Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Helianthus ciliaris
(Texas blueweed)

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Datasheet

Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Helianthus ciliaris
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Texas blueweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • H. ciliaris is a robust, deep-rooted rhizomatous perennial plant, which has shown its persistence and invasiveness in its native range as a crop weed. Although herbicides can be used effectively against it, control is still troublesome, as for any pe...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flowers and foliage. Crosbyton, Texas, USA. July 2020.
TitleFlowers and foliage
CaptionHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flowers and foliage. Crosbyton, Texas, USA. July 2020.
Copyright©jrcagle/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flowers and foliage. Crosbyton, Texas, USA. July 2020.
Flowers and foliageHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flowers and foliage. Crosbyton, Texas, USA. July 2020.©jrcagle/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. Gray County, Texas, USA. June 2021.
TitleFlower
CaptionHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. Gray County, Texas, USA. June 2021.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Craig Martin/via iNaturalist - CC0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. Gray County, Texas, USA. June 2021.
FlowerHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. Gray County, Texas, USA. June 2021.Public Domain - Released by Craig Martin/via iNaturalist - CC0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. San Jose Park, Grants, New Mexico, USA. June 2019.
TitleFlower
CaptionHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. San Jose Park, Grants, New Mexico, USA. June 2019.
Copyright©CK Kelly (ck2az)/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. San Jose Park, Grants, New Mexico, USA. June 2019.
FlowerHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. San Jose Park, Grants, New Mexico, USA. June 2019.©CK Kelly (ck2az)/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. San Miguel County, New Mexico, USA. September 2017.
TitleFlower
CaptionHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. San Miguel County, New Mexico, USA. September 2017.
Copyright©Sam Kieschnick (sambiology)/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. San Miguel County, New Mexico, USA. September 2017.
FlowerHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. San Miguel County, New Mexico, USA. September 2017.©Sam Kieschnick (sambiology)/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower underside. San Miguel County, New Mexico, USA. September 2017.
TitleFlower
CaptionHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower underside. San Miguel County, New Mexico, USA. September 2017.
Copyright©Sam Kieschnick (sambiology)/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower underside. San Miguel County, New Mexico, USA. September 2017.
FlowerHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower underside. San Miguel County, New Mexico, USA. September 2017.©Sam Kieschnick (sambiology)/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower and foliage. Bailey County, Texas, USA. June 2016.
TitleFlower and foliage
CaptionHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower and foliage. Bailey County, Texas, USA. June 2016.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Jennifer Siegmann (jsiegma)/via iNaturalist - CC0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower and foliage. Bailey County, Texas, USA. June 2016.
Flower and foliageHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower and foliage. Bailey County, Texas, USA. June 2016.Public Domain - Released by Jennifer Siegmann (jsiegma)/via iNaturalist - CC0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flowering habit. Catron County, New Mexico, USA. September 2018.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flowering habit. Catron County, New Mexico, USA. September 2018.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Patrick Alexander (aspidoscelis)/via iNaturalist - CC0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flowering habit. Catron County, New Mexico, USA. September 2018.
Flowering habitHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flowering habit. Catron County, New Mexico, USA. September 2018.Public Domain - Released by Patrick Alexander (aspidoscelis)/via iNaturalist - CC0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. Catron County, New Mexico, USA. September 2018.
TitleFlower
CaptionHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. Catron County, New Mexico, USA. September 2018.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Patrick Alexander (aspidoscelis)/via iNaturalist - CC0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. Catron County, New Mexico, USA. September 2018.
FlowerHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. Catron County, New Mexico, USA. September 2018.Public Domain - Released by Patrick Alexander (aspidoscelis)/via iNaturalist - CC0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. San Jose Park, Grants, New Mexico, USA. June 2019.
TitleFlower
CaptionHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. San Jose Park, Grants, New Mexico, USA. June 2019.
Copyright©CK Kelly (ck2az)/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. San Jose Park, Grants, New Mexico, USA. June 2019.
FlowerHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Flower. San Jose Park, Grants, New Mexico, USA. June 2019.©CK Kelly (ck2az)/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Foliage. Catron County, New Mexico, USA. September 2018.
TitleFoliage
CaptionHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Foliage. Catron County, New Mexico, USA. September 2018.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Patrick Alexander (aspidoscelis)/via iNaturalist - CC0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Foliage. Catron County, New Mexico, USA. September 2018.
FoliageHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Foliage. Catron County, New Mexico, USA. September 2018.Public Domain - Released by Patrick Alexander (aspidoscelis)/via iNaturalist - CC0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Gynoecia producing achenes. Doña Ana County, New Mexico, USA. November 2013.
TitleReproductive parts of flower
CaptionHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Gynoecia producing achenes. Doña Ana County, New Mexico, USA. November 2013.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Patrick Alexander (aspidoscelis)/via Flickr - CC0
Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Gynoecia producing achenes. Doña Ana County, New Mexico, USA. November 2013.
Reproductive parts of flowerHelianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Gynoecia producing achenes. Doña Ana County, New Mexico, USA. November 2013.Public Domain - Released by Patrick Alexander (aspidoscelis)/via Flickr - CC0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Helianthus ciliaris DC.

