Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Achyranthes aspera
(devil's horsewhip)

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Datasheet

Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Achyranthes aspera
  • Preferred Common Name
  • devil's horsewhip
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. aspera can become aggressive outside of its native range and has naturalized widely. It appears to be kept under control in its native range by natural enemies.

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); flower spike. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.
TitleFlower spike
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); flower spike. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.
Copyright©Jeevan Jose-2010/Kadavoor, Kerala/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); flower spike. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.
Flower spikeAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); flower spike. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.©Jeevan Jose-2010/Kadavoor, Kerala/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); close-up of flower. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.
TitleFlower
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); close-up of flower. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.
Copyright©Jeevan Jose-2010/Kadavoor, Kerala/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); close-up of flower. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.
FlowerAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); close-up of flower. Kadavoor, Kerala, India. November 2010.©Jeevan Jose-2010/Kadavoor, Kerala/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing dense patch of flower spikes. Kaohikaipu, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing dense patch of flower spikes. Kaohikaipu, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing dense patch of flower spikes. Kaohikaipu, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.
HabitAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing dense patch of flower spikes. Kaohikaipu, Oahu, Hawaii, USA. February 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); spiny seeds adhering to gloved hand. Stable Rd, Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2013.
TitleSeeds
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); spiny seeds adhering to gloved hand. Stable Rd, Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); spiny seeds adhering to gloved hand. Stable Rd, Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2013.
SeedsAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); spiny seeds adhering to gloved hand. Stable Rd, Spreckelsville, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); leaves.
TitleLeaves
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); leaves.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); leaves.
LeavesAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); leaves.©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); small flowers on stems.
TitleFlowers
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); small flowers on stems.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); small flowers on stems.
FlowersAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); small flowers on stems.©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing leaves.
TitleHabit
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing leaves.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing leaves.
HabitAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit, showing leaves.©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit.
HabitAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); habit.©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); four-leaf seedling.
TitleSeedling
CaptionAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); four-leaf seedling.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Achyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); four-leaf seedling.
SeedlingAchyranthes aspera (devil's horsewhip); four-leaf seedling.©Sheldon Navie

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Achyranthes aspera L.

Preferred Common Name

  • devil's horsewhip

Other Scientific Names

  • Achyranthes aspera var. indica L.
  • Achyranthes aspera var. obtusifolia Griseb.
  • Achyranthes indica (L.) Mill
  • Achyranthes obtusifolia Lam.
  • Achyranthes virgata Poir.
  • Centrostachys aspera (L.) Standl.
  • Centrostachys indica (L.) Standl.

International Common Names

  • English: burweed; prickly chaff flower; rough chaff flower
  • Spanish: abrojo (Mexico); anamu; chile de perro; chilillo (Honduras); mozote (Honduras); rabo de gato
  • French: achyranthe rude; cadelari; herbe de fievre; herbe d'Inde; herbe sergent; queue de rat

Local Common Names

  • Botswana: moxato
  • Costa Rica: mozotillo; rabo de chanco
  • Cuba: pinedo do gato; rabo de gato
  • Dominican Republic: cadillo de gato; huevo de gato; rabo de ratón
  • Germany: Spreublume
  • Haiti: feuilles la fiebre; queue de rat; santypite
  • India: kunjar; puthkanda
  • Italy: scimitro
  • Kiribati: libai
  • Lesotho: bohomane
  • Lesser Antilles: ven-ven
  • Netherlands: kafbloem
  • South Africa: grootklits; isinama
  • Zimbabwe: udombo

EPPO code

  • ACYAS (Achyranthes aspera)

Summary of Invasiveness

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A. aspera can become aggressive outside of its native range and has naturalized widely. It appears to be kept under control in its native range by natural enemies.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Amaranthaceae
  •                             Genus: Achyranthes
  •                                 Species: Achyranthes aspera

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Six species of Achyranthes occur in warm temperate and tropical regions of the world. Townsend (1985) records three infraspecific variants of A. aspera: var. aspera, var. pubescens and var. sicula. The latter is the only form occurring in the Mediterranean region. The variants A. aspera var. aspera and A. aspera var. pubescens were recorded in the West Indies (Liogier, 1985).

