Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Achatina fulica
(giant African land snail)

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Datasheet

Achatina fulica (giant African land snail)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Achatina fulica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • giant African land snail
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Mollusca
  •       Class: Gastropoda
  •         Subclass: Pulmonata
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The giant African land snail A. fulica is a fast-growing polyphagous plant pest that has been introduced from its native range in East Africa to many parts of the world as a commercial food source (for humans...

  • Principal Source
  • Datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail); various specimens, collected nr. Corrientes, Argentina. May, 2013.
TitleAdults
CaptionAchatina fulica (giant African land snail); various specimens, collected nr. Corrientes, Argentina. May, 2013.
Copyright©Roberto E. Vogler & Ariel A. Beltramino-2013
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail); various specimens, collected nr. Corrientes, Argentina. May, 2013.
AdultsAchatina fulica (giant African land snail); various specimens, collected nr. Corrientes, Argentina. May, 2013.©Roberto E. Vogler & Ariel A. Beltramino-2013
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail); adults, collected nr. Corrientes, Argentina. May, 2013.
TitleAdults
CaptionAchatina fulica (giant African land snail); adults, collected nr. Corrientes, Argentina. May, 2013.
Copyright©Roberto E. Vogler & Ariel A. Beltramino-2013
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail); adults, collected nr. Corrientes, Argentina. May, 2013.
AdultsAchatina fulica (giant African land snail); adults, collected nr. Corrientes, Argentina. May, 2013.©Roberto E. Vogler & Ariel A. Beltramino-2013
Achatina fulica on vegetation on Martinique, shortly after its discovery on the island in 1989.
TitleAdult
CaptionAchatina fulica on vegetation on Martinique, shortly after its discovery on the island in 1989.
Copyright©Charles Schotman
Achatina fulica on vegetation on Martinique, shortly after its discovery on the island in 1989.
AdultAchatina fulica on vegetation on Martinique, shortly after its discovery on the island in 1989.©Charles Schotman
Achatina fulica in Martinique.
TitleAdult
CaptionAchatina fulica in Martinique.
Copyright©Charles Schotman
Achatina fulica in Martinique.
AdultAchatina fulica in Martinique.©Charles Schotman
Achatina fulica in Martinique.
TitleAdults
CaptionAchatina fulica in Martinique.
Copyright©Charles Schotman
Achatina fulica in Martinique.
AdultsAchatina fulica in Martinique.©Charles Schotman
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail); eggs. Note scale. nr. Corrientes, Argentina. May, 2013.
TitleEggs
CaptionAchatina fulica (giant African land snail); eggs. Note scale. nr. Corrientes, Argentina. May, 2013.
Copyright©Roberto E. Vogler & Ariel A. Beltramino-2013
Achatina fulica (giant African land snail); eggs. Note scale. nr. Corrientes, Argentina. May, 2013.
EggsAchatina fulica (giant African land snail); eggs. Note scale. nr. Corrientes, Argentina. May, 2013.©Roberto E. Vogler & Ariel A. Beltramino-2013

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Achatina fulica Bowdich 1822

Preferred Common Name

  • giant African land snail

Other Scientific Names

  • Lissachatina fulica (Bowdich)

International Common Names

  • English: African giant snail; giant African snail; kalutara snail
  • Spanish: acatina africana; caracol gigante africano; gran caracol africano
  • French: achatine de Madagascar; achatine foulque; achatine mauritanienne; escargot géant africain; escargot géant d'Afrique

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: caracol gigante africano; caramujo gigante africano
  • Germany: Afrikanische Riesenschnecke; grosse Achatschnecke
  • Italy: acatina africana; acatina dell' Isola Maurizio
  • Netherlands: agaatslak; grote Afrikaanse slak

EPPO code

  • ACHAFU (Achatina fulica)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The giant African land snail A. fulica is a fast-growing polyphagous plant pest that has been introduced from its native range in East Africa to many parts of the world as a commercial food source (for humans, fish and livestock) and as a novelty pet. It easily becomes attached to any means of transport or machinery at any developmental stage, is able to go into a state of aestivation in cooler conditions and so is readily transportable over distances. Once escaped it has managed to establish itself and reproduce prodigiously in tropical and some temperate locations. As a result, A. fulica has been classified as one of the world's top 100 invasive alien species by The World Conservation Union, IUCN (ISSG, 2003).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Mollusca
  •             Class: Gastropoda
  •                 Subclass: Pulmonata
  •                     Order: Stylommatophora
  •                         Suborder: Sigmurethra
  •                             Unknown: Achatinoidea
  •                                 Family: Achatinidae
  •                                     Genus: Achatina
  •                                         Species: Achatina fulica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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A. fulica is currently included within the subgenus Lissachatina. Based on nepionic whorls, Bequaert (1950) placed the West and Central African species of genus Achatina in subgenus Achatina and the East African species in his new subgenus Lissachatina. Mead (1995) provided complementary support for the differentiation of the subgenera based on comparative anatomical studies of the reproductive tracts.  Recently, some authors have treated Lissachatina as a genus; however, at present, no published taxonomic works are available to sustain this treatment.

Description

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A. fulica is distinctive in appearance and is readily identified by its large size and relatively long, narrow, conical shell. Reaching a length of up to 20 cm, the shell is more commonly in the size range 5-10 cm. The colour can be variable but is most commonly light brown, with alternating brown and cream bands on young snails and the upper whorls of larger specimens. The coloration becomes lighter towards the tip of the shell, which is almost white. There are from seven to nine spirally striate whorls with moderately impressed sutures. The shell aperture is ovate-lunate to round-lunate with a sharp, unreflected outer lip. The mantle is dark brown with rubbery skin. There are two pairs of tentacles on the head: a short lower pair and a large upper pair with round eyes situated at the tip. The mouth has a horned mandible, and a radula containing about 142 rows of teeth, with 129 teeth per row (Schotman, 1989; Salgado, 2010). Eggs are spherical to ellipsoidal in shape (4.5-5.5 mm in diameter) and are yellow to cream in colour.

