Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Halotydeus destructor
(redlegged earth mite)

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Datasheet

Halotydeus destructor (redlegged earth mite)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 May 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Halotydeus destructor
  • Preferred Common Name
  • redlegged earth mite
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •         Class: Arachnida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult H. destructor mite on clover leaf.
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult H. destructor mite on clover leaf.
CopyrightJ. Ridsell-Smith/CSIRO Entomology
Adult H. destructor mite on clover leaf.
AdultAdult H. destructor mite on clover leaf.J. Ridsell-Smith/CSIRO Entomology
H. destructor feeding damage on clover in pasture.
TitleMite damage
CaptionH. destructor feeding damage on clover in pasture.
CopyrightJ. Ridsell-Smith/CSIRO Entomology
H. destructor feeding damage on clover in pasture.
Mite damageH. destructor feeding damage on clover in pasture.J. Ridsell-Smith/CSIRO Entomology
Anstis wallacei, a predatory mite introduced to South Africa for biological control of H. destructor.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionAnstis wallacei, a predatory mite introduced to South Africa for biological control of H. destructor.
CopyrightB. Halliday/CSIRO Entomology
Anstis wallacei, a predatory mite introduced to South Africa for biological control of H. destructor.
Natural enemyAnstis wallacei, a predatory mite introduced to South Africa for biological control of H. destructor. B. Halliday/CSIRO Entomology
Cadavers of female H. destructor containing diapausing eggs collected from the soil surface.
TitleDiapausing eggs
CaptionCadavers of female H. destructor containing diapausing eggs collected from the soil surface.
CopyrightC. Pavri/CSIRO Entomology
Cadavers of female H. destructor containing diapausing eggs collected from the soil surface.
Diapausing eggsCadavers of female H. destructor containing diapausing eggs collected from the soil surface.C. Pavri/CSIRO Entomology

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Halotydeus destructor (Tucker)

Preferred Common Name

  • redlegged earth mite

Other Scientific Names

  • Penthaleus destructor Tucker

International Common Names

  • English: black sand mite; earth mite, red-legged; red-legged earth mite; redlegged velvet earth mite

EPPO code

  • HALODE (Halotydeus destructor)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •                 Class: Arachnida
  •                     Subclass: Acari
  •                         Superorder: Acariformes
  •                             Suborder: Prostigmata
  •                                 Family: Penthaleidae
  •                                     Genus: Halotydeus
  •                                         Species: Halotydeus destructor

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / seedling blight

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anystis baccarum Predator Adults/Nymphs
Anystis salicinus Predator Western Australia
Anystis wallacei Predator Adults/Nymphs Western Australia
Balaustium murorum Predator Adults/Nymphs
Bdellodes affinis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chausseria capensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cyta latirostris Predator
Neozygites acaracida Pathogen Adults
Neozygites acaridis Pathogen
Parasitus fimetorum Parasite
Walzia australica Predator Adults/Nymphs

References

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Annells AJ, 1995. The reproductive biology and mating behaviour of redlegged earth mite: an overview. In: McDonald G, Hoffman AA, eds. Proceedings of 2nd National Workshop on redlegged earth mite, lucerne flea and blue oat mite. Victoria, Australia: Victoria Printing, 29-31.

Annells AJ, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, 1991. The effect of moisture on aestivating eggs of Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) (Acari: Penthaleidae). In: Ridsdill-Smith TJ, ed. Proceedings National Workshop redlegged earth mite, lucerne flea and blue oat mite. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture, 7-9.

Annells AJ, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, 1994. Host plant species and carbohydrate supplements affecting rate of multiplication of redlegged earth mite. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 18(9):521-530; 18 ref.

Anon., 1973. Red legged earth mite and pea mite. Tasmanian Journal of Agriculture, 44:129-130.

Baker AS, 1995. A redescription of Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) (Prostigmata: Penthaleidae), with a survey of ontogenetic setal development in the superfamily Eupodoidea. International Journal of Acarology, 21(4):261-282; 65 ref.

Baxter N, 1995. Control needed for redlegged earth mites. In: Casey M, ed. Pasture Plus. Perth, Australia: Kondinin Group, 348-353.

Beale P, 1995. Redlegged earthmite cause for concern. Farmers' Newsletter, Large Area, No. 145:18-19

Bishop AL, Holtkamp RH, Horwood M, 1991. The distribution of earth mites and lucerne flea in New South Wales. In: Ridsdill-Smith TJ, ed. Proceedings National Workshop redlegged earth mite, lucerne flea and blue oat mite. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture, 20-23.

