Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Haematoxylum campechianum
(logwood)

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Datasheet

Haematoxylum campechianum (logwood)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Haematoxylum campechianum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • logwood
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • H. campechianum is a shrub or small tree widely grown commercially for its wood, that has become naturalized and invasive in many tropical countries. This species is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Haematoxylum campechianum L.

Preferred Common Name

  • logwood

Other Scientific Names

  • Cymbosepalum baronii Baker
  • Haematoxylon campechiaum L.

International Common Names

  • English: blood-wood tree; campeachy wood; campeche wood
  • Spanish: campeche; palo de campeche; palo de tinta; palo negro; palo tinto
  • French: bois bleu; bois de Campèche; campêche; hématoxyle campêche
  • Chinese: cai mu

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: guamá-piñon
  • Germany: Blutholzbaum, Campeche-
  • Haiti: bois campeche; campechier
  • Italy: campeccio; campeggio; legno azurro
  • Lesser Antilles: champish; kampech

EPPO code

  • HATCA (Haematoxylum campechianum)

Summary of Invasiveness

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H. campechianum is a shrub or small tree widely grown commercially for its wood, that has become naturalized and invasive in many tropical countries. This species is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and it is classified as an invasive species causing serious problems to natural habitats in Australia, the Cayman Islands, Cuba, Jamaica, Mauritius Island, Rodrigues Island, Hawaii, New Caledonia and French Polynesia (Wagner et al., 1999; Kueffer and Mauremootoo, 2004; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012). Although H. campechianum is not a fast-growing species, plants can form dense monocultures over extensive areas of land (known within its native range as “tintales”) displacing and completely replacing native vegetation.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
  •                                 Genus: Haematoxylum
  •                                     Species: Haematoxylum campechianum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Fabaceae is one the largest families of flowering plants. Species within the subfamiliy Caesalpinioideae are woody plants that may be recognized by their usually once-compound leaves and monosymmetric flowers with the odd petal adaxial and a well-developed hypanthium (Stevens, 2012). Haematoxylum is a small genus with about four species native to Central America and southern Africa. Only the species H. campechianum has spread over most of the tropics mostly due to the commercialization of its wood (logwood of commerce) to extract a colouring agent used commercially for dyeing wool, silk, cotton, fur, leather, bone and synthetic fibres such as nylon and rayon (Seegeler, 1992; Gurib-Fakim, 2005).

Description

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Small, bushy thorny, gnarled shrub or tree up to 15 m tall; trunk irregularly fluted and contorted, attaining a length of 2-3 m and a diameter of 60 cm, bark grey to brown, rather smooth, peeling in flakes. Leaves are alternate, paripinnate; stipules partly spine-like; leaflets in 2-4 pairs, obovate, 10-35 mm x 5-25 mm, acute at base, closely veined and glabrous. Flowers are arranged in 5-20 cm long racemes in the axils leaves, 5-merous, sweet-scented; calyx 4-5 mm long, deeply lobed; petals 5-7 mm long, bright yellow; stamens 10, free; ovary superior, shortly stalked, glabrous; style filiform. The fruit is a lanceolate, extremely flattened pod, 3-5 cm long, pointed at both ends, dehiscent not along the sutures but along the median of the sides, usually 2-seeded (Seegeler, 1992; Wagner et al., 1999).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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H. campechianum is native to Mexico (Gulf of Campeche and the Yucatan Peninsula) and Guatemala and Belize in Central America. It has been introduced and become naturalized in many tropical regions and countries including West Africa, Australia, the West Indies, South America, Southeastern Asia and several Pacific Islands (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012; PROTA, 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2012)Cultivated
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedPROTA (2012)Cultivated
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedPROTA (2012)
KenyaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2012)Cultivated
MadagascarPresentIntroducedMadagascar Catalogue (2012)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedInvasiveKueffer and Mauremootoo (2004)
-RodriguesPresentIntroducedInvasiveKueffer and Mauremootoo (2004)
NigeriaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2012)Cultivated
RéunionPresentIntroducedPIER (2012)
SenegalPresentIntroducedPROTA (2012)Cultivated
SeychellesPresentIntroducedPIER (2012)
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedPROTA (2012)Cultivated
SudanPresentIntroducedPROTA (2012)Cultivated
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2012)Cultivated
UgandaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2012)Cultivated