Distribution

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A. fulica is native to the east coast of Africa (Pilsbry, 1904; Lange, 1950). The species is present naturally from Natal and Mozambique in the south to Kenya and southern part of Ethiopia and Somalia in the north, and it extends 250-830 km from the coast, going farthest inland in the northern section of the range (Lange, 1950; Raut and Barker, 2002). According to the literature, part of the distribution of A. fulica within Africa may be due to introduction by humans (Verdcourt, 1961 in Raut and Barker, 2002). Within this continent, the species has been recognized as introduced in Madagascar and many other islands of the coastal area of East Africa (Bequaert, 1950; Raut and Barker, 2002). It is also likely to have become an established part of the snail fauna of West Africa following reports from Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Nigeria, Ghana (Winter, 1989; Monney, 2001; Ekoué and Kuevi-Akue, 2002; Ademolu et al., 2013) and a shell has been identified in Morocco (van Bruggen, 1987), the first discovery of this species from anywhere in the Palearctic.

Currently, A. fulica is widespread as an invasive species out of Africa in all continents, except Antarctica. It owes most of its current wide distribution to human activity (Dharmaraju, 1984).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Mead, 1979
Brunei DarussalamPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
CambodiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Mead, 1979
ChinaWidespreadIntroduced1931 Invasive Jarrett, 1931; Schotman, 1989; Lv et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentIntroduced Invasive Li et al., 2006; Lv et al., 2009In the south
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced Invasive Meng et al., 2007; Lv et al., 2009
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced Invasive Lv et al., 2009
-GuizhouRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Tang et al., 2008; Lv et al., 2009In one county
-HainanWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Hu et al., 2007; Lv et al., 2009
-Hong KongWidespreadIntroduced1937Mead, 1961; Schotman, 1989; EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentIntroduced Invasive Chen et al., 2008; Lv et al., 2009In southern areas
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroduced Invasive Sproul, 1983; Lake and O'Dowd, 1991
IndiaWidespreadIntroduced1847 Invasive Mead, 1961; Raut and Ghose, 1984; Srivastava et al., 1985; EPPO, 2014
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsWidespreadIntroduced1940s Invasive Shah, 1992; Prasad et al., 2004
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroducedReddy and Sreedharan, 2006
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedRamakrishna et al., 2005
-BiharWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Thakur, 1998
-KarnatakaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Basavaraju et al., 2000; Shree and Kumar, 2002; Sridhar et al., 2012
-Madhya PradeshWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Thakur and Kumari, 1998
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced Invasive Avhad et al., 2013
-OdishaPresentIntroduced Invasive Mead, 1961
-RajasthanPresentIntroduced1996 Invasive Tehsin and Sharma, 2000
-SikkimPresentIntroduced Invasive Rahman et al., 2009
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroduced Invasive Padmanaban et al., 2000; Vanitha et al., 2011
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Saxena and Mahendru, 2000
-West BengalWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Raut and Ghara, 1990; Raut, 1991
IndonesiaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Mead, 1979; EPPO, 2014
-Irian JayaPresentIntroduced Invasive Mead, 1979
-JavaWidespreadIntroduced1925 Invasive Mead, 1961; Schneider et al., 1998
-KalimantanPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
IsraelPresentIntroduced Invasive Roll et al., 2009Present in human dominated habitats
JapanPresentIntroduced1935 Invasive Mead, 1961; Takeuchi et al., 1991; Tomiyama, 2002; Ohbayashi and Takeuchi, 2007; EPPO, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentIntroduced1935 Invasive Mead, 1961; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaRestricted distributionIntroducedMead, 1979; EPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroduced1911 Invasive Mead, 1961; Mead, 1979; EPPO, 2014
-SabahPresentIntroduced Invasive Schilthuizen and Rutjes, 2001
-SarawakRestricted distributionIntroduced1928 Invasive Mead, 1961; Mead, 1979; EPPO, 2014
MaldivesWidespreadIntroduced1957 Invasive Mead, 1961; Muniappan, 1987; EPPO, 2014
MyanmarRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Mead, 1961; Schotman, 1989; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentIntroduced1930-1940 Invasive Budha and Naggs, 2008
PhilippinesWidespreadIntroduced1949 Invasive Mead, 1961; Raut and Barker, 2002; Chavez and Lara, 2011; EPPO, 2014
SingaporeWidespreadIntroduced1917 Invasive Mead, 1961; Mead, 1979; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaWidespreadIntroduced1900 Invasive Mead, 1961; Marambe et al., 2001; Naggs, 2002; Raut and Barker, 2002; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentIntroduced1932 Invasive Mead, 1961; EPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentIntroduced1930sMead, 1961; Mead, 1979; Sri-aroon et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014
VietnamPresentIntroduced1937 Invasive Mead, 1961; Mead, 1979; EPPO, 2014

Africa

Central African RepublicPresentMbétid-Bessane, 2006
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced Invasive Winter, 1989; Raut and Barker, 2002; Mèmèl et al., 2011
EthiopiaPresentNative Not invasive Raut and Barker, 2002
GhanaPresentIntroduced Invasive Monney, 2001; Raut and Barker, 2002Became the dominant achatinid shortly after its introduction
KenyaWidespreadNative Not invasive Mead, 1979; Raut and Barker, 2002
MadagascarWidespreadIntroducedPrior to 1800 Invasive Bequaert, 1950; Raut and Barker, 2002; EPPO, 2014
MauritiusWidespreadIntroduced1803 Invasive Mead, 1961; Facknath et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoAbsent, intercepted onlyBruggen, 1987
NigeriaPresentIntroduced Invasive Ashaye et al., 2001; Okon et al., 2012; Ademolu et al., 2013
RéunionWidespreadIntroduced1821 Invasive Mead, 1961; Schotman, 1989; Graber et al., 1997; EPPO, 2014
SeychellesWidespreadIntroduced1840 Invasive Mead, 1961; Schotman, 1989; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1900s Invasive Herbert, 2010Recorded from Durban but no established colonies now evident
TanzaniaWidespreadNative Not invasive Emberton et al., 1997
TogoPresentIntroduced Invasive Ekoué & Kuevi-Akue, 2002

