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Datasheet

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis
(black tea thrips)

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Datasheet

Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (black tea thrips)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black tea thrips
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Body dark brown with apex of abdomen paler, legs entirely white or yellow.
TitleAdult female
CaptionBody dark brown with apex of abdomen paler, legs entirely white or yellow.
CopyrightYu Yan-Fen
Body dark brown with apex of abdomen paler, legs entirely white or yellow.
Adult femaleBody dark brown with apex of abdomen paler, legs entirely white or yellow.Yu Yan-Fen
Body 1.4-1.7 mm long in the female, 1.1-1.2 mm in the male.
TitleAdult female - line drawing
CaptionBody 1.4-1.7 mm long in the female, 1.1-1.2 mm in the male.
CopyrightKudo Iwao
Body 1.4-1.7 mm long in the female, 1.1-1.2 mm in the male.
Adult female - line drawingBody 1.4-1.7 mm long in the female, 1.1-1.2 mm in the male. Kudo Iwao
Full grown second-instar larva ca 1.1 mm long.
TitleSecond instar larva
CaptionFull grown second-instar larva ca 1.1 mm long.
CopyrightKudo Iwao
Full grown second-instar larva ca 1.1 mm long.
Second instar larvaFull grown second-instar larva ca 1.1 mm long.Kudo Iwao
H. haemorrhoidalis - damage symptoms on leaf.
TitleSymptoms on leaf
CaptionH. haemorrhoidalis - damage symptoms on leaf.
CopyrightTrevor Lewis
H. haemorrhoidalis - damage symptoms on leaf.
Symptoms on leafH. haemorrhoidalis - damage symptoms on leaf.Trevor Lewis

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Bouché

Preferred Common Name

  • black tea thrips

Other Scientific Names

  • Dinurothrips rufiventris Girault
  • Heliothrips adonium Haliday
  • Heliothrips ceylonicus
  • Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis var. abdominalis Reuter
  • Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis var. andustior Priesner
  • Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis var. ceylonicus Schmutz
  • Heliothrips semiaureus Girault
  • Heterothrips haemorrhoidalis
  • Thrips haemorrhoidalis Bouché

International Common Names

  • English: black glasshouse thrips; greenhouse thrips
  • Spanish: piojillo de los invernaderos; piojillo negro de los jardines; piojito del aguacate; trípido negro; trips de los citricos (Mexico); trips de los invernaderos (Mexico); trips del aguacate (Mexico); trips o cuerudo del palto
  • French: thrips des serres; thrips noir de l'avocatier

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: sort væksthusthrips
  • Finland: ansariripsiäinen
  • Germany: Rotschwaenziger Blasenfuss; Schwarze Fliege; Schwarzer Gewaechshaus-Blasenfuss
  • Italy: Eliotripide emorroidale; Tripide delle lantane; Tripide delle serre
  • Netherlands: gewone trips; Kastrips
  • Norway: svarttrips
  • Sweden: svart växthustrips

EPPO code

  • HELTHA (Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Thysanoptera
  •                         Family: Thripidae
  •                             Genus: Heliothrips
  •                                 Species: Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page H. haemorrhoidalis was first described by Bouché from Berlin, Germany in 1833. Although it has some synonyms, its taxonomic situation has now been clarified by Wilson (1975) and Mound (1976).

Description

Top of page Larvae

Full grown second-instar larvae are about 1.1 mm long. The body is yellow, with ninth and tenth abdominal segments brown. The antennae, except the first segment, are pale grey; the terminal segment is long, slender and needle-like. The pterothorax and abdomen have many thin and longitudinal plaques. Dorsal body setae are small; three pairs of anal setae are short, about as long as the tenth abdominal segment.

Adults

Wilson (1975), Mound (1976), Mound and Walker (1982), Kudô (1992) and Reyes (1994) provide illustrated descriptions of the adults of H. haemorrhoidalis.

The body is dark brown with the apex of the abdomen paler, being 1.4-1.7 mm long in the female and 1.1-1.2 mm in the male. The legs are entirely white or yellow. Teneral individuals have the abdomen orange. The body and legs are strongly polygonally reticulate. The head is clearly constricted and neck-like. The antennae are 8-segmented; the second to fifth, seventh and eighth segments are yellow; the third and fourth segments have a simple sense cone; the eighth is long, slender, and needle-like. The tarsi are 1-segmented. The forewings are white with a longitudinal brown line medially, parallel-sided but swollen basally and rounded apically, and have minute setae on veins. Abdominal terga are weakly reticulate medially, and the sternal marginal setae are minute. The male has three pairs of thorn-like setae on ninth abdominal tergum; the anterior pair of setae are stoutest. Male third to seventh abdominal sterna each have a transverse oblong glandular area.