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)
IndonesiaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentIntroducedSeegeler (1992)Cultivated
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedSeegeler (1992)Cultivated
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedSeegeler (1992)Cultivated
SingaporePresentIntroduced1876Seegeler (1992)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2012)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
BahamasPresentIntroducedCorrell and Correll (1982)
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
BelizePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Guana, Tortola
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedProctor (1984)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveLeon and Alain (1952)Considered an invasive species by Cuba's Centro Nacional de Biodiversidad
DominicaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
GrenadaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentMolina (1975)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveAdams (1972)Reported invasive in Cockpit Country
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)Campeche, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, Yucatán
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)Saba, St. Eustatius
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedLiogier (1988)Potentially invasive
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedGraveson (2012)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)St. Thomas, St. Croix
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWagner et al. (1999)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of Australia (2012)
FijiPresentIntroducedSmith (1985)Cultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlorence et al. (2011)
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMacKee (1994)
TongaPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2012)

South America

French GuianaPresentIntroducedFunk et al. (2007)
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al. (2007)Cultivated
SurinamePresentIntroducedFunk et al. (2007)Cultivated
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedHokche et al. (2008)Delta Amacuro

History of Introduction and Spread

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H. campechianum was discovered by the Spaniards when they arrived on the shores of Campeche Bay in the Gulf of Mexico and its wood was introduced into Europe as a dyeing substance as early as 1525 (Gurib-Fakim, 2005). However, from 1581 to 1662 in England the use of this species was prohibited by legislation to protect dyes already in use there. After that period, British traders started the export of wood from the Yucatan Peninsula, where they founded a colony that is now Belize, and French traders established their own plantations of H. campechianum in Haiti (Seegeler, 1992; Gurib-Fakim, 2005).

During the eigtheenth century, H. campechianum was introduced into the Caribbean in the Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and the Lesser Antilles. By 1911, this species was described by Ignatius Urban as “naturalized” in the Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Croix, St. John, Antigua, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, and Trinidad and Tobago.

H. campechianum was introduced into Nigeria in the 1890s and since this year it has been cultivated and naturalized in other parts of Africa and Indian Ocean including Madagascar, the Seychelles Islands, Mauritius and Rodrigues Islands where it has become invasive (Kueffer and Mauremootoo, 2004; Gurib-Fakim, 2005; PROTA, 2012).

In Singapore, H. campechianum was introduced in 1876, and probably from here it was introduced into Malaysia, Indonesia (Java), and the Philippines where it is currently cultivated on a limited scale (Seegeler, 1992).

By the beginning of the nineteenth century, H. campechianum was found in the dry lowland forests of several islands in the Pacific including Hawaii (Logan, 1918), New Caledonia (MacKee, 1994), and French Polynesia (Florence et al., 2011).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of H. campechianum is moderate to high. This species is widely cultivated mainly in tropical countries to commercialize its wood to extract dyes. H. campechianum spreads by seeds and by cuttings (Seegeler, 1992). Seeds can be easily dispersed by wind, water, and human activities. Seeds can remain viable in the soil for up to 8 months and have germination rates greater than 45% under natural conditions (Niembro, 2002).

Habitat

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Within its native distribution range, H. campechianum grows primarily in flat terrain with clayey soils, deficient drainage, and periodic flooding (Niembro, 2002). Outside its native range, this species is able to grow in disturbed secondary forest, along roadsides, riverbanks, lowland dry forests, urban forests, and seasonal waterlogged areas (Seegeler, 1992; Wagner et al., 1999; Kueffer and Mauremootoo, 2004; Gurib-Fakim, 2005). In the West Indies, this species commonly grows on exposed limestone hillsides in dry secondary thickets (Adams, 1972; Liogier, 1988).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome number in H. campechianum is 2n = 24 (Kumari and Bir, 1990).

Reproductive Biology

Flowers in H. campechianum are bright yellow and arranged in long racemes in the axils of leaves. Flowers are hermaphroditic and visited and pollinated mainly by bees (Tucker and Kantz, 1997; Niembro, 2002).