Preferred Common Name

  • Texas blueweed

International Common Names

  • Spanish: yerba parda
  • Russian: Podsolnechnik resnichatyi

Local Common Names

  • USA: blueweed

EPPO code

  • HELCI (Helianthus ciliaris)

Summary of Invasiveness

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H. ciliaris is a robust, deep-rooted rhizomatous perennial plant, which has shown its persistence and invasiveness in its native range as a crop weed. Although herbicides can be used effectively against it, control is still troublesome, as for any persistent rhizomatous perennial. H. ciliaris has spread accidentally to other areas in USA where it also behaves as a noxious weed, but the long-distance invasion pressure does not seem very high. H. ciliaris is certainly to be seen as a plant with a high potential to become an invasive weed in many countries around the world, if it should be accidentally introduced.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Helianthus
  •                                 Species: Helianthus ciliaris

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Helianthus laciniatus Gray is given by some sources as a synonym, but US sources clearly indicate that this is a separate species (alkali sunflower) confined to Texas and New Mexico. Helianthus arizonensis R.C. Jackson (Arizona sunflower) is a similar but rarer plant, confined to Arizona.

Description

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H. ciliaris is a rhizomatous, herbaceous perennial, 30-70 cm tall and its roots can reach as deep as 2 m into the soil. The stems and foliage are downy and bluish green, giving the name 'blueweed'. H. ciliaris has narrow linear or lanceolate sessile leaves, mostly opposite, 3-10 cm long, with a wavy ciliate margin. The flower heads, 2-4 cm across, have yellow ray florets and reddish disk florets; they are borne singly (or few) on numerous long axillary shoots. Plants appear as large clumps, covered with yellow flower heads, because of the numerous shoots formed from the underground rhizomes. The fruits are greyish-brown achenes, four-angled, about 3 mm long, without pappus, resembling a small sunflower seed.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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H. ciliaris is native to Texas, USA and has probably extended its range in the USA as far as California, Idaho, Nebraska and Illinois. It remains very localized in some states where it has been recorded in the northern extremes of its range (Idaho and Illinois). Other US states remain free from this weed, as does Canada. Elsewhere, H. ciliaris also occurs in northern Mexico, where it is presumably native. The native range of H. ciliaris is given as Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico and Utah in the USA, and Chihuahas, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi and Tamaulipas in Mexico by USDA-ARS (2003), indicating that the exact centre of origin remains uncertain. The distribution table reflects the more restricted concept of an original native range of Texas and Mexico.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

North America

MexicoPresent, LocalizedNativeInvasive
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced
-IdahoPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-IllinoisPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-KansasPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-NebraskaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-NevadaPresent, LocalizedIntroduced
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced
-TexasPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-UtahPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive
-QueenslandPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive

History of Introduction and Spread

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H. ciliaris has extended its range in the USA, and may be expected to spread further; it threatens in particular Oregon and Washington. There is no indication that this weed is spreading in Mexico or in Central America. H. ciliaris has been recorded as an alien weed in New South Wales and Queensland, Australia (Lazarides et al. 1997) but only in botanical publications. The date of introduction is not known and it does not appear to be spreading invasively in Australia. There are apparently no records in other continents, even as a casual. For example, it does not appear in lists of alien plants recorded in Austria or in the UK. According to Moskalenko (2001), it has been recorded in Sweden, but no source of this record is indicated; and it is not recorded as present in Russia though seeds have been intercepted at ports of entry.

Risk of Introduction

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In view of the notoriety of H. ciliaris in the USA as a noxious weed (USDA-NRCS, 2002), it does not seem likely that it would be deliberately introduced into other countries. Since movement of soil is highly regulated in most countries, and H. ciliaris is unlikely to be found in nurseries exporting plants with growing medium, the risk of movement by this pathway seems minor at the present time. Contamination of various commodities by seeds is more likely, but seed germination is poor. No particular information appears to be available on the longevity of seeds. US states which consider H. ciliaris as a noxious weed have requirements for the special processing of feed grain from infested states. H. ciliaris has not apparently been found in Europe as a casual, despite the import of North American grain over long periods. This suggests that the risk of effective introduction is not very high. This is further borne out by the relatively slow spread of this weed in North America, in circumstances where it has had the possibility to spread over a long period. Nonetheless, H. ciliaris is certainly to be seen as a plant with a high potential to become an invasive weed in many countries around the world, if it should be accidentally introduced. H. ciliaris is regulated as a noxious weed in several states of the USA (USDA-NRCS, 2002), in Russia (Moskalenko, 2001) and in Ukraine (and probably other countries of the former USSR). It is not, however, considered to be a noxious weed in Australia though it is introduced there.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

