2010)
French GuianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
PeruPresentSteiner (1920); Sher (1966); CABI and EPPO (2010)
VenezuelaPresent, WidespreadSher (1966); Siddiqi (1972); CABI and EPPO (2010)

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Arachnula impatiens Pathogen
Catenaria anguillulae Pathogen
Iotonchus monhystera Parasite
Vampyrella vorax Pathogen

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsWith plants and soil Yes
Containers and packaging - woodWith soil Yes
Land vehiclesWith soil Yes
Soil, sand and gravelWith plants and soil Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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1987. Bureau of nematology. Tri-ology Technical Report, 26(8):6-7

Adiko A, 1988. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with plantain Musa paradisiaca (AAB), in the Ivory Coast. Revue de Nématologie, 11:109-113.

Ahmad W; Khan TH; Bilgrami AL, 1988. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with paddy crop in Bihar, India. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 5(4):4.

Ali SS; Geraert E; Coomans A, 1973. Some spiral nematodes from Africa. Biologisch Jaarboek Dodonaea, 41:53-70.

Ali SS; Gerprt E, 1975. Helicotylenchus species from Cameroon. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 40(2 Pt. 1):517-520

Anderson EJ, 1965. Plant-parasitic nematodes in fruit trees nurseries of New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 90:225-230

Anon, 1988. Bureau of nematology. Tri-ology Technical Report, 27(10):5-6.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Aycock R; Barker KR; Benson DM, 1976. Susceptiblity of Japanese holly to Criconemoides xenoplax, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, and certain other plant-parasitic nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 8(1):26-31

Azmi MI, 1979. Responses to temperature in nematodes. I. Mechanism of heat tolerance in Helicotylenchus dihystera. Nematologia Mediterranea, 7(2):163-175

Azmi MI, 1981. Mechanism to overcome increased resistance to locomotion in Helicotylenchus dihystera (Cobb, 1893) Sher, 1961. Indian Journal of Nematology, 11(1):1-4

Azmi MI, 1981. Rate of multiplication and pathogenic effects of Helicotylenchus dihystera on koobabool (Leucaena latisiliqua). Indian Journal of Nematology, 11(1):69-71

Azmi MI, 1983. Predatory behaviour of nematodes I. Biological control of Helicotylenchus dihystera through the predacious nematodes, Iotonchus monhystera. Indian Journal of Nematology, 13(1):1-8

Azmi MI, 1987. Behavioural responses of spiral nematode, Helicotylenchus dihystera during attraction and feeding on buffel grass roots. Indian Journal of Nematology, 17(2):277-280; 6 ref.

Azmi MI, 1993. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with su babool. Indian Journal of Forestry, 16(4):384.

Azmi MJ, 1990. Seasonal population fluctuation behaviour of Helicotylenchus dihystera, Pratylenchus zeae and Tylenchorhynchus vulgaris in buffalo grass pasture. Indian Journal of Nematology, 20(1):19-24; 26 ref.

Baghel PPS; Bhatti DS, 1982. Vertical and horizontal distribution of phytonematodes associated with citrus. Indian Journal of Nematology, 12(2):339-344

Baimey H; Coyne D; Dagbenonbakin G; James B, 2009. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with vegetable crops in Benin: relationship with soil physico-chemical properties. Nematologia Mediterranea, 37(2):227-236. http://www.edizioniets.com

Baqri QH, 1991. Contribution to the fauna of Sikkim. Nematodes associated with citrus from Sikkim, India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, No. 128 (occasional paper):103 pp.; 38 ref.

Barham RO, 1972. Effect of nematodes and Phytophthora cinnamomi on mycorrhizae of shortleaf pine seedlings. Phytopathology, 62(8):801.

Barham RO; Marx DH; Ruehle JL, 1974. Infection of ectomycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots of shortleaf pine by nematodes and Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phytopathology, 64(9):1260-1264.