North America

USATransient: actionable, under eradicationEPPO, 2014
-FloridaTransient: actionable, under eradicationIntroduced1969 Invasive NAPPO, 2013a; NAPPO, 2013b; Mead, 1979; NAPPO, 2011; Ciomperlik et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014Single infestation found in 1969 and eradicated. Reported in September 2011 in Miami, under eradication
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroduced1936 Invasive Mead, 1961; Cowie, 1998; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Connor, 2007; EPPO, 2014
Antigua and BarbudaTransient: actionable, under eradicationIntroduced2008 Invasive Pollard et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014Identified in Antigua in April 2008 in the south-west of the island. Not reported from Barbuda
BarbadosWidespreadIntroduced2000 Invasive Pollard et al., 2008; Ciomperlik et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
CubaPresentEPPO, 2014
DominicaEradicatedIntroduced2007 Invasive Pollard et al., 2008; Ciomperlik et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014First reported in March 2007 in the north of the island, eradication thought successful in 2008
GuadeloupeWidespreadIntroduced1984 Invasive FAO, 1989; Pollard et al., 2008; Ciomperlik et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
MartiniqueRestricted distributionIntroduced1988 Invasive FAO, 1989; Mead and Palcy, 1992; Ciomperlik et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
Netherlands AntillesPresentEPPO, 2014
Saint LuciaWidespreadIntroduced2000 Invasive Jn Pierre, 2008; Pollard et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoRestricted distributionIntroducedIPPC, 2009; EPPO, 2014Found at Alyce Glen Gardens Petit Valley, North West Trinidad in Oct. 2008; restricted to an area 1.0 km²
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Miller, 1994

South America

ArgentinaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Gutiérrez Gregoric et al., 2011; Gutiérrez Gregoric et al., 2012; Vogler et al., 2013First detected in 2010 in Puerto Iguazú City (25°36S, 54°35W)
BoliviaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedVogler et al., 2013Commericalized in La Paz, not reported from the wild
BrazilWidespreadIntroduced1980s Invasive Paiva, 1999; Vogler et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
-BahiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Paiva, 1999
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroduced Invasive Paiva, 1999
-GoiasPresentPaiva, 1999; Ciomperlik et al., 2013
-MaranhaoPresentIntroduced Invasive Ciomperlik et al., 2013
-Minas GeraisWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Paiva, 1999
-ParanaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Paiva, 1999
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced Invasive Paiva, 1999
-Rio de JaneiroWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Paiva, 1999; de Vasconcellos and Pile, 2001; Dos Santos et al., 2002
-RondoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Paiva, 1999
-Santa CatarinaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Paiva, 1999
-Sao PauloWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Paiva, 1999
ColombiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Ossa-Lacayo et al., 2012; Vogler et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
EcuadorPresentIntroduced2005 Invasive Correoso and Coello, 2009; Ciomperlik et al., 2013; Vogler et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014First reported in Esmeraldas Province in 2005, and is established in most of the coastal provinces of the country, as well as on the Amazonian side of the Ecuadorian Andes
ParaguayPresentIntroduced2010 Invasive Vogler et al., 2013First detected in 2010 in Ayolas City, Department of Misiones
PeruPresentIntroduced Invasive Vogler et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced1996 Invasive Matínez Escarbassiere and Matínez Moreno, 1997; Vogler et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014

Oceania

American SamoaWidespreadIntroduced1977 Invasive Tauili'ili and Vargo, 1993; Tillier et al., 1993; Cowie, 2000; EPPO, 2014
FijiAbsent, formerly presentSouth Pacific Commission, 1979; AQIS, 2003; Brodie and Barker, 2012Not currently established in Fiji, although it is sometimes intercepted by quarantine control on cargo vessels arriving from overseas
French PolynesiaWidespreadIntroduced1967 Invasive Murray et al., 1988; Tillier et al., 1993; Cowie, 2000; EPPO, 2014
GuamWidespreadIntroduced1943Tillier et al., 1993; Cowie, 2000; EPPO, 2014
KiribatiAbsent, formerly presentSouth Pacific Commission, 1979; AQIS, 2003
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive South Pacific Commission, 1996; Cowie, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Micronesia, Federated states ofWidespreadIntroduced1938 Invasive Tillier et al., 1993; Cowie, 2000; EPPO, 2014
New CaledoniaWidespreadIntroduced1972 Invasive South Pacific Commission, 1979; Tillier et al., 1993; Cowie, 2000; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
NiueAbsent, formerly presentSouth Pacific Commission, 1979; AQIS, 2003
Northern Mariana IslandsWidespreadIntroduced1936 Invasive Tillier et al., 1993; Cowie, 2000; EPPO, 2014
PalauWidespreadIntroduced1938 Invasive Tillier et al., 1993; Cowie, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Papua New GuineaWidespreadIntroduced1946 Invasive Mead, 1961; Tillier et al., 1993; Cowie, 2000; Raut and Barker, 2002; EPPO, 2014Reached the outer islands of Papua New Guinea by 1946 and mainland New Guinea by 1976-1977
SamoaPresentIntroduced1990s Invasive South Pacific Commission, 1979; Cowie, 2000; Raut and Barker, 2002; EPPO, 2014
Solomon IslandsAbsent, formerly presentSouth Pacific Commission, 1979; Cowie, 2000; AQIS, 2003; EPPO, 2014
TongaAbsent, formerly presentSouth Pacific Commission, 1979; AQIS, 2003; Brodie and Barker, 2011
TuvaluEradicatedSouth Pacific Commission, 1979; Cowie, 2000
US Minor Outlying IslandsWidespreadTillier et al., 1993
VanuatuWidespreadTillier et al., 1993; Pascal et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014
Wallis and Futuna IslandsWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Tillier et al., 1993; Cowie, 2000; EPPO, 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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According to Bequaert (1950), the spread of A. fulica from its native range in East Africa is entirely due to transport by man, usually deliberate, in few cases accidental. The species has been introduced to new regions mainly as a food resource, but also for other reasons which, according to Cowie and Robinson (2003), include: medicinal purposes (such as in Hawaii, Mauritius, Réunion); as pets (the introduction in Florida in the 1960s resulted from the deliberate importation of snails from Hawaii by a child); and for aesthetic reasons.

