Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Helicotylenchus dihystera
(common spiral nematode)

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Datasheet

Helicotylenchus dihystera (common spiral nematode)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Helicotylenchus dihystera
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common spiral nematode
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •         Genus: Helicotylenchus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
H. dihystera, topotype females. 

Reproduced from CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|Line drawing of Topotype females. 

Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 9. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL.
TitleH. dihystera - line drawing
CaptionH. dihystera, topotype females. Reproduced from CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|Line drawing of Topotype females. Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 9. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL.
CopyrightCAB International
H. dihystera, topotype females. 

Reproduced from CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|Line drawing of Topotype females. 

Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 9. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL.
H. dihystera - line drawingH. dihystera, topotype females. Reproduced from CIH Descriptions of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.|Line drawing of Topotype females. Reproduced from Siddiqi MR, 1972. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes. Set 1, No. 9. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL.CAB International

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Helicotylenchus dihystera (Cobb, 1893) Sher, 1961

Preferred Common Name

  • common spiral nematode

Other Scientific Names

  • Aphelenchus dubius var. peruensis Steiner, 1920
  • Helicotylenchus crenatus Das, 1960
  • Helicotylenchus flatus Roman, 1965
  • Helicotylenchus nannus Steiner, 1945
  • Helicotylenchus paraconcavus Rashid and Khan, 1974
  • Helicotylenchus punicae Swarup and Sethi, 1968
  • Tylenchus dihystera Cobb, 1893
  • Tylenchus olaae Cobb, 1906
  • Tylenchus spiralis Cassidy, 1930

International Common Names

  • English: nematode, common spiral; spiral nematode
  • French: anguillule spirale

Local Common Names

  • Japan: nami-rasen-sentyu

EPPO code

  • HELYDH (Helicotylenchus dihystera)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •                 Genus: Helicotylenchus
  •                     Species: Helicotylenchus dihystera

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentKhan et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2010
BhutanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Brunei DarussalamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-FujianPresentWang and Cai, 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-GuangdongWidespreadYin, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-JiangsuWidespreadZhou-GuoLiang, 1996; Xu et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2010; Teng et al., 2013
-Nei MengguPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-SichuanWidespreadLi, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-YunnanPresentZhou et al., 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-ZhejiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Georgia (Republic of)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
IndiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Andhra PradeshPresentRao et al., 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-AssamWidespreadChoudhury and Phukan, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-BiharPresentAhmad et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-DelhiPresentRao and Swarup, 1974a; Rao and Swarup, 1974b; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-HaryanaPresentBaghel and Bhatti, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Himachal PradeshWidespreadPrasad et al., 1987; Nagesh et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Indian PunjabPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Harish et al., 2015
-Jammu and KashmirPresentWaliullah, 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-JharkhandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-KarnatakaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-KeralaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Madhya PradeshPresentRashid & Khan, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-ManipurPresentDevi, 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-NagalandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-OdishaWidespreadRay, 1982; Ray et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-RajasthanPresentNandwana et al., 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-SikkimPresentBaqri, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Tamil NaduWidespreadSundaraj & Mehta, 1993; Srinivasan and Muthukrishnan, 1975; Sundaram and Velayutham, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-TripuraPresentNath et al., 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Uttar PradeshWidespreadJain, 1981; Hasan and Jain, 1986; Hasan and Jain, 1987; Azmi, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-UttarakhandPresentRathour et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-West BengalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010; Gantait et al., 2010
IndonesiaPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2010
IranPresentAli et al., 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2010; Mirghasemi et al., 2014
IraqPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
IsraelPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2010
JapanWidespreadSher, 1966; Sano, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-KyushuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
KazakhstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Korea, DPRPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Korea, Republic ofPresentKim, 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2010
KyrgyzstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
MalaysiaWidespreadSher, 1966; Sauer and Winoto, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-SarawakPresentSiddiqi, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2010
NepalPresentPudasaini and Bert, 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2010
PakistanWidespreadMaqbool and, 1992; Firoza and Maqbool, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2010
PhilippinesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
SingaporeWidespreadAVA, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Sri LankaPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2010
TaiwanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
ThailandWidespreadMizukubo, 1992; Ratanaprapa and Boonduang, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2010
TurkeyPresentEvlice and Kepenekci, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2010
UzbekistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
VietnamWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2010