Baujard P; Martiny B, 1995. Ecology and pathogenicity of the Hoplolaimidae (Nemata) from the sahelian zone of West Africa. 4. The genus Aphasmatylenchus Sher, 1965. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 18(4):355-360; 14 ref.

Benson DM; Barker KR, 1978. Aldicarb and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane as postplant treatments for control of nematodes on American boxwood, and Japanese and Chinese hollies. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(3):209-212

Benson DM; Barker KR; Aycock R, 1976. Effects of density of Helicotylenchus dihystera and Pratylenchus vulnus on American boxwood growing in microplots. Journal of Nematology, 8(4):322-326

Berg Evan den; Marais M; Gaidashova S; Tiedt LR, 2003. Hoplolaimidae Filip'ev, 1934 (Nemata) from Rwandan banana fields. African Plant Protection, 9(1):31-42.

Bernard EC; Hussey RS, 1979. Population development and effects of the spiral nematode, Helicotylenchus dihystera, on cotton in microplots. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(10):807-810

Bernard EC; Keyserling ML, 1985. Reproduction of root knot, lesion, spiral, and soyabean cyst nematodes. Plant Disease, 69(2):103-105.

Bhattacharya C; Dasgupta MK; Mukherjee B, 2012. Biodiversity of plant parasitic nematodes of cashew plantations in Tripura, India. Nematologia Mediterranea, 40(2):163-168. http://www.edizioniets.com

Bolton C; Loots GC; De Waele D, 1989. Plant-parasitic nematodes on field crops in South Africa. 3. Sunflower. Revue de Nématologie, 12:69-76.

Bookbinder MG; Bloom JR; Lukezic FL, 1982. Interactions among selected endoparasitic nematodes and three pseudomonads on alfalfa. Journal of Nematology, 14(1):105-109

Braasch H, 1987. Two tropical and subtropical nematode species (Scutellonema brachyurum (Steiner, 1938) Andrassy, 1958 and Helicotylenchus dihystera (Cobb, 1893) Sher, 1961) (Hoplolaimidae) detected in greenhouses in the German Democratic Republic and on imported plant material. Nachrichtenblatt für den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 41:78-82.

Brancalion AM; Lordello LGE, 1982. Use of aldicarb and carbofuran in the control of nematodes on maize. Trabalhos apresentados a V Reuniao Brasileira de Nematologia, 9-13 fevereiro de 1981, Londrina, PR, Brazil. Publicacao No.5, 1981. Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil: Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia, 197-202

Brodie BB; Good JM; Adams WE, 1969. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: Effect of sod-based rotations in Cecil sandy loam. Journal of Nematology, 1(4):309-312.

Brodie BB; Good JM; Jaworski CA, 1970. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: Effect of summer cover crops in newly cleared land. Journal of Nematology, 2(3):217-222.

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

Brown ODR, 1972. The influence of the plant parasitic nematode Helicotylenchus dihystera (Cobb) on the growth and nitrogen fixation in the Southern Pea Vigna sinensis (L.) Endl. Dissertation Abstracts International, 32B(10):5563

CABI/EPPO, 2010. Helicotylenchus dihystera. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1077 (Edition 1).

Cadet P, 1986. Variations in populations of ectoparasitic nematodes in the rhizosphere of sugarcane in Burkina Faso. Revue d'Ecologie et de Biologie du Sol, 23(2):205-213.

Cadet P, 1990. Effect of some nematicides on the yields and on the multiplication of nematode parasites of tomatoes in Martinique. Bulletin Agronomique des Antilles et de la Guyane, No. 10:42-48; 9 ref.

Cadet P; Floret C, 1995. An initial study of fallow periods on the nematode community in the Soudanese-Sahelian zone of Senegal. Acta Oecologica, 16(1):77-88; 30 ref.

Campelo AMFL; Galli F, 1980. Pathogenicity of Helicotylenchus dihystera in Theobroma cacao. Revista Theobroma, 10(1):5-14

CAVENESS FE, 1967. Shadehouse host ranges of some Nigerian nematodes. Plant Disease Reporter, 51(1):33-37.

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