Raut and Barker (2002) and Fischer et al. (2010) summarize the dispersal sequence of the species, which was introduced to Madagascar prior to 1800 from Kenya, but was not accepted as an edible species. However, the species was attributed medicinal properties and it was introduced to Mauritius and thence to many islands in Indian Ocean. From there, it was introduced to India and Sri Lanka. By the 1930s, the species had been spread throughout East Asia. Subsequent dispersal continued into the Pacific aided in part, by the Second World War and postwar commerce (Raut and Barker, 2002). Since the mid-20th Century, the species reached Papua New Guinea, Tahiti, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, French Polynesia, American Samoa, Samoa and Federate States of Micronesia (Raut and Barker, 2002 and references therein) and is now present in most parts fo the Indo-Pacific (Cowie, 2000).

In the Americas, A. fulica was found established in the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe in 1984 and Martinique in 1988 (Schotman, 1989; Raut and Barker, 2002). It was introduced to South America (Brazil) in the late 1980s as a commercial species and has spread widely there and in other countries on the continent (Paiva, 1999; Vogler et al., 2013).

Escapes from abandoned breeding facilities, accidental transport with building materials, waste and plants, and use as fishing bait have contributed to the local spread.

Risk of Introduction

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Because of its African origin, it has been supposed that A. fulica will be confined to tropical environments. However, the species exhibits wide environmental tolerances (Raut and Barker, 2002). It not only has demonstrated its success as an invader in the tropics, but also is well established in temperate landscapes (e.g. Japan, Argentina). It was not introduced to South America until the late 1980s and is now present in almost all states of Brazil and is spreading in several other countries. Bioclimatic models have been used to identify further South American areas that are susceptible to invasion (Vogler et al., 2013).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page L. fulica is a polyphagous pest. Its preferred food is decayed vegetation and animal matter, lichens, algae and fungi. However, the potential of the snail as a pest only became apparent after having been introduced around the world into new environments (Rees, 1950). It has been recorded on a large number of plants including most ornamentals, and vegetables and leguminous cover crops may also suffer extensively. The bark of relatively large trees such as citrus, papaya, rubber and cacao is subject to attack. Poaceous crops (sugarcane, maize, rice) suffer little or no damage from L. fulica. There are reports of L. fulica feeding on hundreds of species of plants (Raut and Ghose, 1984). Thakur (1998) found that vegetables of the genus Brassica were the most preferred food item from a range of various food plants tested.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeOther
Allium tuberosum (Oriental garlic)LiliaceaeOther
Alocasia macrorrhizos (giant taro)AraceaeOther
Alstonia scholaris (white cheesewood)ApocynaceaeOther
Alstroemeria (Inca lily)AlstroemeriaceaeOther
Amaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
Amaranthus tricolorAmaranthaceaeOther
Amaranthus viridis (slender amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
Anagallis arvensis (scarlet pimpernel)PrimulaceaeOther
Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeOther
Andropogon (beardgrass)PoaceaeOther
Annona cherimola (cherimoya)AnnonaceaeOther
Annona muricata (soursop)AnnonaceaeOther
AnthuriumAraceaeOther
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
Areca catechu (betelnut palm)ArecaceaeOther
Artocarpus (breadfruit trees)MoraceaeMain
Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit)MoraceaeOther
Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)MoraceaeOther
Asplenium nidus (bird's nest fern)AspleniaceaeOther
Averrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)OxalidaceaeOther
Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeOther
Basella alba (Malabar spinach)BasellaceaeOther
BoehmeriaUrticaceaeOther
BougainvilleaNyctaginaceaeOther
BrassicaBrassicaceaeMain
Brassica napus var. napus (rape)BrassicaceaeOther
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeMain
Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry)MoraceaeOther
BryophyllumCrassulaceaeOther
Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)FabaceaeOther
Calophyllum inophyllum (Alexandrian laurel)ClusiaceaeOther
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeOther
Canna indica (canna lilly)CannaceaeOther
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeOther
Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeMain
Cassia fistula (Indian laburnum)FabaceaeOther
Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)ApocynaceaeOther
CentrosemaFabaceaeOther
CereusCactaceaeOther
Cestrum nocturnum (night jessamine)SolanaceaeOther
Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeOther
Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeOther
Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)RutaceaeOther
Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeOther
Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeOther
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
Clitoria ternatea (butterfly-pea)FabaceaeOther
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeOther
Coffea canephora (robusta coffee)RubiaceaeOther
Colocasia esculenta (taro)AraceaeOther
Corchorus capsularis (white jute)TiliaceaeOther
CordylineAgavaceaeOther
CosmosAsteraceaeOther
Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucumis melo subsp. meloCucurbitaceaeMain
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeMain
DahliaAsteraceaeOther
Dalbergia sissooFabaceaeOther
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeOther
Dioscorea alata (white yam)DioscoreaceaeMain
Dioscorea bulbifera (air potato)DioscoreaceaeOther
DracaenaAgavaceaeOther
Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)ArecaceaeOther
Epipremnum pinnatum (centipede tongavine)AraceaeOther
Eryngium (sea-holly)ApiaceaeOther
Erythrina berteroana (coralbean)FabaceaeOther
Eucalyptus deglupta (kamarere)MyrtaceaeOther
Falcataria moluccana (batai wood)FabaceaeOther
Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia)FabaceaeOther
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeOther
Gossypium herbaceum (short staple cotton)MalvaceaeOther
Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeOther
HeliconiaHeliconiaceaeOther
Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Hibiscus mutabilis (cottonrose)MalvaceaeOther
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)MalvaceaeOther
Impatiens balsamina (garden balsam)BalsaminaceaeOther
Indigofera (indigo)FabaceaeOther
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeOther
Jasminum sambac (arabian jasmine)OleaceaeOther
Kalanchoe pinnata (cathedral bells)CrassulaceaeOther
Lablab purpureus (hyacinth bean)FabaceaeOther
Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd)CucurbitaceaeOther
LaporteaUrticaceaeOther
Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena)FabaceaeOther
Luffa acutangula (angled luffa)CucurbitaceaeOther
Luffa aegyptiaca (loofah)CucurbitaceaeOther
Malus (ornamental species apple)RosaceaeOther
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Mimosa (sensitive plants)FabaceaeOther
Momordica charantia (bitter gourd)CucurbitaceaeOther
Momordica cochinchinensisCucurbitaceaeOther
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry)RubiaceaeOther
Moringa oleifera (horse radish tree)MoringaceaeOther
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeOther
MurrayaRutaceaeOther
Musa (banana)MusaceaeMain
Musa acuminata (wild banana)MusaceaeMain
Nerium oleander (oleander)ApocynaceaeOther
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeOther
Oncidium (dancing-lady orchid)OrchidaceaeOther
Opuntia (Pricklypear)CactaceaeOther
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeOther
Oxalis corymbosa (largeleaf woodsorrel)OxalidaceaeOther
Pachyrhizus erosus (yam bean)FabaceaeOther
Passiflora (passionflower)PassifloraceaeOther
PhalaenopsisOrchidaceaeOther
Phaseolus (beans)FabaceaeOther
Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry)SolanaceaeOther
Piper betle (betel pepper)PiperaceaeOther
Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeMain
Polyphagous (polyphagous)Main
Portulaca grandiflora (Rose moss)PortulacaceaeOther
PuerariaFabaceaeOther
Raphanus sativus (radish)BrassicaceaeOther
Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeOther
Rosa (roses)RosaceaeOther
Salvia (sage)LamiaceaeOther
Sansevieria trifasciata (mother-in-law’s tongue)AgavaceaeOther
Sesamum indicum (sesame)PedaliaceaeOther
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeOther
SorghumPoaceaeOther
Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeOther
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain)VerbenaceaeOther
Swietenia mahagoni (Cuban mahogany)MeliaceaeOther
Synedrella nodiflora (synedrella)AsteraceaeOther
Tabernaemontana divaricataApocynaceaeOther
Tagetes erecta (African marigold)AsteraceaeOther
Tagetes patula (French marigold)AsteraceaeMain
Tectona grandis (teak)LamiaceaeOther
Tephrosia (hoary-pea)FabaceaeOther
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)MalvaceaeOther
ThespesiaMalvaceaeOther
Trichosanthes dioica (pointed gourd)CucurbitaceaeOther
VandaOrchidaceaeOther
Vanilla planifolia (vanilla)OrchidaceaeOther
Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeOther
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther
Xanthosoma brasiliense (Tahitian spinach)AraceaeOther
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeOther
Zingiber (ginger)ZingiberaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page In garden plants and ornamentals of a number of varieties, and vegetables, all stages of development are eaten, leading to severe damage in those species that are most often attacked. However, cuttings and seedlings are the preferred food items, even of plants such as Artocarpus which are not attacked in the mature state. In these plants damage is caused by complete consumption or removal of bark. Young snails up to about 4 months feed almost exclusively on young shoots and succulent leaves. The papaya appears to be the only fruit which is seriously damaged by L. fulica, largely as a result of its preference for fallen and decaying fruit.