Brennan RF, Grimm M, 1992. Effect of aphids and mites on herbage and seed production of subterranean clover (cv. Daliak) in response to superphosphate and potash. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 32(1):39-47

Broderick K, Pittock C, Arioli T, Creaser EH, Weinman JJ, Rolfe BG, 1997. Pathogenesis-related proteins in Trifolium subterraneum: a general survey and subsequent characterisation of a protein inducible by ethephon and redlegged earth mite attack. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 24(6):819-829; 49 ref.

Carpenter A, Epenhuijsen Kvan, 1993. A systems approach to quarantine entomology: using asparagus infestation as a model. Proceedings of the Forty Sixth New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, 10-12 August 1993 Rotorua, New Zealand; New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 53-56

Chalmers I, 1995. Pasture faces constant pest threat. In: Casey M, ed. Pasture Plus. Perth, Australia: Kondinin Group, 298-299.

Dumbleton LJ, 1947. The redlegged earth mite. Measures for control of pest and protection of vegetables. New Zealand Journal of Agriculture, 74:9-13.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Erlich S, 1960. The occurrence, biology and control with newer insecticides of the redlegged earth mite. Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Victoria, 58:635-643.

Gaull KR, Ridsdill-Smith J, 1997. Host plant acceptance by redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) (Acarina: Penthaleidae). Journal of Insect Behavior, 10(6):859-869; 24 ref.

Gaull KR, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, 1996. The foraging behaviour of redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor (Acarina: Penthaleidae), in an annual subterranean clover pasture. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 86(3):247-252; 22 ref.

Gillespie DJ, 1993. Redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor) resistance in annual pasture legumes. In: Delfosse ES, ed. Pests of pastures. Weed, invertebrate and disease pests of Australian sheep pastures. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO, 211-213.

Grimm M, Michael P, Hyder M, Doyle P, 1995. Effects of pasture pest damage and grazing management on efficiency of animal production. Plant Protection Quarterly, 10(2):62-64

Halliday RB, 1991. Taxonomic background of the redlegged earth mite Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) (Acarina: Penthaleidae). Plant Protection Quarterly, 6(4):162-165

Hoffmann AA, Porter S, Kovacs I, 1997. The response of the major crop and pasture pest, the red-legged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor) to pesticides: dose-response curves and evidence for tolerance. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 21(3):151-162; 19 ref.

Jack RW, 1908. The earth flea. A common pest of winter vegetables. Agricultural Journal of the Cape of Good Hope. May, 615-620.

James DG, 1995. Biological control of earth mites in pasture using endemic natural enemies. Plant Protection Quarterly, 10(2):58-59

James DG, O'Malley K, Rayner M, 1995. Effect of alphacypermethrin and bifenthrin on the survival of five acarine predators of Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae). Experimental & Applied Acarology, 19(11):647-654; 8 ref.

James DG, O'Malley KJ, 1991. Oversummering of eggs of Halotydeus destructor Tucker (Acari: Penthaleidae): diapause termination and mortality. Australian Entomological Magazine, 18(1):35-41

James DG, O'Malley KJ, 1992. Control of redlegged earth mite Halotydeus destructor on bare earth. Plant Protection Quarterly, 7(1):10-11

Jiang Y, Ghisalberti EL, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, 1996. Correlation of 1-octen-3-one with antixenotic resistance in subterranean clover cotyledons to red-legged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor (Acarina: Penthaleidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 22(2):369-382; 11 ref.

Jiang Y, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, 1996. Antixenotic resistance of subterranean clover cotyledons to redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 79(2):161-169; 20 ref.

Jiang Y, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, 1996. Examination of the involvement of mechanical strength in antixenotic resistance of subterranean clover cotyledons to the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor) (Acarina: Penthaleidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 86(3):263-270; 19 ref.

Liu A, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, Khan T, 1998. Pulses vary in their susceptibility to redlegged earth mite. Australian Grain (Aug-Sept), i-ii.

MacLennan KE, McDonald G, Ward SA, 1998. Soil microflora as hosts of redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 86(3):319-323; 20 ref.

Manson DCM, 1985. Red-legged earth mite in vegetable produce. Significance and control. Horticultural Produce and Practice No. 90. New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries.

McDonald G, Duncan J, Moritz K, 1995. Managing redlegged earth mites on canola with less insecticide. In: Potter TD, ed. Proceedings 10th Australian Research Assembly on Brassicas. Adelaide, Australia: South Australian Research and Development Institute, 77-82.

McDonald G, Hoffmann AA, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, 1999. Managing earth mites as establishment pests of Australian canola: a gradual path towards IPM. Proceedings 10th International Rapeseed Congress: new horizons for an old crop, Canberra, October 1999. Du Groupe Consultatif International de researche sur le Colza. Computer laser optical disk.

