Invasive Species Compendium

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Halogeton glomeratus
(halogeton)

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Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Halogeton glomeratus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • halogeton
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • H. glomeratus is a succulent annual herbaceous plant that is naturally distributed in arid and desert regions from northwest China and Mongolia to Central Asia and southeastern Russia. It was accidentally intro...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton); habit. Halogeton colonizes disturbed sites, but never becomes dominant, except in the most disturbed of settings. Idaho, USA.
TitleHabit
CaptionHalogeton glomeratus (halogeton); habit. Halogeton colonizes disturbed sites, but never becomes dominant, except in the most disturbed of settings. Idaho, USA.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton); habit. Halogeton colonizes disturbed sites, but never becomes dominant, except in the most disturbed of settings. Idaho, USA.
HabitHalogeton glomeratus (halogeton); habit. Halogeton colonizes disturbed sites, but never becomes dominant, except in the most disturbed of settings. Idaho, USA.©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton); habit. Halogeton reaches peak biomass production by late summer, as most species of Chenopodiaceae. Nr Howe, Idaho, USA. August, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionHalogeton glomeratus (halogeton); habit. Halogeton reaches peak biomass production by late summer, as most species of Chenopodiaceae. Nr Howe, Idaho, USA. August, 2009.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton); habit. Halogeton reaches peak biomass production by late summer, as most species of Chenopodiaceae. Nr Howe, Idaho, USA. August, 2009.
HabitHalogeton glomeratus (halogeton); habit. Halogeton reaches peak biomass production by late summer, as most species of Chenopodiaceae. Nr Howe, Idaho, USA. August, 2009.©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton); habit and structure. Halogeton colonizes disturbed sites, but never becomes dominant, except in the most disturbed of settings. Idaho, USA.
TitleHabit
CaptionHalogeton glomeratus (halogeton); habit and structure. Halogeton colonizes disturbed sites, but never becomes dominant, except in the most disturbed of settings. Idaho, USA.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton); habit and structure. Halogeton colonizes disturbed sites, but never becomes dominant, except in the most disturbed of settings. Idaho, USA.
HabitHalogeton glomeratus (halogeton); habit and structure. Halogeton colonizes disturbed sites, but never becomes dominant, except in the most disturbed of settings. Idaho, USA.©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton); structure. The soft reddish stems contrast against the grey-green succulent leaves. Nr. Howe, Idaho, USA. August, 2009.
TitleStructure
CaptionHalogeton glomeratus (halogeton); structure. The soft reddish stems contrast against the grey-green succulent leaves. Nr. Howe, Idaho, USA. August, 2009.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton); structure. The soft reddish stems contrast against the grey-green succulent leaves. Nr. Howe, Idaho, USA. August, 2009.
StructureHalogeton glomeratus (halogeton); structure. The soft reddish stems contrast against the grey-green succulent leaves. Nr. Howe, Idaho, USA. August, 2009.©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton); flowering habit. Halogeton produces a showy perianth during the fall when all else seems completely dessicated. Nr Howe, Idaho. USA. October, 2009.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionHalogeton glomeratus (halogeton); flowering habit. Halogeton produces a showy perianth during the fall when all else seems completely dessicated. Nr Howe, Idaho. USA. October, 2009.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton); flowering habit. Halogeton produces a showy perianth during the fall when all else seems completely dessicated. Nr Howe, Idaho. USA. October, 2009.
Flowering habitHalogeton glomeratus (halogeton); flowering habit. Halogeton produces a showy perianth during the fall when all else seems completely dessicated. Nr Howe, Idaho. USA. October, 2009.©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton); seeds. Note scale.
TitleSeeds
CaptionHalogeton glomeratus (halogeton); seeds. Note scale.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/Steve Hurst
Halogeton glomeratus (halogeton); seeds. Note scale.
SeedsHalogeton glomeratus (halogeton); seeds. Note scale.Public Domain - Released by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/Steve Hurst

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Halogeton glomeratus (M.Bieb.) Ledeb.