 

Description

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Erect or ascending herbs or shrubs; 0.8-4 m high, sometimes almost treelike; Stems tough, becoming woody at the base. Leaves opposite, simple and ovate, up to 10 cm long by 8 cm wide, tapering to a point at both ends and shortly stalked, the blades entire. Inflorescences terminal and axillary, spicate, erect, many-flowered; becoming elongate, with only a few flowers open at the same time; flowers hermaphrodite, solitary in axils of acute, membranous, persistent bracts. Individual flowers are small, with five white to pink or greenish tepals and white filaments, and form narrow, elongated terminal spikes up to 60 cm long. As the flowers age, they bend downwards and become pressed closely against the stem. The bracts surrounding the flowers in the fruiting stage have sharp, pointed tips making the heads spiny to the touch. Fruits are capsules, orange to reddish purple or brown, 1-3 (-5) mm long. Ovary is 1-seeded. Further details are given in Smith (1981).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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Probably indigenous to South-East Asia and Africa and now a ubiquitous weed (Smith, 1981). Many records in the country list have been added from USDA-ARS (2003) which were still listed as native on the USDA-ARS GRIN database in 2012; however, this website notes that the exact native range is obscure.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
BotswanaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); Wells et al. (1986)
Cabo VerdePresent, LocalizedDuarte et al. (1999)
CameroonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
Central African RepublicPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979)
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
EgyptPresent, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1979)
GhanaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979)
Guinea-BissauPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979)
KenyaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveIvens (1967); Holm et al. (1979); Townsend (1985)
LesothoPresent, WidespreadWells et al. (1986)
MalawiPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979)
MauritiusPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
MoroccoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
NamibiaPresent, WidespreadWells et al. (1986)
NigeriaPresent, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1979)
SenegalPresent, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1979)
Sierra LeonePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
South AfricaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); Wells et al. (1986)
SudanPresent, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1979)
TanzaniaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveIvens (1967); Townsend (1985)
TunisiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
UgandaPresent, WidespreadNativeHolm et al. (1979); Townsend (1985)
ZambiaPresent, WidespreadVerma (1983)
ZimbabwePresent, WidespreadWells et al. (1986)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
BhutanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
CambodiaPresent, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1979)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1979)
Hong KongPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadNativeHolm et al. (1979)
IndonesiaPresent, WidespreadNativeHolm et al. (1979)
IranPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979)
JordanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
LaosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
LebanonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadNativeHolm et al. (1979)
MyanmarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
NepalPresent, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1979)
PakistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
PhilippinesPresent, WidespreadNativeHolm et al. (1979)
SingaporePresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)
Sri LankaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
SyriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
TaiwanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
ThailandPresent, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1979)
VietnamPresent, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1979)

Europe

ItalyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
SpainPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced1937Smithsonian Institution (2012)Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
BahamasPresentIntroduced1920InvasiveBritton and Millspaugh (1920); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
BarbadosPresentIntroduced1906Smithsonian Institution (2012); USDA-ARS (2003)Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced1913InvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Smithsonian Institution (2012)Guana Island, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda
Costa RicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
CubaPresentIntroduced1903InvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Oviedo Prieto et al. (2012); Smithsonian Institution (2012)A. aspera var aspera and var. indica; year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
DominicaPresentIntroduced1940Smithsonian Institution (2012); USDA-ARS (2003)Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced1911Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Smithsonian Institution (2012)Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
El SalvadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
GrenadaPresentIntroduced1904Smithsonian Institution (2012); USDA-ARS (2003)Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced1892Smithsonian Institution (2012)Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
HaitiPresentIntroduced1920Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Smithsonian Institution (2012)Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
HondurasPresentInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
JamaicaPresentIntroduced1897Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Smithsonian Institution (2012)Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
MartiniquePresentIntroduced1874Smithsonian Institution (2012)Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
MontserratPresentIntroduced1907Smithsonian Institution (2012)Year of introduction taken from collections of Smithsonian Herbarium
NicaraguaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1913InvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Smithsonian Institution (2012)Also on the islands of Caja de Muertos, Culebra, Desecheo, and Mona
Saint LuciaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced1895InvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Smithsonian Institution (2012)St. Croix and St. John
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2012)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1979)
Cook IslandsPresentSwarbrick (1997)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentSwarbrick (1997)
FijiPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979)
French PolynesiaPresentSwarbrick (1997)
GuamPresentSwarbrick (1997)
KiribatiPresentSwarbrick (1997)
Marshall IslandsPresentSwarbrick (1997)
New CaledoniaPresentSwarbrick (1997)
NiuePresentSwarbrick (1997)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentSwarbrick (1997)
PalauPresentSwarbrick (1997)
SamoaPresentSwarbrick (1997)
Solomon IslandsPresentSwarbrick (1997)
Timor-LestePresent, LocalizedNativeHolm et al. (1979)
TongaPresentSwarbrick (1997)
TuvaluPresentSwarbrick (1997)
VanuatuPresentSwarbrick (1997)
Wallis and FutunaPresentSwarbrick (1997)