Distribution

Top of page H. haemorrhoidalis is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics; it also occurs in greenhouses of temperate areas as it was first described from specimens collected in a greenhouse in Berlin. H. haemorrhoidalis is presumed to have originated in tropical America, probably Brazil. It has been introduced to various parts of the world by man and has become naturalized in those areas.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentCIE, 1961
CambodiaPresentWaterhouse, 1993
ChinaPresentCIE, 1961; Zhang and Tong, 1993
-FujianPresentZhang and Tong, 1993
-GuangdongPresentZhang and Tong, 1993
-GuizhouPresentZhang and Tong, 1993
-HainanPresentZhang and Tong, 1993
-Hong KongPresentKudô, 1980
-SichuanPresentZhang and Tong, 1993
-YunnanPresentZhang and Tong, 1993
Georgia (Republic of)PresentCIE, 1961
IndiaPresentCIE, 1961; Bhatti, 1990
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentBhatti, 1990
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresentBhatti, 1990
-KeralaPresentCIE, 1961; Bhatti, 1990
-MaharashtraPresent
-Tamil NaduPresentBhatti, 1990
IndonesiaPresentzur Strassen, 1994; CIE, 1961; Waterhouse, 1993
-JavaPresentzur Strassen, 1994; CIE, 1961
-KalimantanPresentzur Strassen, 1994
-SumatraPresentzur Strassen, 1994; CIE, 1961
IsraelPresentCIE, 1961; Halperin, 1990
JapanPresentCIE, 1961; Kudô, 1992
-HonshuPresentCIE, 1961; Kudô, 1992
-KyushuPresentCIE, 1961; Kudô, 1992
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoWidespreadCIE, 1961
-ShikokuPresentKudô, 1992
Korea, Republic ofPresentAPPPC, 1987
MalaysiaWidespreadKudô, 1995
-Peninsular MalaysiaWidespreadCIE, 1961; Kudô, 1995
-SarawakPresentKudô, 1995
MyanmarPresentKudô, 1995
NepalPresentKudô, 1995
PhilippinesWidespreadReyes, 1994; Kudô, 1995
Sri LankaWidespreadCIE, 1961
TaiwanWidespreadCIE, 1961; Kudô, 1980; Chen, 1981
ThailandPresentKudô, 1980; Waterhouse, 1993
TurkeyWidespreadCIE, 1961; Zumreoglu, 1986; Ülgentürk et al., 2011
VietnamPresentWaterhouse, 1993

Africa

Cape VerdePresentzur Strassen, 1980
CongoPresentCIE, 1961
EgyptPresentCIE, 1961
GhanaPresentCIE, 1961
KenyaPresentLayock & Templer, 1973; CIE, 1961
MalawiPresentCIE, 1961
MauritiusPresentCIE, 1961
MoroccoPresentCIE, 1961
Saint HelenaPresentCIE, 1961
SeychellesPresentBhatti, 1990
Sierra LeonePresentCIE, 1961; Pitkin and Mound, 1973
South AfricaWidespreadCIE, 1961; Dennill, 1992
Spain
-Canary IslandsWidespreadzur Strassen, 1983
TanzaniaPresentCIE, 1961
UgandaPresentCIE, 1961
ZimbabwePresentCIE, 1961