Preferred Common Name

  • halogeton

Other Scientific Names

  • Anabasis glomerata M.Bieb.
  • Halogeton glomeratus var. glomeratus

International Common Names

  • English: saltlover
  • Spanish: aral barilla; barilla
  • Chinese: yan sheng cao

EPPO code

  • HALGL (Halogeton glomeratus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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H. glomeratus is a succulent annual herbaceous plant that is naturally distributed in arid and desert regions from northwest China and Mongolia to Central Asia and southeastern Russia. It was accidentally introduced into the USA in the early 1930s and has since spread dramatically. Although a weak competitor in perennial communities, H. glomeratus quickly invades disturbed or overgrazed lands where it is adapted. H. glomeratus is a halophyte and is instrumental in moving salts to the soil surface. It is one of the few species that can tolerate the accumulation of salts and sodium moved from the lower soil horizons to the surface during cultivation. This species is toxic to ruminants and has caused heavy losses of sheep in Idaho, Nevada and Utah. The accumulation of salt on the soil surface can prevent the establishment and persistence of native plant species. This species is known to impact on two critically endangered cacti, Sclerocatus brevispinus and S. wetlandicus and Astragalus anserinus, a candidate species under the Endangered Species Act.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Chenopodiaceae
  •                             Genus: Halogeton
  •                                 Species: Halogeton glomeratus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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H. glomeratus is a member of the Amaranthaceae family (ITIS, 2015). It was originally attributed to the Chenopodiaceae family (the goosefoot family) however, based on genetic evidence taxonomists reclassified it, along with many genera from the Chenopodiaceae family, as separate subfamilies within the Amaranthaceae (Elpel, 2015). 

Description

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H. glomeratus grows from 0.1 to 0.5 (1) m tall depending on the moisture available during the growing season (USDA-ARS, 2015). The plant has small, round, fleshy weiner-shaped leaves that grow in clusters along reddish or purplish stems. The basal curvature of each branch is characteristic (Poisonous Plants, 2015). Each plant generally has five main stems that come directly from the base of the plant. Young plants have round, fleshy leaves that grow in little bunches along the stem. It has a characteristic small hair about 1 mm long on the end of each leaf (USDA-ARS, 2015). During drought the stems develop a reddish tinge. 

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Seed propagated
Succulent

Distribution

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H. glomeratus is native to northwestern China and from Mongolia to Central Asia and southeastern Russia. It was introduced into the USA where it is found in a number of states and is present in the Rocky Mountain, Great Basin and Northern Plains regions (USDA-FS, 2015). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GansuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
-QinghaiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
-TibetPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
-XinjiangPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
KazakhstanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
KyrgyzstanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
MongoliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
PakistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
TajikistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
UzbekistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2015
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2015
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2015
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2015
-IdahoPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2015
-MontanaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA Forest Service, USDA-FS
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA Forest Service, USDA-FS
-NevadaPresentIntroduced1934 Invasive USDA-ARS, 2015
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2015
-OregonPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2015
-UtahPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2015
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2015
-WyomingPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-ARS, 2015

Europe

Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Southern RussiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015Gorno-Altay, Krasnoyarsk, Omsk, Tuva

History of Introduction and Spread

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H. glomeratus was first collected in Wells, Nevada in 1934 (Cook and Stoddart, 1953) and subsequently throughout Nevada and other Intermountain West and Great Basin states (Welsh et al., 2003; USDA-NRCS, 2015). It is unclear exactly how this weed was introduced into the USA but it is thought to have been introduced as a seed contaminant. Within 40 years of its introduction H. glomeratus had infested 11.2 million acres of land throughout the intermountain West and Colorado Plateau (James et al., 2005; Rood et al., 2014).

Risk of Introduction

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H. glomeratus is a fast growing species, which produces a large number of seed. These are naturally dispersed by wind and water but may also be ingested by sheep and rabbits and dispersed locally into new areas. The brown seeds can persist in the soil for at least 10 years and risk being introduced into new areas if soil is moved.

Habitat

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In North America, H. glomeratus typically occurs in disturbed sites in salt-desert shrubland surrounding big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) and in transition zones from shadscale (Atriplex confertifolia) to big sagebrush (Cronin and Williams, 1965; USDA-FS, 2015). Overgrazed sites, abandoned farmlands, highway and railroad right-of ways and trails made by domestic animals also provide suitable habitats (Cronin and Williams, 1965; USDA-NRCS, 2015). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Deserts Principal habitat Natural
Arid regions Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Arid regions Principal habitat Natural
Littoral
Salt marshes Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

H. glomeratus is diploid with a chromosome number reported as 2n = 18 (Lomonosova et al., 2003; Rice et al., 2014).

Reproductive Biology

H. glomeratus is a prolific seed producer, with about 30 seeds produced per cm of stem and as many as 25,000 seeds per large plant (Tisdale and Zappetini, 1953). The plant produces two types of seeds: black and brown seeds. The latter constitutes about one-third of the total production (Cronin and Williams, 1965). It flowers from June to August and seeds are produced from July through to October.