In plants such as rice, which are not targets of L. fulica, sometimes sheer weight of numbers can result in broken stems. In general, physical destruction to the cover crop results in secondary damage to the main crop, which relies on the cover crop for manure, shade, soil and moisture retention and/or nitrogen restoration. This in turn can result in a reduction in the available nitrogen in the soil and consequently marked erosion in steeper areas.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / external feeding
Stems / discoloration of bark
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Bequaert (1951) described the biology of Achatininae in general. Mead (1961) considered the biology and ecology of L. fulica in terms of economic damage and pest control.

Genetics

Vercourt (1966) recognized two colour morphs in the East African coastal race: radatzi (unstreaked) and hamillei (streaked), which were otherwise identical in morphology. Mead (1961) commented on the noticeable variability of L. fulica in both shell size and shape, with these factors varying with locality. He reported snails on Guam commonly close to 6 inches, but on Micronesia 3.5 to 4.5 inches being closer to the average. Peterson (in Mead, 1961) recorded one specimen of just under 8 inches. Shells from Anguar in the Pelaus had a deep, rich, contrasting colour pattern, with a thick periostracum and a nacreous gloss, whereas those from Koror Island were almost white and devoid of a periostracum. White snails have been reported from Africa (Owen and Reid, 1986). Specimens from some populations on Sri Lanka and Hawaii are darker in colour with a long axis and reduced body whorl. Such variability in snails is often the result of environmental factors such as varying levels in the supply of calcium carbonate, but the genetic effect resulting from small founding populations may be responsible for much inter-island variation.

The inheritance of shell colour polymorphism in L. fulica has been studied by Allen (1983).

Reproductive Biology

Like most snails, L. fulica is hermaphroditic and, after a single mating, can produce a number of batches of fertile eggs over a period of months. Early reports of self-fertilization (van der Meer Mohr, 1949) have since been discounted. It lays eggs in batches of 100 to 400, with up to 1200 being laid in a year. These hatch after about 8-21 days under tropical conditions. They are laid on the ground, often in the base of plants. The prodigality of L. fulica is renowned and the literature contains many anecdotes and astonishing estimates of the potential number of progeny if all were to survive (see Mead, 1961, 1979). For example, 20 tonnes of snails were collected on one day in Fiji just 4 years after its introduction.

Courtship behaviour was studied in the field by Tomiyama (1994). This was exclusively a nocturnal activity. Duration in copulation was shorter in young adults than in older adults but occurred during most periods of the night. Older adults were found to copulate only in the middle of the night. Copulation time ranged from 1.5 to 7.5 hours with an average time of 4.6 hours. Courtship behaviour of L. fulica follows a fixed pattern, with different behaviour occurring between the courtship initiator and the acceptor, in contrast to many other species of land snails where it is immediately reciprocal.

Tomiyama (1993) also investigated the correlation between shell growth and the maturation of the reproductive system. The reproductive gland was formed by the end of the year after hatching. Shell growth continued for some months after, but no reflection of the lip was observed - an event commonly considered to indicate sexual maturity in most land snails. Only sperm were produced while shell growth continued, but both sperm and eggs were produced when shell growth stopped. The snails had then become completely hermaphroditic.

Although the adult has an average life span of 5-6 years it may live for as long as 9 years. It will readily enter a state of aestivation and can survive for years in this state. The tendency for a number of aestivating snails to be present in an area at any time, particularly when conditions are optimum for activity, can make control measures difficult.