Africa

AngolaPresentSiddiqi, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2010
BeninPresentBaimey et al., 2009; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Burkina FasoPresentCadet, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010
BurundiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
CameroonPresentAli and Geraert, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentAli et al., 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Côte d'IvoireWidespreadSher, 1966; Fortuner and Queneherve, 1980; Adiko, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2010
EgyptPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
EthiopiaPresentMarais et al., 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2010
GambiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
GhanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
GuineaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
KenyaPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2010
LiberiaPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2010
MadagascarPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2010
MalawiPresentSiddiqi, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2010
MauritiusWidespreadChinappen et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2010
MoroccoPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2010
MozambiquePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
NigeriaWidespreadSher, 1966; CAVENESS, 1967; Siddiqi, 1972; Ali et al., 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2010
RéunionPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
RwandaPresentBerg et al., 2003; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Saint HelenaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
SenegalWidespreadSher, 1966; Cadet and Floret, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2010
South AfricaWidespreadVan den Berg & Heyns, 1975; Sher, 1966; Willers and Neething, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
SudanPresentZeidan and Geraert, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2010
TanzaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
TogoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
West AfricaPresentBaujard and Martiny, 1995
ZambiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
ZimbabwePresentSiddiqi, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2010

North America

CanadaWidespreadSher, 1966; Townshend, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-OntarioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
MexicoWidespreadZavaleta-Mejia et al., 1978; Zavaleta-Mejia and Sosa-Moss, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2010
USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-AlabamaWidespreadRodriguez-Kabana et al., 1974; Rodriguez-Kabana et al., 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-ArkansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-CaliforniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-ColoradoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-FloridaWidespreadRodriguez-Kabana et al., 1976; Mead, 1988; Mead, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-GeorgiaWidespreadRuehle, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-HawaiiWidespreadSher, 1966; Ko and Schmitt, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-LouisianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-MarylandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-MississippiWidespreadCuarezma-Terán, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-MissouriPresentWrather et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-North CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-South CarolinaPresentZeng et al., 2012
-South DakotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-TexasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
BelizePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Costa RicaPresentChen, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2010
CubaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
DominicaWidespreadHunt, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2010
El SalvadorPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2010
GrenadaWidespreadHunt, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2010
GuadeloupePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
GuatemalaPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2010
JamaicaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
MartiniquePresentCadet, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2010
MontserratPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
PanamaPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Puerto RicoPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Saint LuciaWidespreadHunt, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesWidespreadHunt, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Trinidad and TobagoWidespreadSingh, 1976b; Singh, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2010

South America

BoliviaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
BrazilPresentGoes et al., 1982a; Goes et al., 1982b; Gomes Carneiro et al., 1980; Sharma et al., 1982; Zem et al., 1977; Monteiro and Lordello, 1976; Brancalion and Lordello, 1982; Zem et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-AcrePresentSharma et al., 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-BahiaWidespreadSharma and Sher, 1973; Sharma and Loof, 1974; Sharma, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-CearaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Espirito SantoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-GoiasPresentMachado et al., 2000; Sharma and Amabile, 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-GoiasPresentMachado et al., 2000; Sharma and Amabile, 2004; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNeves and Huang, 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Minas GeraisPresentNeves and Huang, 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-ParaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-ParanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-PernambucoPresentMoura et al., 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Santa CatarinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Sao PauloPresentGomes Carneiro et al., 1980; Tihohod et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2010
ChilePresentGallo, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2010
ColombiaWidespreadTrevathan et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2010
French GuianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
PeruPresentSteiner, 1920; Sher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2010
VenezuelaWidespreadSher, 1966; Siddiqi, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2010

Europe

CyprusPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
GermanyPresentBraasch, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2010
ItalyPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
MoldovaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
NetherlandsAbsent, intercepted onlyCABI/EPPO, 2010
PolandPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2010
PortugalWidespreadSiddiqi, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-MadeiraPresentSher, 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Portugal (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
RomaniaPresentIvan, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Russian FederationPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
SlovakiaPresentLi?ková et al., 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2010
SloveniaPresentFauna Europaea, 2014
SpainWidespreadPinochet and Cisneros, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-Spain (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
UKAbsent, intercepted onlyPeachey and Hooper, 1963; CABI/EPPO, 2010
UkrainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2010

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2010
AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-New South WalesWidespreadAnderson, 1965; McLeod, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-QueenslandWidespreadSher, 1966; Stirling and Nikulin, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2010
-South AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-VictoriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
FijiWidespreadSher, 1966; Siddiqi, 1972; Kirby et al., 1980; Orton, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2010
New ZealandPresentWouts and Yeates, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2010
NiueWidespreadOrton, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2010
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
SamoaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
Solomon IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2010
TongaWidespreadOrton, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2010

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / reduced root system
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Arachnula impatiens Pathogen
Catenaria anguillulae Pathogen
Iotonchus monhystera Parasite
Vampyrella vorax Pathogen

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsWith plants and soil Yes
Containers and packaging - woodWith soil Yes
Land vehiclesWith soil Yes
Soil, sand and gravelWith plants and soil Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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1987. Bureau of nematology. Tri-ology Technical Report, 26(8):6-7

Adiko A, 1988. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with plantain Musa paradisiaca (AAB), in the Ivory Coast. Revue de Nématologie, 11:109-113.

