Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- Biology and Ecology
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Helianthus ciliaris DC.
Preferred Common Name
- Texas blueweed
International Common Names
- Spanish: yerba parda
- Russian: Podsolnechnik resnichatyi
Local Common Names
- USA: blueweed
- HELCI (Helianthus ciliaris)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Asterales
- Family: Asteraceae
- Genus: Helianthus
- Species: Helianthus ciliaris
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|United States||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Australia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-New South Wales||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The basic chromosome number in this group is x=17. The H. ciliaris complex is made up of diploids, tetraploids and hexaploids (Jackson and Hauber, 1994), the most typical number being tetraploid (n=34). Both alloploidy and autoploidy occur. Hexaploids contain a 'B genome' which may be derived from the diploid H. laciniatus, whose range overlaps that of the tetraploid cytotype. This B genome may confer the drought tolerance necessary for the success of H. ciliaris as a weed in more arid areas. It seems conceivable that polyploidy may be associated with more invasive clones, spreading by vegetative reproduction but having poor seed set and germination, but this remains to be demonstrated.
Seeds germinate slowly and poorly; only 3% were observed to germinate over a period of 30 days (Cooley and Smith, 1973a). No particular information appears to be available on the longevity of seeds. Reproduction is mainly vegetative. The underground rhizomes form new shoot buds at intervals, which later develop into new above-ground shoots. Colonies enlarge in this way over a period of years. Small fragments of rhizome are able to survive in the soil and give rise to new plants; 10 planted rhizome sections gave rise to over 2000 plants in 19 months (Cooley and Smith, 1973b). Cutting or mowing the plants stimulates the development of new shoots from the rhizomes.
As a wild plant, H. ciliaris is adapted to the conditions of western Texas, USA. As an agricultural weed, its distribution remains clearly centred on the same location.
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||roots|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||seeds|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page
Social ImpactTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has high reproductive potential
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.H. ciliaris is a deep-rooted rhizomatous perennial weed, difficult to control by cultural or mechanical methods. Due to the ease with which small rhizome fragments can give rise to new plants, mechanical control methods may make the problem worse. Various herbicides applied to stands of H. ciliaris give effective control, e.g. glyphosate (Salinas, 1981), especially with a wetting agent (Chykaliuk et al., 1980), dicamba (Keeling and Abernathy, 1988) and imizapyr.
Because H. ciliaris has a restricted distribution in North America, its exclusion is an important concern. H. ciliaris is rated as a restricted noxious weed in Arizona, and features on an 'A list' of noxious weeds in California, Oregon and Washington. Spread by vegetative reproduction is localized and slow, so control by surveillance and eradication can be envisaged. The weed appears to be contained at the present time.
No biological control agents have been proposed for H. ciliaris.
ReferencesTop of page
Chykaliuk PB; Abernathy JR; Gipson JR, 1980. Effect of additives on herbicide uptake and control of Texas blueweed, woolyleaf bursage and silverleaf nightshade. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society., 236
Coggon D, 1999. Written findings of the State Noxious Weed Control Board - Texas blueweed (Helianthus ciliaris DC).
Cooley AW; Smith DT, 1973. Seed germination of woolly leaf bursage, Texas blueweed and groundcherry. Consolidated Progress Report, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Nos.PR 3197-3209: Weed and herbicide research in W:3-6
Lazarides M; Cowley K; Hohnen P, 1997. CSIRO Handbook of Australian Weeds. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO.
Moskalenko GP, 2001. Quarantine Weeds for Russia. Moscow, Russia: Plant Quarantine Inspectorate.
Rogers CE; Gershenzon J; Ohno N; Mabry TJ; Stipanovic RD; Kreitner GL, 1987. Terpenes of wild sunflowers (Helianthus): an effective mechanism against seed predation by larvae of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Environmental Entomology, 16(3):586-592
Salinas GF, 1981. Control of Helianthus ciliaris with glyphosate in walnuts and vines in northern Mexico. Memorias II Congresso nacional de la ciencia de la maleza. Sociedad Mexicana de la Sciencia de la Maleza, Chapingo.
USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov.
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Salinas GF, 1981. Control of Helianthus ciliaris with glyphosate in walnuts and vines in northern Mexico. In: Memorias II Congresso nacional de la ciencia de la maleza, Chapingo, Sociedad Mexicana de la Sciencia de la Maleza.
USDA-ARS, 2003. Hedychium flavescens. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov
Distribution MapsTop of page
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CABI Summary Records
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