Physiology and Phenology

H. glomeratus possesses numerous qualities that have made it possible to establish in the cold desert. Its anatomical structure permits very little water loss through its aerial parts and where the lack of water limits or prevents the growth of most plants, H. glomeratus thrives. It germinates, grows and prospers on soil too saline for any other desert plant (Cronin and Williams, 1965).

The black seeds germinate readily whenever sufficient moisture and heat are available. A few will germinate as soon as they are free from the bracts but a greater percentage will germinate following a short ripening period. Black seeds are viable for about one year in the field. The prolific production of black seed provides a means of rapid spread of the plant once it invades a suitable site. Production of black seed occurs from about the middle of August until growth stops and the plant dries in late September. Plants which become established after August produce black seed exclusively (Cronin and Williams, 1965). Brown seeds are produced from about July until mid-August, but both brown and black mature in late September. Brown seeds are viable but dormant at dispersal. Only a small percentage of these seeds germinate each year and they can persist in the soil for at least ten years (Cronin and Williams, 1965; Whitson 1987). Brown seeds provide a means of species survival during long periods of severe drought. This longevity profoundly affects management and control programs. These brown seeds assure persistence on any site where it has produced a seed crop.

Longevity

H. glomeratus is a fast growing annual plant.

Nutrition

H. glomeratus is toxic if consumed by ruminants. The toxicity mechanisms of H. glomeratus is found in soluble oxalates, sodium oxalate and potassium oxalate, which are contained in leaves and other above-ground parts (Rood et al., 2014; USDA-ARS, 2015). Calcium oxalate monohydrate damages mitochondria, increases reactive oxygen species and decreases tricarboxylic acid enzymes, resulting in mitochondrial dysplasia and reduced oxidative phosphorylation (Chungang and McMartin 2005; Rood et al., 2014). The concentration of oxalates varies by season, locality and part of the plant (USDA-FS, 2015) however it is dangerous at all times. It becomes more toxic as the growing season advances, reaching a peak of toxicity at maturity. Losses occur from dried plant consumed during the fall, winter and early spring.

Environmental Requirements

H. glomeratus is found in the rangelands of the western USA and thrives on arid alkaline soils and clays (Poisonous Plants, 2015). It also occurs on clays to clay loams to loamy sands at elevations from 700 to 2,000 m (USDA-NRCS, 2015). Although it can occur on many soil types, invaded sites are usually saline with a basic pH (pH >7). Not only does it tolerate high salt concentrations, but it grows best when the sodium chloride concentration is at least 5800 ppm. Increased salt concentration does not, as with other plants, increase its water requirements (Cronin and Williams, 1965). It is best adapted to sites receiving less than 30 cm of average annual precipitation. This plant is only weakly competitive, but it quickly invades disturbed or overgrazed lands (Eckert, 1954; Blaisdell and Holmgren, 1984; The Great Basin and Invasive Weeds, 2015). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Preferred < 860mm precipitation annually
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline
  • sodic

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Coleophora atriplicivora Herbivore USDA Forest Service, USDA-FS
Coleophora porthenica Herbivore Stems Pemberton, 1986; USDA Forest Service, USDA-FS

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Two species of moth Coleophora porthenica and C. atriplicivora have been identified as natural enemies of H. glomeratus (Pemberton, 1986; USDA-FS, 2015).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Both seed types are dispersed naturally by the wind and in water (Tilley et al., 2015).

Vector Transmission

Seeds of H. glomeratus remain viable after being consumed by both sheep and rabbits and are dispersed locally by these animals (Tilley et al., 2015).

Accidental Introduction

It is thought that this species was accidentally introduced into the USA as contaminant of seeds. Other human activities such as road grading may accidentally disperse seeds of H. glomeratus.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal production Yes
Digestion and excretion Yes
Disturbance Yes
Hitchhiker Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activities Yes Tilley et al., 2015
Host and vector organismsSeeds eaten by sheep and rabbits and remain viable Yes Tilley et al., 2015
Water Yes Tilley et al., 2015
Wind Yes Tilley et al., 2015

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Livestock production Negative

Economic Impact

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H. glomeratus is invasive in southwestern USA and has large economic impact due to its negative effect on all classes of grazing animals, particularly sheep. This has an economic impact with regards to the loss of the livestock but also indirectly on range acreage as a result of infestations. It can also have an impact as a potential seed contaminant (USDA-GRIN, 2015).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

H. glomeratus has an impact on habitats by altering soil nutrient levels. Salt from the soil accumulates in plant tissues and is also leached from the roots back onto the soil surface increasing salinity, pH and electrical conductivity (Eckert and Kinsinger, 1960). Secondary effects associated with these chemical changes include changes in soil physical properties such as increased crust strength and decreased moisture infiltration rate. Inferences about altered microbiotic interactions in the rhizosphere have been used to suggest a mechanism for invasion in established communities and to explain the failure of native perennials to re-occupy invades sites (Harper et al., 1996; Duda et al., 2003; USDA-NRCS, 2015).