South America

BoliviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
EcuadorPresentInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2003)
SurinamePresent, LocalizedIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. aspera frequently occurs in waste areas, and along roadsides, foot paths, railroads and sand dunes. It often infests fence rows, open woodland, and the borders of forests and plantations. It has adapted to a wide range of environments (Holm et al., 1979). In the Bahamas this species was collected by N.L. Britton and C. T. Millspaugh in 1920 (Britton and Millspaugh, 1920). For Puerto Rico (including Mona, Vieques and Culebra), the US Virgin Islands (St. Croix and St. Thomas) and the British Virgin Islands (Tortola) this species appears in a 1924 collection made by N.L. Britton on these islands (Britton and Wilson, 1924). A. aspera was also introduced on Pacific Islands (including Hawaii, Samoa, Mariana Islands, Cook Islands, Fiji, and French Polynesia) where it has been classified as an “invasive species” (PIER, 2012) and in Florida it is listed as a “potential problematic species” (USDA-NRCS, 2012).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of A. aspera  is high. It is a widespread weedy pantropical species readily transported to new habitats because its spiny fruits easily detach and stick to clothes, fur, and feathers. Consequently, seeds of this species may be easily transported to new habitats by birds, mammals, and humans.

Habitat

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A. aspera is a weed of crops, grasslands, forestry, disturbed areas and waste places. It is common in waste and cultivated grounds in Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012). In Fiji, this species occurs from sea level to about 900 m elevation as an abundantly naturalized weed on rocky shores, limestone islets and grassy slopes, in coastal thickets, cultivated areas and along roadsides and forest trails (Smith, 1981).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details
Wetlands Present, no further details
Deserts Present, no further details
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Biology and Ecology

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Physiology and Phenology

A. aspera is a coarse herb or shrub, sometimes growing in arable land as an annual, but under suitable conditions lasting for a number of years and reaching a height of 4 m. There are sun and shade adapted types (Vora et al., 1989).

Reproductive Biology

In germination studies of desert plants, Khan et al. (1984) noted little seed dormancy in this species.

Associations

A. aspera displays antifeedant activity against gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera; Singh et al., 2001).

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Spiny bracts cause the fruits to stick to the hair of animals, clothing etc. There is evidence of dispersal by livestock (Bullock and Primack, 1977).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Harvesting fur, wool or hair Yes Yes Lange et al., 2004
Medicinal use Yes Yes Girach et al., 1992

Pathway Vectors

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Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx flowers
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches seeds; whole plants

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections Negative
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna Negative
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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A. aspera has various medicinal applications: for example, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic treatment (Girach et al., 1992; Gokhale et al., 2002); as an abortifacient (Pakrashi and Bhattacharya, 1977; Siddiqui et al., 1988); it has also been tested as an antifertility agent (Prakash, 1986; Varshney et al., 1986; Wadhwa et al., 1986), and for anti-cancer activity (Chakraborty et al., 2002). Barua et al. (2012) examined it for healing of wounds and burns, while antifungal potential is reported by Sharma et al. (2011).

It is a diuretic in goats (Nazish Jahan et al., 2002) and is used in other veterinary preparations (Bhaumik and Sharma, 1993; Sikawar, 1994).

It has been investigated for energy production (Subramanian and Sampathrajan, 1999).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Host of pest
  • Soil improvement

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

A. aspera is moderately resistant to 2,4-D and MCPA. In the young seedling stage, a reasonable kill can be obtained with rates of the order of 1.0 kg/ha but resistance increases rapidly with age and older plants require 2.0 kg/ha or more (Ivens, 1967).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Aneja AK; Brar DS; Joginder Singh; Singh J, 2002. Preference of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) to host plants and hirsutum cotton treated with different insecticides. Insect Environment 2002, 8(1):39-41.

Aulakh BS; Rimkus AJ, 1987. Some agronomic aspects of rainfed wheat production in northern Zambia. Fifth Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa and the Indian Ocean Mexico City, Mexico; CIMMYT, 194-201

Barua CC; Archana Talukdar; Begum SA; Pathak DC; Sarma DK; Borah RS; Asheesh Gupta, 2012. In vivo wound-healing efficacy and antioxidant activity of Achyranthes aspera in experimental burns. Pharmaceutical Biology, 50(7):892-899. http://informahealthcare.com/loi/phb

Bhaumik A; Sharma MC, 1993. Therapeutic efficacy of two herbal preparations in induced hepatopathy in sheep. Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine, 12(1):33-42.