Merton E, McDonald G, Hoffmann A, 1995. Cultural control of redlegged earth mite, blue oat mite and lucerne flea in canola. Plant Protection Quarterly, 10(2):65-66

Meyer MKP, 1981. Mite pest of crops in Southern Africa. Scientific Bulletin Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Republic of South Africa, No. 397.

Michael P, Dutch ME, Pekin CJ, 1993. Biological control of redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor, blue oat mite, Penthaleus major, lucerne flea, Sminthurus viridis. In: Delfosse EL, ed. Pests of Pastures. Weed, invertebrate and disease pests of Australian sheep pastures. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO, 329-331.

Michael P, Grimm M, Hyder M, Doyle P, 1996. Options for pest management in pastures. Journal of Agriculture. Western Australia, 37:24-29.

Michael PJ, Dutch ME, Pekin CJ, 1991. A review of the predators of redlegged earth mite, blue oat mite and lucerne flea. Plant Protection Quarterly, 6(4):178-180

Moritz K, McDonald G, 1995. Developing redlegged earth mite resistance in canola. In: Potter TD, ed. Proceedings Australian Research Assembly on Brassicae. Adelaide, Australia: South Australian Research and Development Institute, 30-35.

Newman LJ, 1923. Red legged velvet earth mite. Western Australian Department of Agriculture Bull., No. 106:1-4.

Nicholas DA, Hardy DL, 1976. Red legged earth mite cuts pasture production. Journal of Agriculture, Western Australia, 17(1):33-34

Norris KR, 1938. A population study of the red-legged earth mite Halotydeus destructor in Western Australia, with notes on associated mites and collembola. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Pamphlet, No. 84.

Norris KR, 1944. Experimental determination of the influence of the red-legged earth mite Halotydeus destructor on a subterranean clover pasture in Western Australia. Bull. Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation, No. 183.

Norris KR, 1948. Seasonal severity of the attack of the red-legged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor) on subterranean clover. Journal Council Scientific and Industrial Research 21:7-15.

Norris KR, 1950. The aestivating eggs of the red-legged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor (Tucker). Bulletin of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, No. 253.

Nuzzaci G, Lillo E de, 1991. Contributo alla conoscenza delle parti boccali di Penthaleus major (DugFs) (Acari: Eupodoidea, Penthaleidae). Atti XVI Congresso Nazionale Italiano di Entomologia, Bari, 23/28 Settembre 1991, pp. 265-277. [In Italian].

Otto JC, 1992. A new species of Anystis von Heyden compared with Anystis salicinus (Linnaeus) (Acarina: Anystidae). International Journal of Acarology, 18(1):25-35

Otto JC, Halliday RB, 1991. Systematics and biology of a predatory mite (Anystis sp.) introduced into Australia for biological control of redlegged earth mite. Plant Protection Quarterly, 6(4):181-185

Pescott RTM, 1934. Insect pests of cabbages, cauliflowers and related plants. Journal of Department of Agriculture, Victoria, Insect Pest Series, No. 22.

Petch T, 1940. An empusa on a mite. Proceeding of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 65:259-260.

Pratley JE, Watt J, Seidel J, Slater PD, Lewington D, 1991. Palatability effects by redlegged earth mite. In: Ridsdill-Smith TJ, ed. Proceedings National Workshop redlegged earth mite, lucerne flea and blue oat mite. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture, 50-52.

Qin TK, 1997. Population genetics of redlegged earth mites Halotydeus destructor and H. anthropus (Acarina: Penthaleidae) from Australia and/or South Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 87(3):289-298; 24 ref.

Qin TK, Halliday RB, 1995. Systematic studies of redlegged earth mite Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) and related species (Acarina: Penthaleidae). Plant Protection Quarterly, 10(2):50-52

Qin TK, Halliday RB, 1996. Revision of the Australian and South African species of Halotydeus (Acarina: Penthaleidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 86(4):441-450; 29 ref.

Ridsdill-Smith TJ, 1991. A contribution to assessing the economic impact of redlegged earth mite on agricultural production in Australia. Plant Protection Quarterly, 6(4):168-169

Ridsdill-Smith TJ, 1997. Biology and control of Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) (Acarina: Penthaleidae): a review. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 21(4):195-224; 7 pp. of ref.

Ridsdill-Smith TJ, Annells AJ, 1997. Seasonal occurrence and abundance of redlegged earth mite Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae) in annual pastures of southwestern Australia. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 87(4):413-423; 30 ref.

Ridsdill-Smith TJ, Craig S, Beaton CD, 1997. Microscopic examination of Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae) feeding damage to subterranean clover cotyledons. In: Needham GR, Mitchell R, Horn DJ, Wellbourn WC, eds. Proceedings of the IXth International Congress of Acarology. Columbus, Ohio, USA: Ohio Biological Survey, 55-57.