The life history of Achatina snails was described by Williams (1951). More recently, investigations carried out by Raut (1991) in West Bengal, India, found that L. fulica became sexually mature in their second year and produced 2-13 egg clutches overall up to their fifth year. The number of eggs per clutch ranged from around 30 to 300, with a gradual increase occurring in line with the age of the snails. The mean fertility rate was 94.6%, but again was higher in clutches laid by older snails than in those laid by younger snails. Birth rate varied with the age of the individuals. There was no recruitment up to the age of 422 days (including the aestivation period). The period between ovipositions (21-76 days) was lower during active periods when both active and aestivation periods were considered. The snails survived for between 1 and 1562 days. Mortality rate was higher in young snails, especially during aestivation. Overall, from the time of hatching to sexual maturity, mortality was found to be 49%. The life table for L. fulica indicated that 0-day-old individuals would survive for 638.5 days, whereas individuals that were 1550 days old were expected to survive for another 25 days. The mean total output of eggs per season varied considerably from 100+ to 700, with an average lifetime output of 1300. Raut's findings in general concur with those of other studies.

Environmental Requirements

Although L. fulica is a tropical snail, it can survive cold conditions, even snow, by aestivating, though it is unable to establish itself in temperate regions. It is normally nocturnal and crepuscular in its habits, though it will become active in the daytime during rainy or overcast periods. This indicates that light, temperature, moisture and food are all vital factors in snail activity. There is evidence that growth rate may be density dependent (Sidelnikov and Stepanov, 2000).

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Angiostrongylus cantonensis Parasite not specific Raut and Barker, 2002
Centropus sinensis Predator Tehsin and Sharma, 2000
Euglandina rosea Predator Adults not specific Civeyrel and Simberloff, 1996; Fischer and Costa, 2010; Raut and Barker, 2002 Caribbean; India, parts of Asia and many islands of the Pacific and Indian oceans
Gecarcoidea natalis Predator Adults Lake and O'Dowd, 1991; Raut and Barker, 2002
Gonaxis quadrilateralis Predator Eggs/Juveniles Raut and Barker, 2002
Lamprophorus Predator Adults
Oecophylla Predator Larvae Raut and Barker, 2002
Platydemus manokwari Predator Adults not specific Fischer and Costa, 2010; Raut and Barker, 2002 Maldives; Philippines; Pacific Islands
Sarcophaga Parasite Adults not specific Raut and Barker, 2002
Solenopsis geminata Predator Adults/Juveniles Raut and Barker, 2002
Trichodina Parasite Raut and Barker, 2002

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Mead (1961) commented on the paucity of natural enemies of L. fulica in its native East Africa. Although animals from many groups, including birds, mammals and reptiles, will feed on achatinids, he was reviewing the topic in terms of potential natural control in regions where they had been introduced. He noted that those that it does have are of questionable value in effecting any real control. This is the major reason why foreign predators, notably Euglandina rosea and Platydemus manokwari, have been sought as agents of biological control, having been introduced into Pacific islands from Florida, USA, and New Guinea respectively. Two species of East African carnivorous snails of the genus Gonaxis have also been established in many areas, though accounts vary as to their effectiveness on islands of introduction, where their impact on crop protection has been minimal. In addition, two East African species of predatory carabid beetles and five species of lampyrid beetle from South-East Asia are known to prey on L. fulica.

On Christmas Island (Kiritimati), there is good evidence that the endemic red crab, Gecarcoidea natalis, restricts the distribution of L. fulica, especially in undisturbed rain forest (Lake and O'Dowd, 1991). Predatory hermit crabs, primarily Coenibitus perlatus, and robber crabs, Birgus latro, have made it difficult for L. fulica to become established on coral islands. Rats, centipedes, millipedes and fire ants are all known to prey on the giant African snail on Indo-Pacific Islands. In Rajasthan in India, L. fulica was observed by Tehsin and Sharma (2000) to be eaten by the coucal (Centropus sinensis), a small bird related to the cuckoo.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Most dispersal of L. fulica has occurred accidentally, with all developmental stages becoming attached to machinery (e.g., road construction, landscaping) unobserved.

Natural Dispersal

L. achatina is self-propelled.

Agricultural Practices

Eggs and snails accidentally become attached to agricultural machinery and vehicles, and are readily transported in garden waste.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionAccidental Yes Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
FoodIntroduced as a food Yes
Garden waste disposalAccidental Yes
Hitchhiker Yes Yes
HorticultureAccidental Yes Yes
Live food or feed trade Yes
Pet trade Yes Yes
Research Yes
Self-propelled Yes

Pathway Vectors

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Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products Negative
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health Negative
Livestock production None
Native fauna Negative
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Economic Impact

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L. fulica has a voracious appetite and has been recorded as attacking over 50 different kinds of plants although it has a preference for breadfruit, cassava, cocoa, papaya, peanut, rubber and most species of legumes and cucurbits. The economic impact of L. fulica was considered to be so profound that the new discipline of economic malacology was formulated by zoologist Albert Mead (Mead, 1961, 1979) to take account of a pest species which appeared to be threatening already inadequate food supplies in poor regions of the world. Mead devoted his book to the economic impact of L. fulica. There had been reports that the species would devour virtually anything found in the garden (Jarrett, 1923, 1931) and Mead evaluated L. fulica as a major horticultural and agricultural pest. However, many reports of widespread damage by L. fulica have been anecdotal and more recently Civeyrel and Simberloff (1996) suggest that the lasting impact of L. fulica on agriculture may not be severe, and the human health risk is probably minor.

It is difficult to quantify the damage wrought by L. fulica to gardens and crops, but suffice to say that it is considered by most authorities to be the most damaging land snail in the world. However, Civeyrel and Simberloff (1996) believe that the damage done to endemic species of snail by ill-judged biological control programmes outweighs the impact of the pest species. The dramatic population crashes commonly observed in populations of L. fulica which had increased rapidly in size following introduction into new environments, may well lessen the deleterious long-term economic impact of the species, though it remains a serious pest in many areas.

Indirectly, L. fulica may have an impact as a vector of plant diseases as it has been implicated in the transmission of Phytophthora palmivora (Schotman, 1989).