North America

BermudaPresentCIE, 1961
CanadaPresentCIE, 1961; Chiasson, 1986
-AlbertaPresentSteiner and Elliott, 1983
-British ColumbiaPresentCIE, 1961; Steiner and Elliott, 1983
MexicoPresentCIE, 1961; Johansen, 1976
USAPresentCIE, 1961
-AlabamaPresentCIE, 1961
-CaliforniaPresentCIE, 1961; Hessein and McMurtry, 1988
-ConnecticutPresentCIE, 1961
-DelawarePresentCIE, 1961
-FloridaPresentCIE, 1961; Denmark, 1985
-GeorgiaPresentCIE, 1961; Beshear, 1983
-HawaiiPresentCIE, 1961
-IllinoisPresentCIE, 1961; Stannard, 1968
-IndianaPresentCIE, 1961
-IowaPresentCIE, 1961
-KansasPresentCIE, 1961
-LouisianaPresentCIE, 1961
-MarylandPresentCIE, 1961
-MassachusettsPresentCIE, 1961
-MichiganPresentCIE, 1961
-MississippiPresentCIE, 1961
-MissouriPresentCIE, 1961
-NebraskaPresentCIE, 1961
-New HampshirePresentCIE, 1961
-New JerseyPresentCIE, 1961
-New YorkPresentCIE, 1961
-North DakotaPresentHuntsinger et al., 1982
-OhioPresentCIE, 1961
-OregonPresentCIE, 1961
-PennsylvaniaPresentCIE, 1961
-Rhode IslandPresentCIE, 1961
-South CarolinaPresentCIE, 1961
-South DakotaPresentCIE, 1961
-TexasPresentCIE, 1961
-WashingtonPresentCIE, 1961
-West VirginiaPresentCIE, 1961

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentCIE, 1961; Bennett and Baranowski, 1982
BarbadosPresentCIE, 1961
CubaPresentCIE, 1961
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresentCIE, 1961
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
HondurasPresentCIE, 1961
JamaicaPresentCIE, 1961; Sakimura, 1986
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresentCIE, 1961
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentCIE, 1961
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCIE, 1961

South America

ArgentinaPresentCIE, 1961
BoliviaPresentCIE, 1961
BrazilPresentCIE, 1961
-BahiaPresentCIE, 1961
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCIE, 1961
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCIE, 1961
-Sao PauloPresentCIE, 1961
ChilePresentCIE, 1961; Gonzalez, 1986; Prado, 1988
ColombiaPresentEscobar et al., 1985
EcuadorPresentCIE, 1961
PeruPresentCIE, 1961
SurinamePresentCIE, 1961
UruguayPresentCIE, 1961
VenezuelaPresentCIE, 1961

Europe

AustriaPresentCIE, 1961
BelgiumPresentCIE, 1961
BulgariaPresentBatalova, 1975
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentCIE, 1961; Pelikán, 1977
DenmarkPresentCIE, 1961
FinlandPresentCIE, 1961
FrancePresentCIE, 1961; Bournier, 1983; Brun, 1992
GermanyPresentSchliephake, 1984; CIE, 1961
GreecePresentCIE, 1961
HungaryPresentCIE, 1961; Gábor, 1982
ItalyPresentCIE, 1961; Ragusa and Russo, 1989
-SicilyPresentSinacori et al., 2001
NetherlandsPresentCIE, 1961
NorwayPresentCIE, 1961
PolandPresentCIE, 1961; Seczkowska, 1974
PortugalPresentCIE, 1961
-AzoresWidespreadzur Strassen, 1973
RomaniaPresentCIE, 1961
Russian FederationPresentCIE, 1961
SpainPresentCIE, 1961; Melia, 1976; Mansilla and Puerto, 1984
SwedenPresentCIE, 1961
SwitzerlandPresentCIE, 1961
UKPresentCIE, 1961; Mound et al., 1976
-Channel IslandsPresentCIE, 1961

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCIE, 1961; Mound and Houston, 1987
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentCIE, 1961
-New South WalesPresentCIE, 1961; Mound and Houston, 1987
-QueenslandWidespreadCIE, 1961; Mound and Houston, 1987
-South AustraliaPresentCIE, 1961; Mound and Houston, 1987
-TasmaniaPresentCIE, 1961; Anon., 1971
-VictoriaPresentCIE, 1961; Mound and Houston, 1987
-Western AustraliaPresentCIE, 1961; Mound and Houston, 1987
Cook IslandsPresentMound and Walker, 1987
FijiPresentCIE, 1961; Mound and Walker, 1987
KiribatiPresentMound and Walker, 1987
New ZealandPresentCIE, 1961; APPPC, 1987; Mound and Walker, 1987
Papua New GuineaPresentCIE, 1961
TongaPresentCIE, 1961; APPPC, 1987; Mound and Walker, 1987
VanuatuPresentMound and Walker, 1987