Physiology and Phenology

H. campechianum grows slowly. Under favourable environmental conditions, trees can attain harvestable size in about 8 -10 years (Gurib-Fakim, 2005). However, the World Agroforestry Centre reports that trees planted in the botanical garden at Bogor (Indonesia) in 1886 were only 2 m tall in 1918.

H. campechianum produces flowers from September through April in its native range, and the fruits (legumes) ripen from March through May (Niembro, 2002). The seeds remain viable naturally for 8 months.

Environmental Requirements

In its native range, the regions where the tree grows have an average annual temperature of 26 °C with a maximum temperature of 36.7°C and a minimum temperature of 14.9°C. The maximum temperatures occur in April and May; the minimum temperatures in December and January. Average precipitation is approximately 1288 mm, ranging between 900 and 1800 mm (Niembro, 2002). H. campechianum is able to grow on riverbanks and in seasonally inundated areas and it prefers light soils with some humus, but also can be found growing on clay and sandy soils and on exposed limestone hillsides (Adams, 1972; Liogier, 1988; Gurib-Fakim, 2005).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 4
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 36.7
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 14.9

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall9001800mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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H. campechianum can be propagated by seed and vegetatively by cuttings. Each fruit (legume) produces 2-3 seeds that can be dispersed by wind, water, and by human activities (Gurib-Fakim, 2005). Under natural conditions, this species does not propagate vegetatively and then cuttings have to be planted (Seegeler, 1992; Gurib-Fakim, 2005).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes Gurib-Fakim, 2005
Intentional releaseSeeds and cuttings are planted to exploit its wood Yes Yes Gurib-Fakim, 2005
Medicinal use Yes Yes Gurib-Fakim, 2005
Timber trade Yes Yes Gurib-Fakim, 2005

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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H. campechianum is classified as an invasive woody plant. This species has the potential to grow forming dense monoculture thickets over extensive areas of land mainly in lowland dry and semi-arid tropical forests where it displaces and replaces native vegetation (ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012; PROTA, 2012). The fact that H. campechianum is invading tropical dry forests is concerning considering that these forests are the most vulnerable and threatened of all major tropical forest types (Janzen, 1988).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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H. campechianum is a widely cultivated tree and its wood is used to extract a series of dyes in darker tints of grey, brown, violet, blue and black called “haematoxylin”. The dyes give a permanent colour to several fabrics such as silk, wool, cotton, nylon and rayon. This extract is also used to dye leather, fur, feathers and paper and to produce inks. The haematoxylin is also a histological stain used for staining cell nuclei (Seegeler, 1992; Gurib-Fakim, 2005).

In Southeastern Asia and Africa, H. campechianum is also used as timber in the fabrication of furniture, veneer, and wood articles. The wood of this species is strong and durable for use outdoors and in contact with the ground. Wood is also used as firewood and for posts.

This species is also planted around houses as an ornamental for its delicate foliage and fragrant flowers. Flowers are honey bearing and consequently the species is frequently planted by apiculturists near beehives. The leaves and young branches are used as forage (Niembro 1986, Rico-Gray et al., 1991).

H. campechianum is used in traditional medicine as an astringent and tonic. It is also useful against diarrhoea, dysentery, dyspepsia, and leucorrhoea. The extract “haematoxylin” has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties (Seegeler, 1992; Gurib-Fakim, 2005; Graveson, 2012). Finally, this species is used as a boundary, barrier or support plant, and in India and Southeastern Asia, it is occasionally cultivated as a hedge plant.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Dye/tanning
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Furniture

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Fences

Veneers

Wood extractives (including oil)

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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There are two other species in this genus also exploited commercially. Haematoxylum brasiletto from tropical America, which is also used as source of a red dye (brazilin), and H. dinteri a shrub up to 2 metres tall, endemic in Namibia in rocky crevices and sandy river beds (Gurib-Fakim, 2005).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Mechanical control must be practiced over a several year period as dormant seeds will continue to germinate. Seedlings and young plants should be hand-pulled and removed from treated areas, while large plants should be cut with specialized equipment due to the presence of thorns. 