Environmental Impact

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Cowie (ISSG, 2003) believes the agricultural impacts of L. fulica may have been exaggerated, the nuisance factor perhaps being more important. By reaching such enormous numbers and invading native ecosystems they also pose a serious conservation problem by eating native plants, modifying habitat, and probably out-competing native snails.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Myrsine vaccinioides (Violet Lake colicwood)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013
Peperomia subpetiolata (Waikamoi peperomia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013
Phyllostegia bracteata (bracted phyllostegia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiHerbivory/grazing/browsingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013
Scaevola coriacea (dwarf naupaka)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010

Social Impact

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Perhaps the biggest social impact wrought by L. fulica is its nuisance value as large numbers of snails build up. Not only are they unsightly but cadavers make smell and mess, especially where they are run over by traffic, which invariably happens during rapid growth of numbers.

L. fulica can act as a vector of the human disease, eosinophilic meningitis, which is caused by the rat lungworm parasite, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The parasite is passed to humans through eating raw or improperly cooked snails or freshwater prawns. It is therefore advisable to wash one's hands after handling the snail. However, Cowie (2000) states that many other introduced snails in the tropics are vectors of this parasite and the spread of the disease has not definitively been related to the spread of L. fulica.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Impact mechanisms
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing

Uses

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In its native East Africa, L. fulica is a source of protein for some local people. Tillier et al. (1993) stated that although L. fulica is a vector of rat lungworm which causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans, it is nevertheless suitable for human consumption if properly prepared and cooked, and has not been in contact with poisoned bait. Instructions for that process were included in the Pest Advisory Leaflet of the South Pacific Commission (Lambert, 1999). It is widely advertised as food on Chinese Internet sites. L. fulica can also be useful in making fertilizer and chicken feed. It has been tested as a cheap alternative source of feed in fish farming in Sri Lanka. In Java, although consumption depends on the consumer's ethnic background, the breeding of L. fulica can benefit disadvantaged groups and help to conserve the natural snail population (Schneider et al., 1998).

In common with a number of other molluscan species, L. fulica has been used as a source of biological compound in clinical and experimental laboratories. It has been widely utilised in neurobiology and electrophysiology (Tamamaki, 1989; Zhang et al., 1996), endocrinology (Takeda and Ohtake, 1994; Bose et al., 1997), comparative biochemistry and physiology (Kalyani, 1990; Misra and Shrivastava, 1994; Indra and Ramalingam, 1996), reproductive biology (Sretarugsa et al., 1991), parasitology (Utomo et al., (1991), immunology (Harris et al., 1992) and molecular biology (Obara et al., 1992).

In the UK and in a few US states, where it is permissable to do so, L. fulica (along with the two main West African species) is sometimes kept as a pet.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Bait/attractant
  • Fodder/animal feed

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Laboratory use
  • Pet/aquarium trade

Human food and beverage

  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Detection and Inspection

Top of page L. fulica is a large and conspicuous crop pest which hides during the day. Surveys are best carried out at night using a flashlight. It is easily seen, and attacked plants exhibit extensive rasping and defoliation. Weight of numbers can break the stems of some species. Its presence can also be detected by signs of ribbon-like excrement, and slime trails on plants and buildings.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page There are a number of species of giant achatinids distributed across sub-Saharan Africa from Zanzibar to Freetown, though three are most often encountered. L. fulica from East Africa is somewhat smaller than its similar counterpart in West Africa, Achatina marginata, and has a more pointed apex to its shell. Another similar species, Achatina achatina, also from West Africa, is the world's largest gastropod with a maximum recorded shell length of 27 cm and a weight of almost 1 kg. A. achatina lays around six large (15 mm) eggs at a time compared to several hundred smaller (3-4 mm) eggs laid by L. fulica. All three species form part of the diet of local people.

Prevention and Control

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A vast body of literature has accrued on the various methods of control available for L. fulica. Half of Mead's 1961 book on the economic impact of the giant African snail was devoted to control. Perhaps the major problem with testing the efficacy of control measures in experiments is the ability to distinguish the level of success of the method under test and the natural demographic crashes that are a renowned feature of the population dynamics of this species. There is only one officially documented example of eradication, in Florida, USA, in 1969 (Schotman, 1989).

Biological Control

Again, Mead (1961) reviewed in considerable depth all the species of animals, from microbes to mammals, that either prey on L. fulica or may do so given the opportunity, and assessed their potential as biological control agents. Those species that offered the best potential prospects, namely predatory insects and molluscs, had a major drawback: they either failed to survive or become established on introduction, or they were likely to pose a serious potential threat to native species if they did. It is interesting to note that even 40 years ago "the predatory snails Gonaxis kibwiensis and Euglandina rosea have taken the limelight almost entirely in the program of biological control of A. fulica" (Mead 1961).

It is unfortunate for many species of terrestrial gastropods on the islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans that the introductions of the alien predatory molluscs as biological control agents against L. fulica were often conducted in haste, contrary to expert advice and without satisfactory field trials. This has led to widespread extinctions of endemic snail species without evidence that the introductions were effective against the target species (Murray et al., 1988). The principal agent of this ecological disaster was, and is, Euglandina rosea, a carnivorous snail species from Florida, USA. It has been introduced into many islands of the Indo-Pacific in an attempt to eradicate L. fulica but has had a catastrophic effect on endemic gastropods, most notably in French Polynesia (Cowie, 1992) and Hawaii (Hadfield et al., 1993). In French Polynesia population crashes of L. fulica were observed both on Moorea, after the introduction of E. rosea, and on Huahine in the absence of the predator (Murray et al., 1988).

E. rosea and a natural predator of L. fulica, Gonaxis quadrilateralis, both failed to control the pest in India (Srivastava, 1985). Further, the local carnivorous snail, Gulella indoennea bicolor, was killed by chemicals used against L. fulica. Gonaxis kibweziensis has failed to make an impression on populations of L. fulica on Mauritius, as has Edentulina ovoidea on Réunion Island.