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page H. haemorrhoidalis is highly polyphagous, and has been recorded with certainty from more than 100 plant species, including some ferns (Daniel and Chandrasekar, 1986) and conifers (Ananthakrishnan, 1971; Zondag, 1977; Cerda, 1980). Seriously damaged cultivated crops include avocado, kiwifruit, persimmon, citrus, tea, croton, pine and cyclamen.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Acalypha (Copperleaf)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Acer platanoides (Norway maple)AceraceaeMain
Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore)AceraceaeMain
Actinidia chinensis (Chinese gooseberry)ActinidiaceaeMain
Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)ActinidiaceaeOther
AnnonaAnnonaceaeMain
BegoniaBegoniaceaeMain
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain
Carya illinoinensis (pecan)JuglandaceaeMain
CinchonaRubiaceaeMain
CinnamomumLauraceaeMain
CitrusRutaceaeMain
Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeMain
Codiaeum variegatum (croton)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar)TaxodiaceaeMain
CymbidiumOrchidaceaeMain
Diospyros (malabar ebony)EbenaceaeMain
Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeMain
DracaenaAgavaceaeMain
Erica (heaths)EricaceaeMain
FicusMoraceaeWild host
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
Ilex (Holly)AquifoliaceaeMain
Juniperus chinensis (Chinese juniper)CupressaceaeMain
Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)LythraceaeMain
Ludwigia (waterprimrose)OnagraceaeMain
MacadamiaProteaceaeMain
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeMain
Passiflora quadrangularis (giant granadilla)PassifloraceaeMain
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeMain
Pinus (pines)PinaceaeMain
Platanus (planes)PlatanaceaeMain
Polypodium (Plantae)Wild host
Primula (Primrose)PrimulaceaeMain
Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeMain
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeMain
SapiumEuphorbiaceaeMain
Schinus (pepper tree)AnacardiaceaeMain
Syzygium jambos (rose apple)MyrtaceaeMain
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)CombretaceaeMain
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)MalvaceaeMain
ViburnumCaprifoliaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Symptoms of attack by H. haemorrhoidalis result from feeding by adults and/or larvae on the leaves and pods; the feeding punctures cause the development of chlorotic spots. Severely infested leaves become papery and wilted, and soon die. If the infestation is serious, defoliation results. Brown patches occur on the surfaces of fruits and, if injured during growing, cracks often appear.

Small brown patches of excretory droplets, typical of thrips infestation, are also an obvious means of identifying infestation.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / necrotic areas

Biology and Ecology

Top of page There have only been a few brief accounts of the biology and ecology of H. haemorrhoidalis in recent years, although some detailed studies were carried out in earlier years (Russell, 1909; Rivnay, 1934, 1935a, b).

Males of H. haemorrhoidalis are rare, chiefly known from Brazil, and reproduction is parthenogenetic and thelyotokus. The female takes 4-6 days to start oviposition after emergence and produces up to 47 eggs on average at 21-28°C during her lifetime of about 1 month. The eggs are laid singly in the epidermis of the under surface of the leaf and each egg is covered with an excretory droplet. The larvae emerge in about 14-15 days at an optimal temperature of 26-28°C, and 16-22 days at 21-25°C. They carry a large excretory droplet between the anal setae at the end of the abdomen, which is raised and lowered at intervals to deposit the droplet. The first and second instars occupy 9-11 days at 26-28°C, and 10-16 days at 21-25°C, followed by the prepupal and pupal stages which lasting for 3-4 days at 26-28°C and 4-6 days at 21-25°C. The adult lives for up to 35 days at 25-27°C. The complete life cycle of H. haemorrhoidalis occurs on the leaves of the host. This thrip may produce about seven generations under temperate weather conditions and more than 12 under tropical conditions.

Both adults and larvae feed mostly on leaves and fruits in concentrated colonies; the youngest or oldest leaves are rarely preferred. The colonies gather mainly on the under surfaces of the leaves; they do not live on the tops of the leaves and fruits until the tissue becomes unsuitable for feeding and oviposition.