There is no information or data available on the biological or chemical control of this species. Further investigation is needed.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams CD, 1972. Flowering Plants of Jamaica. University of the West Indies, 267.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Correll DS; Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Germany: J. Cramer, 1692 pp.

Flora of Australia, 2012. Flora of Australia Online. Canberra, Australia: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer JY, 2011. [English title not available]. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP).) . http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Graveson R, 2012. Plants of Saint Lucia. http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Gurib-Fakim A, 2005. Haematoxylum campechianum L. Record from Protabase. PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l'Afrique tropicale) [ed. by Jansen, P. C. M. \Cardon, D.]. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Hokche O; Berry PE; Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, 860 pp.

ISSG, 2012. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

Janzen D, 1988. Tropical Dry Forests: The most endangered major tropical ecosystem. In: Biodiversity [ed. by Wilson, E. O.]. Washington DC, USA: National Academy of Sciences/Smithsonian Institution, 130-137.

Kueffer C; Mauremootoo J, 2004. Case studies on the status of invasive woody plant species in the Western Indian Ocean. 3 Mauritius (Islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues). Forest Health and Biosecurity Working Paper, No.4-3E:vi + 35 pp. http://www.fao.org/documents/dep_result.asp?css=//www.fao.org/forestry/foris/css/docrep.css&series=388&RecordsPerPage=50&SortOrder=3&cover=no&new=no&keyworkds=y&lang=&Language=&nopsumm=y

Kumari S; Bir SS, 1990. Karyomorphological evolution in Papilionaceae. Journal of Cytology and Genetics, 25:173-219.

Leon H; Alain H, 1952. Dicotyledons: Casuarinaceas to Meliaceas. (Dicotoledoneas: Casuarinaceas a Meliaceas.) Flora de Cuba, 2:1-456.

Liogier AH, 1988. Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: A Systematic Synopsis. Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Logan D, 1918. Hawaiian Forest and Agriculturist. Vol. 15:330 pp.

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

Madagascar Catalogue, 2012. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. Antananarivo, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden, Madagascar Research and Conservation Program. http://www.efloras.org/madagascar

Molina RA, 1975. Enumeration of the plants of Honduras. (Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras) Ceiba, 19(1):1-118.

Niembro A, 2002. Haematoxylum campechianum L. Fabaceae (Bean Family). In: Tropical tree seed manual [ed. by Vozzo, J. A.]. Washington DC, USA: USDA Forest Service. [Forest Service. Agriculture Handbook 721.]

Niembro RA, 1986. Arboles y arbustos otiles de Mexico. Mexico, D.F., Mexico: Editorial LIMUSA, 306 pp.

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Proctor GR, 1984. Flora of the Cayman Islands. London, UK: Royal Botanical Gardens, 834 pp.

PROTA, 2012. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Rico Gray V; Chemas A; Mandujano S, 1991. Uses of tropical deciduous forest species by the Yucatecan Maya. Agroforestry Systems, 14(2):149-161; 21 ref.

Seegeler CJP, 1992. Haematoxylum campechianum L. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia. No. 3: Dye and tannin-producing plants [ed. by Lemmens, R. H. M. J. \Wulijarni-Soetjipto, N.]. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA Foundation, 78-79.

Smith AC, 1985. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanic Gardens, 758 pp.

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Tucker SC; Kantz KE, 1997. Comparative floral development and evolution in tribe Caesalpinieae (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae). Haematoxylum. American Journal of Botany, 84(8):1047-1063.

Urban I, 1905. Symbolae Antillanae. Volumen IV. Berlin, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger, 771 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2012. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams C D, 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies. 848 pp.

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Correll DS, Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago., Vaduz, Germany: J Cramer. 1692 pp.

Flora of Australia, 2012. Flora of Australia Online., Canberra, Australia: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/flora/main/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web., Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Plants of the Eastern Caribbeanhttp://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html
PROTA: Plant Resources of Tropical Africahttp://www.prota4u.org/
World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF WAC)http://www.worldagroforestry.org/

Contributors

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19/03/13 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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