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H. ciliaris is a perennial weed whose populations can build up on the same plot of land under different successive crops. It is not particularly associated with any crop, except by the accident of its geographical distribution, such as on cotton in Texas.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeOther
    Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeMain
      Juglans regia (walnut)JuglandaceaeOther
        Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)PoaceaeOther
          Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeOther
            Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther

              Growth Stages

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              Vegetative growing stage

              Biology and Ecology

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              Genetics

              The basic chromosome number in this group is x=17. The H. ciliaris complex is made up of diploids, tetraploids and hexaploids (Jackson and Hauber, 1994), the most typical number being tetraploid (n=34). Both alloploidy and autoploidy occur. Hexaploids contain a 'B genome' which may be derived from the diploid H. laciniatus, whose range overlaps that of the tetraploid cytotype. This B genome may confer the drought tolerance necessary for the success of H. ciliaris as a weed in more arid areas. It seems conceivable that polyploidy may be associated with more invasive clones, spreading by vegetative reproduction but having poor seed set and germination, but this remains to be demonstrated.

              Reproductive Biology

              Seeds germinate slowly and poorly; only 3% were observed to germinate over a period of 30 days (Cooley and Smith, 1973a). No particular information appears to be available on the longevity of seeds. Reproduction is mainly vegetative. The underground rhizomes form new shoot buds at intervals, which later develop into new above-ground shoots. Colonies enlarge in this way over a period of years. Small fragments of rhizome are able to survive in the soil and give rise to new plants; 10 planted rhizome sections gave rise to over 2000 plants in 19 months (Cooley and Smith, 1973b). Cutting or mowing the plants stimulates the development of new shoots from the rhizomes.

              As a wild plant, H. ciliaris is adapted to the conditions of western Texas, USA. As an agricultural weed, its distribution remains clearly centred on the same location.

              Soil Tolerances

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              Soil texture

              • heavy
              • light
              • medium

              Special soil tolerances

              • infertile
              • saline
              • sodic

              Natural enemies

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              Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
              Trupanea bisetosa Herbivore Plants|Inflorescence

              Notes on Natural Enemies

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              Trupanea bisetosa attacks the seed heads of Helianthus spp., including H. ciliaris, but this is of little practical importance since the species is mainly invasive by vegetative reproduction (Cavender and Goeden, 1982). H. ciliaris is reported to be resistant to certain insect pests of sunflower (H. annuus) such as Homoeosoma electellum (Rogers et al., 1987) and Zygospila exclamationis (Rogers and Thompson, 1978).

              Means of Movement and Dispersal

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              Locally, H. ciliaris is dispersed as rhizome fragments associated with soil, possibly carried by agricultural machinery. As seed germination is slow and poor, seed dispersal is probably relatively unimportant in local spread. Over long distances, however, seeds contaminating various commodities, such as grain, may introduce the weed. Presumably, rhizome fragments may also be carried over long distances in association with any kind of movement of soil. The mode of introduction of H. ciliaris into new areas in the USA has not apparently been specifically determined. International spread has evidently occurred, since the weed has been introduced into parts of Australia (Lazarides et al., 1997).

              Plant Trade

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              Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
              Growing medium accompanying plants roots
              True seeds (inc. grain) seeds
              Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
              Bark
              Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
              Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
              Fruits (inc. pods)
              Leaves
              Roots
              Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
              Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
              Wood

              Impact Summary

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              CategoryImpact
              Animal/plant collections None
              Animal/plant products None
              Biodiversity (generally) None
              Crop production Negative
              Environment (generally) None
              Fisheries / aquaculture None
              Forestry production None
              Human health None
              Livestock production None
              Native fauna None
              Native flora None
              Rare/protected species None
              Tourism None
              Trade/international relations None
              Transport/travel None

              Impact

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              H. ciliaris is cited as the 'worst weed in West Texas', where it affects many different crops and also occurs in non-crop situations. However, its relatively restricted distribution, and slow spread, limits its total economic impact. Smith et al. (1973) showed that yield and quality losses of cotton and grain sorghum were inversely correlated with densities of H. ciliaris. This weed has attracted only moderate attention in the scientific literature since the 1980s, but it is very well featured on websites in Texas, USA, where it continues to present problems of control, and in US states which list it as a noxious weed.

              Environmental Impact

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              H. ciliaris appears to be invasive mainly on cultivated land, or in wastelands or other marginal situations. It does not appear to invade natural environments.