Ahmad W; Khan TH; Bilgrami AL, 1988. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with paddy crop in Bihar, India. International Nematology Network Newsletter, 5(4):4.

Ali SS; Geraert E; Coomans A, 1973. Some spiral nematodes from Africa. Biologisch Jaarboek Dodonaea, 41:53-70.

Ali SS; Gerprt E, 1975. Helicotylenchus species from Cameroon. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 40(2 Pt. 1):517-520

Anderson EJ, 1965. Plant-parasitic nematodes in fruit trees nurseries of New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 90:225-230

Anon, 1988. Bureau of nematology. Tri-ology Technical Report, 27(10):5-6.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Aycock R; Barker KR; Benson DM, 1976. Susceptiblity of Japanese holly to Criconemoides xenoplax, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, and certain other plant-parasitic nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 8(1):26-31

Azmi MI, 1979. Responses to temperature in nematodes. I. Mechanism of heat tolerance in Helicotylenchus dihystera. Nematologia Mediterranea, 7(2):163-175

Azmi MI, 1981. Mechanism to overcome increased resistance to locomotion in Helicotylenchus dihystera (Cobb, 1893) Sher, 1961. Indian Journal of Nematology, 11(1):1-4

Azmi MI, 1981. Rate of multiplication and pathogenic effects of Helicotylenchus dihystera on koobabool (Leucaena latisiliqua). Indian Journal of Nematology, 11(1):69-71

Azmi MI, 1983. Predatory behaviour of nematodes I. Biological control of Helicotylenchus dihystera through the predacious nematodes, Iotonchus monhystera. Indian Journal of Nematology, 13(1):1-8

Azmi MI, 1987. Behavioural responses of spiral nematode, Helicotylenchus dihystera during attraction and feeding on buffel grass roots. Indian Journal of Nematology, 17(2):277-280; 6 ref.

Azmi MI, 1993. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with su babool. Indian Journal of Forestry, 16(4):384.

Azmi MJ, 1990. Seasonal population fluctuation behaviour of Helicotylenchus dihystera, Pratylenchus zeae and Tylenchorhynchus vulgaris in buffalo grass pasture. Indian Journal of Nematology, 20(1):19-24; 26 ref.

Baghel PPS; Bhatti DS, 1982. Vertical and horizontal distribution of phytonematodes associated with citrus. Indian Journal of Nematology, 12(2):339-344

Baimey H; Coyne D; Dagbenonbakin G; James B, 2009. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with vegetable crops in Benin: relationship with soil physico-chemical properties. Nematologia Mediterranea, 37(2):227-236. http://www.edizioniets.com

Baqri QH, 1991. Contribution to the fauna of Sikkim. Nematodes associated with citrus from Sikkim, India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, No. 128 (occasional paper):103 pp.; 38 ref.

Barham RO, 1972. Effect of nematodes and Phytophthora cinnamomi on mycorrhizae of shortleaf pine seedlings. Phytopathology, 62(8):801.

Barham RO; Marx DH; Ruehle JL, 1974. Infection of ectomycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots of shortleaf pine by nematodes and Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phytopathology, 64(9):1260-1264.

Baujard P; Martiny B, 1995. Ecology and pathogenicity of the Hoplolaimidae (Nemata) from the sahelian zone of West Africa. 4. The genus Aphasmatylenchus Sher, 1965. Fundamental and Applied Nematology, 18(4):355-360; 14 ref.

Benson DM; Barker KR, 1978. Aldicarb and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane as postplant treatments for control of nematodes on American boxwood, and Japanese and Chinese hollies. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(3):209-212

Benson DM; Barker KR; Aycock R, 1976. Effects of density of Helicotylenchus dihystera and Pratylenchus vulnus on American boxwood growing in microplots. Journal of Nematology, 8(4):322-326

Berg Evan den; Marais M; Gaidashova S; Tiedt LR, 2003. Hoplolaimidae Filip'ev, 1934 (Nemata) from Rwandan banana fields. African Plant Protection, 9(1):31-42.