Ridsdill-Smith TJ, Gaull KR, 1995. An improved method for rearing Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae) in the laboratory. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 19(6):337-345; 15 ref.

Ridsdill-Smith TJ, Nichols PGH, 1998 Development of pasture legumes resistant to redlegged earth mite. In: Zalucki MP, Drew RAI, White GG, eds. Pest management - future challenges. Proceedings 6th Australasian Applied Entomology Conference. Vol. 2, 382-389.

Ridsdill-Smith TJ, Pavri C, 1999. Spring spraying for redlegged earth mites. Farming Ahead, 92:59-62.

Seidel J, 1995. Timing essential for optimum RLEM control. In: Casey M, ed. Pasture Plus. Perth, Australia: Kondinin Group, 354-355.

Slater PD, Lewington D, Pratley JE, 1996. An investigation into the effects of redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor Tucker) and lucerne flea (Sminthurus viridis (Linnaeus)) on the performance of subterranean clover in annual pasture in southern New South Wales. Plant Protection Quarterly, 11(1):6-8; 10 ref.

Solomon ME, 1937. Behaviour of the red-legged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor, in relation to environmental conditions. Journal Animal Ecology, 6:340-361.

Solomon ME, 1937. Experiments on the effects of temperature and humidity on the survival of Halotydeus Destructor (Tucker), Acarina fam. Penthaleidae. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, 15:1-16.

Swan DC, 1934. The red-legged earth mite Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) in South Australia: with remarks upon Penthaleus major (DugFs). Journal of the Department of Agriculture, South Australia, 38:353-367.

Taverner P, 1994. Easier spray decisions for insect pests of medic pastures. Australian Grain, 4:39-42.

Thackray DJ, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, Gillespie DJ, 1997. Susceptibility of grain legume species to redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor Tucker) damage at the seedling stage. Plant Protection Quarterly, 12(3):141-144; 13 ref.

Tucker RWE, 1925. The black sand mite: Penthaleus destructor n. sp. Department of Agriculture, South Africa, Entomology Memoirs, No. 3, 21-36.

Umina PA, Hoffmann AA, 1999. Tolerance of cryptic species of blue oat mites (Penthaleus spp.) and the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor) to pesticides. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 39(5):621-628; 23 ref.

Wallace MMH, 1956. A rapid method of sampling small free-living pasture insects and mites. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 22:283-284.

Wallace MMH, 1961. Pasture burning and its effect on the aestivating eggs of Halotydeus destructor (Tuck.). Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 1:109-111.

Wallace MMH, 1970. Diapause in the aestivating egg of Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Eupodidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, 18:295-313.

Wallace MMH, 1970. The influence of temperature on post-diapause development and survival in the aestivating eggs of Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Eupodidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, 18:315-329.

Wallace MMH, 1972. A portable power-operated apparatus for collecting epigaeic Collembola and Acari. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 11(3):261-263

Wallace MMH, 1981. Tackling the lucerne flea and red-legged earth mite. Journal of Agriculture, Western Australia, 22(2):72-74

Wallace MMH, Mahon JA, 1963. The effect of insecticide treatment on the yield and botanical composition of sown pastures in Western Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 3:39-50.

Wallace MMH, Mahon JA, 1971. The distribution of Halotydeus destructor and Penthaleus major (Acari: Eupodidae) in Australia in relation to climate and land use. Australian Journal of Zoology, 19:65-76.

Walters MC, 1970. Black sand mite. Winter pest in the southern Cape. Farming in South Africa, 46:7-21.

Wang SF, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, Ghisalberti EL, 1998. Role of isoflavonoids in resistance of subterranean clover trifoliates to the redlegged earth mite Halotydeus destructor. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 24(12):2089-2100; 18 ref.

Wang SF, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, Ghisalberti EL, 1999. Levels of isoflavonoids as indicators of resistance of subterranean clover trifoliates to redlegged earth mite Halotydeus destructor. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 25(4):795-803; 15 ref.

Weeks AR, Fripp YJ, Hoffmann AA, 1995. Genetic structure of Halotydeus destructor and Penthaleus major populations in Victoria (Acari: Penthaleidae). Experimental & Applied Acarology, 19(11):633-646; 28 ref.

Weeks AR, Hoffmann AA, 1999. The biology of Penthaleus species in southeastern Australia. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 92(2):179-189; 22 ref.

Womersley H, 1933. On some Acarina from Australia and South Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 57:108-112.

Young JM, Ridsdill-Smith TJ, Gillespie DJ, Michael PJ, 1995. The value of reducing redlegged earth mite damage in pastures and the impact on optimal farm strategies for the great southern region of Western Australia. Plant Protection Quarterly, 10(2):67-68

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