              Impact: Biodiversity

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              The existence of polyploid clones of H. ciliaris, including hexaploids probably including genetic material from the related H. laciniatus, suggests that agriculture has possibly favoured the spread of new clones of this species, increasing its biodiversity, conceivably at the expense of other species. However, this impact on biodiversity is no greater than that of the agriculture which favours it in the first place.

              Social Impact

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              No social impacts are evident.

              Risk and Impact Factors

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              Invasiveness
              • Invasive in its native range
              • Proved invasive outside its native range
              • Has high reproductive potential
              Impact outcomes
              • Negatively impacts agriculture
              Impact mechanisms
              • Competition - monopolizing resources
              Likelihood of entry/control
              • Difficult/costly to control

              Uses

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              H. ciliaris has no uses.

              Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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              H. laciniatus is a similar non-weedy species, which has probably contributed its genome to hexaploid clones of H. ciliaris which are more drought-tolerant.

              Prevention and Control

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              Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

              H. ciliaris is a deep-rooted rhizomatous perennial weed, difficult to control by cultural or mechanical methods. Due to the ease with which small rhizome fragments can give rise to new plants, mechanical control methods may make the problem worse. Various herbicides applied to stands of H. ciliaris give effective control, e.g. glyphosate (Salinas, 1981), especially with a wetting agent (Chykaliuk et al., 1980), dicamba (Keeling and Abernathy, 1988) and imizapyr.

              Because H. ciliaris has a restricted distribution in North America, its exclusion is an important concern. H. ciliaris is rated as a restricted noxious weed in Arizona, and features on an 'A list' of noxious weeds in California, Oregon and Washington. Spread by vegetative reproduction is localized and slow, so control by surveillance and eradication can be envisaged. The weed appears to be contained at the present time.

              No biological control agents have been proposed for H. ciliaris.

              References

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              Cavender GL; Goeden RD, 1982. Life history of Trupanea bisetosa (Diptera: Tephritidae) on wild sunflower in southern California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 75(4):400-406

              Chykaliuk PB; Abernathy JR; Gipson JR, 1980. Effect of additives on herbicide uptake and control of Texas blueweed, woolyleaf bursage and silverleaf nightshade. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society., 236

              Coggon D, 1999. Written findings of the State Noxious Weed Control Board - Texas blueweed (Helianthus ciliaris DC).

              Cooley AW; Smith DT, 1973. Migration of four perennial weeds. Consolidated Progress Report, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Nos. PR 3197-3209: Weed and herbicide research in:9-11

              Cooley AW; Smith DT, 1973. Seed germination of woolly leaf bursage, Texas blueweed and groundcherry. Consolidated Progress Report, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Nos.PR 3197-3209: Weed and herbicide research in W:3-6

              Jackson RC; Hauber DP, 1994. Quantitative cytogenetic analyses of autoploid and alloploid taxa in the Helianthus ciliaris group (Compositae). American Journal of Botany, 81(8):1063-1069; 18 ref.

              Keeling JW; Abernathy JR, 1988. Woollyleaf bursage (Ambrosia grayi) and Texas blueweed (Helianthus ciliaris) control by dicamba. Weed Technology, 2(1):12-15

              Lazarides M; Cowley K; Hohnen P, 1997. CSIRO Handbook of Australian Weeds. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO.

              Moskalenko GP, 2001. Quarantine Weeds for Russia. Moscow, Russia: Plant Quarantine Inspectorate.

              Rogers CE; Gershenzon J; Ohno N; Mabry TJ; Stipanovic RD; Kreitner GL, 1987. Terpenes of wild sunflowers (Helianthus): an effective mechanism against seed predation by larvae of the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Environmental Entomology, 16(3):586-592

              Rogers CE; Thompson TE, 1978. Resistance in wild Helianthus to the sunflower beetle. Journal of Economic Entomology, 71(4):622-623

              Salinas GF, 1981. Control of Helianthus ciliaris with glyphosate in walnuts and vines in northern Mexico. Memorias II Congresso nacional de la ciencia de la maleza. Sociedad Mexicana de la Sciencia de la Maleza, Chapingo.

              Smith DT; Wiese AF; Cooley AW, 1973. Crop losses from several annual and perennial weeds. Abstracts, 1973 Meeting of the Weed Science Society of America, Atlanta, Georgia., 53

              USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

              USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov.

              Distribution References

              CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

              CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

              Lazarides M, Cowley K, Hohnen P, 1997. CSIRO handbook of Australian weeds. Collingwood, Vic. Australia: CSIRO Publishing. vii + 264 pp.

              Salinas GF, 1981. Control of Helianthus ciliaris with glyphosate in walnuts and vines in northern Mexico. In: Memorias II Congresso nacional de la ciencia de la maleza, Chapingo, Sociedad Mexicana de la Sciencia de la Maleza.

              USDA-ARS, 2003. Hedychium flavescens. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

              USDA-NRCS, 2002. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

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