Bernard EC; Hussey RS, 1979. Population development and effects of the spiral nematode, Helicotylenchus dihystera, on cotton in microplots. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(10):807-810

Bernard EC; Keyserling ML, 1985. Reproduction of root knot, lesion, spiral, and soyabean cyst nematodes. Plant Disease, 69(2):103-105.

Bhattacharya C; Dasgupta MK; Mukherjee B, 2012. Biodiversity of plant parasitic nematodes of cashew plantations in Tripura, India. Nematologia Mediterranea, 40(2):163-168. http://www.edizioniets.com

Bolton C; Loots GC; De Waele D, 1989. Plant-parasitic nematodes on field crops in South Africa. 3. Sunflower. Revue de Nématologie, 12:69-76.

Bookbinder MG; Bloom JR; Lukezic FL, 1982. Interactions among selected endoparasitic nematodes and three pseudomonads on alfalfa. Journal of Nematology, 14(1):105-109

Braasch H, 1987. Two tropical and subtropical nematode species (Scutellonema brachyurum (Steiner, 1938) Andrassy, 1958 and Helicotylenchus dihystera (Cobb, 1893) Sher, 1961) (Hoplolaimidae) detected in greenhouses in the German Democratic Republic and on imported plant material. Nachrichtenblatt für den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 41:78-82.

Brancalion AM; Lordello LGE, 1982. Use of aldicarb and carbofuran in the control of nematodes on maize. Trabalhos apresentados a V Reuniao Brasileira de Nematologia, 9-13 fevereiro de 1981, Londrina, PR, Brazil. Publicacao No.5, 1981. Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil: Sociedade Brasileira de Nematologia, 197-202

Brodie BB; Good JM; Adams WE, 1969. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: Effect of sod-based rotations in Cecil sandy loam. Journal of Nematology, 1(4):309-312.

Brodie BB; Good JM; Jaworski CA, 1970. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: Effect of summer cover crops in newly cleared land. Journal of Nematology, 2(3):217-222.

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

Brown ODR, 1972. The influence of the plant parasitic nematode Helicotylenchus dihystera (Cobb) on the growth and nitrogen fixation in the Southern Pea Vigna sinensis (L.) Endl. Dissertation Abstracts International, 32B(10):5563

CABI/EPPO, 2010. Helicotylenchus dihystera. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1077 (Edition 1).

Cadet P, 1986. Variations in populations of ectoparasitic nematodes in the rhizosphere of sugarcane in Burkina Faso. Revue d'Ecologie et de Biologie du Sol, 23(2):205-213.

Cadet P, 1990. Effect of some nematicides on the yields and on the multiplication of nematode parasites of tomatoes in Martinique. Bulletin Agronomique des Antilles et de la Guyane, No. 10:42-48; 9 ref.

Cadet P; Floret C, 1995. An initial study of fallow periods on the nematode community in the Soudanese-Sahelian zone of Senegal. Acta Oecologica, 16(1):77-88; 30 ref.

Campelo AMFL; Galli F, 1980. Pathogenicity of Helicotylenchus dihystera in Theobroma cacao. Revista Theobroma, 10(1):5-14

CAVENESS FE, 1967. Shadehouse host ranges of some Nigerian nematodes. Plant Disease Reporter, 51(1):33-37.

Chen Guardia AM, 1972. Pathogenicity trials of Meloidogyne incognita acrita and Helicotylenchus dihystera on tomato varieties Roma and Villano. Bibliotecologia y Documentacion, IICA/CIDIA (Indice Latinoamericano de Tesis Agricolas), No. 20:Abs. No. 253

Chinappen M; Lamberti F; Ciancio A; Jokhun P, 1988. Losses caused by concomitant infestations of Criconemella onoensis and Helicotylenchus dihystera on upland rice in Mauritius. Nematologia Mediterranea, 16(2):175-177; 2 ref.

Choudhury BN; Phukan PN, 1990. Distribution and occurrence of certain plant parasitic nematodes in different cultivars of banana. Current Nematology, 1(2):153-156; 18 ref.

Churchill RC Jr; Ruehle JL, 1971. Occurrence, parasitism, and pathogenicity of nematodes associated with sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.). Journal of Nematology, 3:189-196.

Clark JR; Robbins RT, 1994. Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with three types of blueberries in Arkansas. Journal of Nematology, 26(4 Supp.):761-766; 12 ref.

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