The biology of H. haemorrhoidalis on the fern Polypodium phegopteris was studied in India (Daniel and Chandrasekar, 1986). The thrip was mostly restricted to mature fronds of the fern and mating was evident, in contrast to parthenogenetic reproduction on coffee leaves. The male:female ratio was 3:25, and the life cycle ranged from 20-30 days. This thrips-fern association was observed only at altitudes above 1900 m. The mature fronds preferred by H. haemorrhoidalis had 1.5 times the lipid content of young fronds. There was little variation in other chemical compounds between the young and mature fronds. A higher concentration of protein and nitrogen in P. phegopteris, compared with other fern hosts, appeared to attract and enhance the survival and growth of H. haemorrhoidalis.

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aeolothrips intermedius Predator
Cardiastethus consors Predator Adults/Larvae
Cardiastethus poweri Predator Adults/Larvae
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Larvae
Franklinothrips megalops Predator Larvae
Franklinothrips tenuicornis Predator Larvae
Franklinothrips vespiformis Predator Larvae
Goetheana shakespearei Parasite Eggs
Megaphragma mymaripenne Parasite Eggs
Orius thripoborus Predator Adults/Larvae
Thripobius semiluteus Parasite Larvae USA; California; Italy avocados

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page There have been some studies on natural enemies of H. haemorrhoidalis. A parasitic Hymenopteran, Thripobius semiluteus, was reported as an important natural enemy which could be used in biocontrol agents. This species, which was introduced from Australia to the USA (California), is useful in reducing the thrips population in avocado orchards in California (McMurtry et al., 1991), and has been investigated as a possible biocontrol agent in avocado and citrus orchards in Brazil (LaSalle and McMurtry, 1989). Megaphragma mymaripenne also attacks 3-51% of H. haemorrhoidalis in avocado orchards in California, but the effect of this parasite is not clear (Hessein and McMurtry, 1988). The predacious Orius thripoborus may be useful on avocado in South Africa (Dennill, 1992).

Impact

Top of page Crop losses, caused by H. haemorrhoidalis, are difficult to assess and there have been few critical studies despite the importance of this pest on many crops.

H. haemorrhoidalis was found to be one of five important pests on avocado fruits in South Africa (the others were Pseudotheraptus wayi, Selenothrips rubrocinctus, Pterandrus rosa [Ceratitis rosa] and Nezara viridula) in a packhouse survey. H. haemorrhoidalis together with S. rubrocinctus caused 2.1% (potentially up to 80%) cull of the fruits by lesions and crack (Dennill and Erasmus, 1992a). H. haemorrhoidalis caused considerable mortality in up to 3-year-old Pinus radiata on warm sites, both in the nursery and in the forest in New Zealand (Zondag, 1977).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Both adult and immature stages are detected by examining the under surfaces of leaves and the surfaces of the pods and fruits. Chlorotic spots, brown patches and necrotic lesions are apparent. Microscope preparations should be made for identification; it is necessary to examine thrips under a compound microscope.

Prevention and Control

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Field Monitoring

Dennill and Erasmus (1992b) described a simple monitoring technique for H. haemorrhoidalis and Selenothrips rubrocinctus in avocado orchards in South Africa. At low population levels, both thrips showed a distinct preference (93%) to feed between clustered fruits, which resulted in damage to 22-33% of the clustered fruits, whereas only 1-3% of single fruits were damaged. The percentages of clustered and single fruits in the orchard were 17.5 and 82.5%, respectively, and it was calculated that 6% of the fruits would be unsuitable for export. Fruits may be used as 'traps', as this obviates the use of conventional sticky yellow traps and gives an immediate and more direct assessment of crop loss.

Biological Control

The absence of H. haemorrhoidalis on single and clustered avocado fruits in South Africa during 1990 was attributed to the predacious Orius thripoborus; this anthocorid may potentially be useful as a biological control agent of the thrips in other countries (Dennill, 1992). The parasite Thripobius semiluteus has successfully controlled H. haemorrhoidalis in avocado orchards in southern California; the decrease in the thrips population coincided with an increase in parasitization by the eulophid (McMurtry et al., 1991).

Chemical Control

Effective control of H. haemorrhoidalis on avocado in the Canary Islands was obtained with malathion spray treatment in summer, and with sprays of fenitrothion or dimethoate in summer and autumn (Tello-Marquina, 1975). Murusidze and Khintibidze (1977) reported that pirimiphos-methyl or phosalone gave good control of populations on Laurus nobilis. No phytotoxic effects were observed and both insecticides were recommended for use at all growing stages of the crop. In Australia, a single application of malathion to Valencia orange trees controlled H. haemorrhoidalis for several weeks and the percentage of downgraded fruits was reduced from 39 to 11-20% (Gellatley, 1976).