Biradar AP; Patil MB, 2001. Studies on utilization of prominent weeds for vermiculturing. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 33(3/4):229-230; 2 ref.

Britton NL; Millspaugh CF, 1920. The Bahama Flora. New York, USA: NL Britton & CF Millspaugh.

Britton NL; Wilson P, 1924. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin islands, Volume V, Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences, New York.

Bullock SH; Primack RB, 1977. Comparative experimental study of seed dispersal on animals. Ecology, 58(3):681-686

Chakraborty A; Brantner A; Mukainaka T; Nobukuni Y; Kuchide M; Konoshima T; Tokuda H; Nishino H, 2002. Cancer chemopreventive activity of Achyranthes aspera leaves on Epstein-Barr virus activation and two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Letters, 177(1):1-5.

Chakravarty DK; Pariya SN, 1977. Inhibition of germination of phytopathogenic fungi in some Indian medicinal plant extracts. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 84:221-223

Duarte MC; Gomes I; Moreira I, 1999. Santiago Island (Cape Verde) - Notes on the flora and phytogeography. Garcia de Orta. Serie de Botanica, 14(1):107-113.

Girach RD; Aminuddin; Khan SA, 1992. Ethnomedicinal uses of Achyranthes ospera L. in Orissa, India. International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 30(2):113-115.

Gokhale AB; Damre AS; Kulkarni KR; Saraf MN, 2002. Preliminary evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of S. lappa, A. speciosa and A. aspera. Phytomedicine, 9(5):433-437.

Holm L; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Toronto, Canada: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Ivens GW, 1967. East Africa Weeds and their Control. Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press.

Jagetia GC; Baliga MS, 2002. Cystone, an ayurvedic herbal drug imparts protection to the mice against the lethal effects of gamma-radiation: a preliminary study. Nahrung, 46(5):332-336.

Kaushal Kumar; Singh KK; Kumar B; Thiru Selvun; Sajibala B; Pushpangadan P; Kumar K; Selvun T, 2001. Use of medicinal plants by the settlers in Great Nicobar Island (India). Journal of Tropical Medicinal Plants, 2(2):235-238.

Khan D; Shaukat SS; Faheemuddin M, 1984. Germination studies of certain desert plants. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 16(2):231-254.

Kuldeep Singh; Khosla SN, 1987. Comparative evaluation of 2,4-D lac slow release herbicide. Indian Journal of Forestry, 10(4):256-261

Lal B; Vats SK; Singh RD; Gupta AK, 1994. Plants used as ethnomedicine by Gaddis in Kantra and Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh, India. Ethnobiology in human welfare: abstracts of the fourth international congress of ethnobiology, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 17-21 November, 1994, p. 143.

Lange PJ; Scofield RP; Greene T, 2004. Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) a new indigenous adition to the flora of the Kermadec Islands group. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 42:167-173.

Liogier AH, 1985. Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands. Spermatophyta. Vols. 1-5. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Mariappan V; Govindaswami CV; Ramakrishnan K, 1973. A note on Achyranthes aspera L., mosaic virus occuring around Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 5(1):48-49.

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Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Britton N L, Millspaugh C F, 1920. The Bahama Flora. New York, USA: NL Britton & CF Millspaugh.

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Duarte M C, Gomes I, Moreira I, 1999. Santiago Island (Cape Verde) - Notes on the flora and phytogeography. (Ilha de Santiago (Cabo Verde) - Notas florísticas e fitogeográficas (I).). Garcia de Orta. Série de Botânica. 14 (1), 107-113.

Holm L, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. xlix + 391 pp.

Ivens GW, 1967. East Africa Weeds and their Control., Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Smithsonian Institution, 2012. Flora of the West Indies., USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/antilles/westindies/

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. In: Technical paper No. 209, Noumea, New Caledonia, South Pacific Commission.

Townsend CC, 1985. Amaranthaceae. In: Flora of Tropical East Africa, [ed. by Polhill RM]. Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema. 1-2, 20-24, 35-36,

USDA-ARS, 2003. Hedychium flavescens. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2012. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Verma S K, 1983. Host plants of Amsacta moorei Butler in the Rajasthan Desert. Bulletin of Entomology. 24 (1), 49-50.

Wells M J, Balsinhas A A, Joffe H, Engelbrecht V M, Harding G, Stirton C H, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in southern Africa incorporating the national weed list of South Africa. Memoirs, Botanical Survey of South Africa. v + 658pp.

Links to Websites

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Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Riskhttp://www.hear.org/pier/

Contributors

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21/08/12 Updated by

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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