Impact on Biodiversity

H. glomeratus reduces biodiversity by conversion of salt-desert shrublands to near weed monocultures. In addition, it has specifically been found to have an effect on the plant Astragalus anserinus when it occurs at or immediately adjacent to the population (USFWS, 2013). This species is list as a candidate species under the Endangered Species Act. Furthermore in the USA, H. glomeratus can also have a negative influence on the growth of two critically endangered species of cactus, Sclerocactus brevispinus and S. wetlandicus (Utah Ecological Services Field Office, 2010). This species therefore has a negative impact on biodiversity.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Astragalus anserinus (Goose Creek milkvetch)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA candidate species USA ESA candidate speciesUSAUS Fish and Wildlife Service, USFWS
Sclerocactus brevispinusCR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesUSAUtah Ecological Services Field Office, 2010
Sclerocactus wetlandicusUSA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesUSAUtah Ecological Services Field Office, 2010

Social Impact

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The plant is highly toxic to all classes of grazing animals and in particular to sheep and cattle (USDA-NRCS, 2015). If desirable vegetation is available H. glomeratus will be avoided. One sheep can be killed by 0.3-0.5 kg of H. glomeratus with no treatments available once the animal is poisoned. Heavy sheep losses through poisoning have occurred in Idaho, Nevada and Utah (The Great Basin and Invasive Weeds, 2015). For example, a public case in Idaho involved the death of nearly 1,300 sheep. In 1952, federal funds were allocated for eradication and control of this species with the passage of a Halogeton Control Bill (Young, 1988; Rood et al., 2014). Research has shown that sheep can adapt to H. glomeratus if they are fed gradually increasing amounts. Adapted sheep can detoxify 75 % more oxalate than non-adapted sheep (Krueger and Sharp, 1978). Ruminants adapted to oxalate-containing plants such as H. glomeratus can tolerate concentrations that are lethal to non-adapted animals (Cheeke, 1998).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Social Uses

H. glomeratus is a halophyte and a widely studied plant for its capacity to tolerate salinity stress (Zhu, 2002; Flowers and Colmer, 2008; Wang et al., 2015). Salinity stress is one of the most serious factors that severely affect crop growth, development and yield. Research on RNA transcript profiling was carried out on H. glomeratus, which identified 118 salt-induced genes and 291 upregulated unigenes that are involved in ion transport, ROS scavenging, energy metabolism, hormone response pathways and response to biotic and abiotic stress in the response of this species to salt stress (Wang et al., 2015).

Uses List

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General

  • Research model

Materials

  • Poisonous to mammals

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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It has been suggested that H. glomeratus resembles immature Salsola tragus and Bassiascoparia. However, the leaves of S. tragus lack hairs along the axils and are linear and those of B. scoparia are pubescent and lack a stiff bristle at the tip (CDFA, 2015).

Prevention and Control

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Control

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Early detection of H. glomeratus is required to prevent major infestations establishing (USDA-NRCS, 2015). Management practices such as proper grazing management, reseeding with perennial forage plants and prevention to soil disturbance should all help avoid invasion by this species (Cronin and Williams, 1965). Introduced perennials such as Bassia prostrata have shown to decrease the density of H. glomeratus (McArthur et al., 1990; Stevens and McArthur, 1990; USDA-FS, 2015). In addition, Agropyron cristatum and A. desertorum was seeded extensively in depleted winter rangeland to slow growth of H. glomeratus (Major and Pyott, 1966; Young, 1988; Young et al., 1999; USDA-FS, 2015). Research showed that heavy infestations by H. glomeratus were essentially eliminated after two years by seeding with the hybrid A. desertorum cv. Hycrest (Asay and Johnson, 1987; USDA-FS, 2015). Control measures, however, must take into account the persistence of the seeds in the soil which may remain viable for 10 years (Cronin and Williams, 1965).