Integrated Pest Management

IPM programmes combining biological and chemical control methods against H. haemorrhoidalis are being devised and implemented, especially in avocado orchards in California (Goodall et al., 1987) and in citrus orchards in Turkey (Zumreoglu, 1986).

References

Top of page

Ananthakrishnan TN, 1971. Thrips (Thysanoptera) in agriculture, horticulture and forestry-diagnosis, bionomics and control. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, India, 30(3):113-46.

Anon., 1971. Greenhouse thrips. Tasmanian Journal of Agriculture, 42:169.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Batalova L, 1975. Control of thrips on ornamental plants. Rastitelna Zashchita, 23(8):25-26

Bennett FD; Baranowski RM, 1982. First record of the thrips parasite Goetheana parvipennis (Gahan) (Eulophidae: Hymenoptera) from the Bahamas. Florida Entomologist, 65(1):185

Beshear RJ, 1983. New records of thrips in Georgia (Thysanoptera: Terebrantia: Tubulifera). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 18(3):342-344

Bhatti BS, 1990. Catalogue of insects of the order Terebrantia from the Indian Subregion. Zoology, Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology, 2(4):205-352

Bournier A, 1983. The thrips. Biology. Agricultural importance. Les thrips. Biologie. Importance agronomique. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Paris France, 128 pp.

Brun P, 1992. Kiwifruit special. Animal pests and control techniques. Arboriculture Frueitiere, 456:28-30, 64.

Cerda LA, 1980. Thysanoptera in Pinus radiata in Chile. Turrialba, 30(1):113-114

Chen LS, 1981. Studies on the Panchptothripinp (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Taiwan. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 23(2):117-130

Chiasson H, 1986. A synopsis of the Thysanoptera (Thrips) of Canada. McGill University Macdonald College Lyman Entomological Museum and Research Laboratory, Memoir, 17:i-vi, 1-153.

CIA, 1961. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 135. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

CIE, 1961. Distribution Maps of Pests. Map No. 135. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Daniel AM; Chandrasekar SS, 1986. Insect-fern interactions with particular reference to Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouche) (Thysanoptera: Panchptothripinp). Current Science, India, 55(14):676-678

Denmark HA, 1985. The greenhouse thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Bouche in Florida (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Entomology Circular, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, No. 64:2 pp.

Dennill GB, 1992. Orius thripoborus (Anthocoridae), a potential biocontrol agent of Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis and Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Thripidae) on avocado fruits in the eastern Transvaal. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 55(2):255-258

Dennill GB; Erasmus MJ, 1992. Basis for a practical technique for monitoring thrips in avocado orchards. Crop Protection, 11(1):89-91

Dennill GB; Erasmus MJ, 1992. The insect pests of avocado fruits - increasing pest complex and changing pest status. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 55(1):51-57

Escobar PE; Lemos CGA; Figueroa PA, 1985. A practical guide to the identification and management of the pests of ornamental plants. Acta Agronomica, 35(4):91-96.

Gábor J, 1982. Tripszek-Thysanoptera. Fauna Hangariae 152. Budapest, Hungary: Akademiai Klado.

Gellatley JG, 1976. Controlling black thrips blemish on Valencias. Rural Newsletter, 59:13.

González RH, 1986. Pests of kiwi fruit in Chile. Revista Frutícola, 7(1):13-27; [31 col. fig.].

Goodall GE; Bailey JB; Phillips PA; Bekey RS, 1987. Integrated pest management considerations for greenhouse thrips control in coastal avocado orchards. Yearbook, South African Avocado Growers' Association, 10:80-82

Halperin J, 1990. Arthropod fauna and main insect pests of plane trees in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 18(4):309-319

Hessein NA; McMurtry JA, 1988. Observations on Megaphragma mymaripenne Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasite of Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Bouche (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 64(3):250-254

Huntsinger DM; Post RL; Balsbaugh EU Jr, 1982. North Dakota Terebrantia (Thysanoptera). North Dakota Insects Scafer-Post Series, 14:i-viii, 1-102.

Johansen RM, 1976. Some aspects of mimetic behaviour in Franklinothrips vespiformis (Crawford), (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Anales del Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Serie Zoologia, 47(1):25-50

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