Good control has been reported from Guam, the Marianas Islands and in the Maldives in the 1980s with the use of a non-specific planarian worm Platydemus manokwari (Muniappan, 1990). The same researchers describe similar success on Bugsuk Island in the Philippines (Muniappan et al., 1986) by distributing the flatworm in piles of coconut husks. P. manokwari is still seen in some quarters to be a potential control agent for L. fulica (Kaneda et al., 1990) but there are dangers in introducing a species where little is known of its ecology and life history. Invertebrate researchers and conservationists are disturbed by the non-specificity of P. manokwari and its targets and the lack of control over its dispersal, and strongly recommend that no further introductions of this species take place (Pearce Kelly et al., 1994). Another flatworm, Geoplana sp., was reported to have made an impact on populations of L. fulica in Guam (Schotman, 1989) but it should have no future as a biological control agent because it is a vector of human disease.

Kurozumi (1985) has discussed the possibility of using the slug, Incillaria sp., a common predator of eggs and adults of several species of land snail in Japan, as a potential biological control agent.

Chemical Control

The most common means of chemical control against L. fulica has been the use of metaldehyde, though chemical molluscicides are no longer favoured and have proved ineffective in the control of this species. Both the authorities and local farmers on Samoa oppose the use of metaldehyde. Mead (1979) and Raut and Ghose (1984) have stated that all chemical means of control against L. fulica have so far failed. The FAO (Schotman, 1989) suggest that metaldehyde poison baits can be effective in small scale cultivation, but are not practicable elsewhere. Sharma and Agarwal (1989) recommended the use of 5% metaldehyde pellets, but only in conjunction with wider sanitation and physical control measures. However, Salmijah et al. (2000) record the development of resistance by L. fulica to metaldehyde.

Various insecticides and fungicides were tested against L. fulica by Kakoty and Das (1987) who found that only copper sulphate solution produced high mortality rates. An insecticidal bait has also been tested by Sarkar et al. (1997). Rao et al. (2000, 2003) looked at the effect of single and binary treatments of plant-derived molluscicides on reproduction and survival, and on different enzyme activities in the nervous tissue of L. fulica. Although results were positive, it was agreed that the sublethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process. Saxena and Mahendru (2000) evaluated the efficacy of different baits (wet wheat, gram, barley and corn flour) and insecticides (malathion, trichlorfon and mexacarbate) against L. fulica, at different concentrations. The results showed that wet wheat flour was the best bait.

Mechanical Control

As L. fulica is primarily a pest in areas of human habitation, physical control can often be as effective as any other means where they congregate in large numbers. Shah (1992) recommends that snails on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, where L. fulica is a major crop pest, can be collected and destroyed during aestivation between January and April when they hide under hedges and debris. Potential hiding places should be removed from fields. The snails can then be killed by sprinkling with salt or by exposure to the sun.

Physical control can be efficient by making a strip of 1.5 m wide bare soil around nurseries. Barriers or screens can be constructed using corrugated tin, security wire mesh and ditches dug around fields (Schotman, 1989). Snails can be collected each day and destroyed by crushing or drowning. The public can be involved in such collections by using organised campaigns. In developing countries children are often keen to be involved, treating the collection and destruction of large snails as a game. In some countries they are gathered for food in large quantities. L. fulica is one of four species of giant African snails, 30 tonnes of which are collected each year in Togo (Ekoue and Kuevi-Akue, 2002).

Integrated Pest Management

Ultimately, if control against L. fulica is to be effective it will have to involve some form of integration of the above methods. Srivastava et al. (1985) reviewed the biology and management of L. fulica in India with sections on its cultural, chemical and biological control. They noted the ineffectiveness of predatory molluscs, or their susceptibility to molluscicides used against L. fulica. An integrated approach was recommended using an aqueous extract of diseased L. fulica sprayed onto the snails and their food plants, in conjunction with non-molluscan snail predators such as the millipede, Orthomorha sp., and hermit crabs, Coenobita sp. An integrated approach is also recommended by the South Pacific Commission (Lambert, 1999) using chemical control by metaldehyde, and physical control using barriers of bare land around crops and collection after rain. The commission does not recommend the use of predatory snails as a control agent of L. fulica. Raut and Barker (2002) review the control (physical, chemical and biological) of L. fulica and other Achatinidae pests across Africa and other countries.

Phytosanitary Measures

The FAO International Plant Quarantine Treatment Manual (FAO, 1981) describes protocols for treatments to eliminate infestations of L. fulica on non-plant cargo using hydrogen cyanide and cold treatments (Schotman, 1989). In addition to the plant quarantine inspection of incoming carriers and cargo at international points of entry, thorough predeparture quarantine inspection from countries where L. fulica occurs should also be undertaken.

References

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Ademolu KO, Akanmu ET, Dedeke GA, Jayeola OA, 2013. A preliminary chemical and structural analysis on the albumen gland of three snail species found in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 36(1):35-42. http://www.pertanika.upm.edu.my/Pertanika%20PAPERS/JTAS%20Vol.%2036%20(1)%20Feb.%202013%20(View%20Full%20Journal).pdf

Allen JA, 1983. The inheritance of a shell colour polymorphism in Achatina fulica (Bowdich) from East Africa. Journal of Conchology, 31:185-189.

Ashaye OA, Omole JA, Adetoro FO, Kehinde OF, 2001. Effect of processing on chemical and sensory properties of two West-African snails (Achatina fulica and Limicoleria spp). Moor Journal of Agricultural Research, 2(1):51-53.

Avhad SB, Shinde KS, Hiware CJ, 2013. Record of molluscan pests in mulberry gardens in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra State, India. Indian Journal of Sericulture, 52(1):29-33.

Babalola OO, Akinsoyinu AO, 2009. Proximate composition and mineral profile of snail meat from different breeds of land snail in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(12):1842-1844. http://pjbs.org/pjnonline/fin1510.pdf

Barboza SHR, Costa DPSda, Romanelli PF, 2006. Processing and sensory evaluation of the meat of the escargot (Achatina fulica) and aruá (Pomacea lineata) molluscs. (Processamento e avaliação sensorial da carne dos moluscos escargot (Achatina fulica) e aruá (Pomacea lineata).) Alimentos e Nutrição, 17(4):413-418. http://www.fcfar.unesp.br

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Contributors

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16/10/13 Updated by:

Roberto E Vogler, Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Químicas y Naturales, Departamento de Biología, Rivadavia 2370, N3300LDX, Posadas, Argentina

Ariel A Beltramino, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, División Zoología Invertebrados, Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA, La Plata, Argentina

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