Biological Control

There are currently no biological control agents available for control of H. glomeratus. A stem-boring moth, Coleophora porthenica from Pakistan was released into North America, but failed to establish (Pemberton, 1986; USDA-FS, 2015). A case-bearing moth, C. atriplicivora has also been found on H. glomeratus, but it is not currently known what effect it has on this weed

Chemical Control

H. glomeratus can be managed by the use of herbicides, such as an aqueous spray of 2,4-D applied during vegetative growth (Cronin and Williams, 1965). When applied in late May or early June it can kill about 97-98% of the plants but it is not selective. Such treatments deplete other vegetation resulting in further invasion by H. glomeratus (from seed in the soil) or other pioneer invaders, such as Russian thistle, Echinops exaltatus and rabbitbrush, Ericameria nauseosa. Applications of telbuthiuron, as late as August, have also been suggested to kill and prevent reinvasion of H. glomeratus for three to five years (USDA-ARS, 2015). However, this treatment becomes ineffective when plants enter reproductive growth (Cronin and Williams, 1965).

References

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Asay KH; Johnson DA, 1987. Proceedings - Symposium Seed and seedbed ecology or rangeland plants., USA: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, 173-176.

Blaisdell JP; Holmgren RC, 1984. Managing intermountain rangelands - salt-desert shrub ranges. General Technical Report, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, No. INT-163:52pp.

Cheeke PR, 1998. Natural toxicants in feeds, forages, and poisonous plants, Ed. 2. Danville, Illinois 61832, USA: Interstate Publishers, Inc., PO Box 50., xii + 479 pp.

Chungang G; McMartin KE, 2005. The cytotoxicity of oxalate, metabolite of ethylene glycol, is due to calcium oxalate monohydrate formation. Toxicology, 208:347-352.

Cook CW; Stoddart LA, 1953. Bulletin No. 364 - the Halogeton problem in Utah. Utah Agricultural Experiment Station. UAES Bulletins Paper 322.

COOK WC, 1961. Seeding response and soil characteristics on adjacent sagebrush and desert molly soils. Journal of Range Management, 14(3):134-8.

Cronin EH; Williams MC, 1965. Principles for managing ranges infested with halogeton. Journal of Range Management, 19:226-227.

Duda JJ; Freeman DC; Emlen JM; Belnap J; Kitchen SG; Zak JC; Sobek E; Tracy M; Montante J, 2003. Differences in native soil ecology associated with invasion of the exotic annual chenopod, Halogeton glomeratus. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 38(2):72-77.

Eckert RE Jr, 1954. A study of competition between whitesage and halogeton in Nevada. Journal of Range Management, 7:223-225.

Eckert RE JR; Kinsinger FE, 1960. Effects of Halogeton glomeratus leachate on chemical and physical characteristics of soils. Ecology, 41:764-772.

Elpel TJ, 2015. Chenopodiaeceae, plants of the goosefoot family. Wildflowers and weeds; plant identification, edible plants, weed ecology, mushrooms, and more. http://www.wildflowers-and-weeds.com/Plant_Families/Chenopodiaceae.htm

Flowers TJ; Colmer TD, 2008. Salinity tolerance in halophytes. New Phytologist, 179(4):945-963. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/nph

Harper KT; Buren Rvan; Kitchen SG, 1996. Invasion of alien annuals and ecological consequences in salt desert shrublands of western Utah. In: General Technical Report - Intermountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No. INT-GTR-338. 58-65.

Invaders Database, 2015. Noxious weeds-query by plant. http://invader.dbs.umt.edu/Noxious_Weeds/query_plant_run.asp. Missoula, Montana, USA: University of Montana.

ITIS, 2015. Integrated Taxonomic Information System online database. http://www.itis.gov

James LF; Gardner DR; Lee ST; Panter KE; Pfister JA; Ralphs MH; Stegelmeier BL, 2005. Important poisonous plants on rangelands: Management strategies based on toxin level in the plant, animal susceptibility, and grazing behavior can reduce the risk of poisoning. Rangelands, 27:3-9.

Krueger WC; Sharp LA, 1978. Management approaches to reduce livestock losses from poisonous plants on rangeland. Journal of Range Management, 31(5):347-350.

Lomonosova MN; Krasnikov AA; Krasnikova SA, 2003. Chromosome numbers of Chenopodiaceae family members of the Kazakhstan flora. Botanicheskii Zhurnal, 88(2):134-135.

Major J; Pyott WT, 1966. Buried, viable seeds in two California bunchgrass sites and their bearing on the definition of a flora. Vegetatio, 13(5):253-82.

McArthur ED; Blauer AC; Stevens R, 1990. Forage kochia competition with cheatgrass in central Utah. In: General Technical Report - Intermountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No. INT-276. 56-65.

Moore TB; Stevens R, 1984. Distribution and importance of the Atriplex case-bearing moth, Coleophora atriplicivora cockerel, on some chenopod shrubs, especially Atriplex canescens. Proceedings-symposium on the biology of Atriplex and related chenopods., USA: USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 220-225.

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10/09/2015 Original text by:

Giovanni Cafà, CABI, UK

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