Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Gymnocoronis spilanthoides
(Senegal tea plant)

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Datasheet

Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gymnocoronis spilanthoides
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Senegal tea plant
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • G. spilanthoides is an emergent freshwater or marsh-growing perennial which can form rounded bushes up to 1-1.5 m tall or scrambling mats of tangled stems along the edges of waterways. It grows very rapidly, up to 15 cm per week, and floati...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', stem and leaves.
TitleStem and leaves
CaptionGymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', stem and leaves.
CopyrightLalith Gunasekera
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', stem and leaves.
Stem and leavesGymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', stem and leaves.Lalith Gunasekera
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', flowers and foliage.
TitleFlowers
CaptionGymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', flowers and foliage.
CopyrightLalith Gunasekera
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', flowers and foliage.
FlowersGymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', flowers and foliage.Lalith Gunasekera
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', stem and leaves.
TitleLeaves
CaptionGymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', stem and leaves.
CopyrightLalith Gunasekera
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', stem and leaves.
LeavesGymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', stem and leaves.Lalith Gunasekera
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', close-up of flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionGymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', close-up of flowers.
CopyrightLalith Gunasekera
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', close-up of flowers.
FlowersGymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', close-up of flowers.Lalith Gunasekera
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', roots.
TitleRoots
CaptionGymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', roots.
CopyrightLalith Gunasekera
Gymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', roots.
RootsGymnocoronis spilanthoides; 'Senegal tea', roots.Lalith Gunasekera

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (D.Don) DC. (1838)

Preferred Common Name

  • Senegal tea plant

Other Scientific Names

  • Alomia spilanthoides D. Don ex Hook. & Arn (1835)
  • Gymnocoronis attenuata DC.

International Common Names

  • English: Senegal teaplant; spade-leaf plant; temple plant; templeplant; variegated water snowball; water snowball

Local Common Names

  • Australia: costata

Summary of Invasiveness

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G. spilanthoides is an emergent freshwater or marsh-growing perennial which can form rounded bushes up to 1-1.5 m tall or scrambling mats of tangled stems along the edges of waterways. It grows very rapidly, up to 15 cm per week, and floating mats cover water bodies, blocking drainage channels and degrading natural wetlands by displacing native plants and animals as well as detracting from their environmental value, natural beauty and recreational potential. In New Zealand, it has caused flooding by blocking streams and drainage channels, and it could potentially infest wetlands throughout much of Australia. It has a wide climate tolerance and has been found in cultivation well outside its predicted range, and has the ability to continue growing even when completely submersed although growth rates are reduced and plants are smaller. It is also very difficult to control because it can spread by both seed and vegetative reproduction, and even tiny pieces of vegetation can give rise to new colonies.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Gymnocoronis
  •                                 Species: Gymnocoronis spilanthoides

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Gymnocoronis is a combination of the Greek ‘gymnos’ meaning ‘naked’, and ‘corona’ meaning a ‘crown’, referring to the absence of shoulder ridges and pappus on the seed. The common name Senegal tea plant refers to its growth in Senegal and its use there in folk medicine; whereas the common name ‘temple plant’ is of unknown origin (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). A common name in the aquarium plant trade is ‘water snowball’ which refers to the showy large round clusters of white flowers. Three varieties are described, var. spilanthoides, var. attenuata (DC.) Baker and var. subcordata (DC.) Baker.

Description

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G. spilanthoides is an aquatic perennial that can form rounded bushes up to 1-1.5 m tall or scrambling mats of tangled stems. The plant can grow in various forms, producing runners and floating stems up to 2.5 m in length or growing as rounded bushes or extending from the banks, in mats of tangled stems reproducing vegetatively and by seed (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998). The following description is from Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992).

Stems are pale green, erect at first but becoming prostrate, scrambling and branching at the nodes, 1-1.5 m long, 5-10 mm in diameter at first increasing to 10-20 mm with age. Young stems are often angled, with several ridges running down the length of the stem, but they become more or less rounded (six sided) as they mature. Larger stems are hollow between the nodes and mats are buoyant in water. Erect stems are produced prior to flowering. Leaves are opposite, shiny dark green, ovate to lanceolate, large, 5-20 cm long, 2.5-5 cm wide, on shortish stalks, margins serrate and slightly wavy. Flowers have florets, whitish, numerous, grouped into terminal heads 1.5 to 2 cm diameter, subtended by a single row of green involucral bracts. Seeds are small, light brown achenes, 0.8-1.2 mm in length and 0.5 mm in diameter, each weighing approximately 0.20 mg when dry (Vivian-Smith et al., 2005) ribbed, without a crown or pappus. Roots are numerous; finely fibrous adventitious roots can develop at any node that is in contact with moist soil or immersed in water.

Plant Type

Top of page Aquatic
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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G. spilanthoides is a native of tropical and sub tropical America from Mexico to Argentina, but has been introduced mainly as an aquarium plant to a number of countries (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; PIER, 2008). However, USDA-ARS (2008) record a more restrictive native range including only central South America, southern Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Uruguay, south-eastern Peru and north and central Argentina. Holm et al. (1979) also include Bahia, northern Brazil, in the native range, though no other records are available in Central America or northern South America and the exact limits of the native range remain unclear.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

SenegalPresentIntroducedParsons and Cuthbertson (1992)

Asia

ChinaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-GuangxiPresentEPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresentEPPO (2020)
-ZhejiangPresentEPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008); EPPO (2020)A "problem species"
JapanPresentEPPO (2020)
-HonshuPresentEPPO (2020)
-KyushuPresentEPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentEPPO (2020)

Europe

HungaryPresentIntroducedInvasiveTorok et al. (2003); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresentArdenghi et al. (2016); EPPO (2020)via PestLens newsletter.

North America

MexicoPresentNativePIER (2008); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveParsons and Cuthbertson (1992); EPPO (2020)First recorded in 1975
-QueenslandPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveParsons and Cuthbertson (1992); EPPO (2020)First recorded in 1995
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020)
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeeds CRC (2008); EPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasiveGunasekera et al. (2002); EPPO (2020)Found in a lake and home garden in 2000
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveAustralia, Department of Environment and Heritage (2003); Weeds CRC (2008); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008); EPPO (2020)First noted as naturalized in 1990

South America

ArgentinaPresent, WidespreadNativeHolm et al. (1979); USA, USDA-ARS (2008); EPPO (2020)
BoliviaPresent, WidespreadNativeHolm et al. (1979); USA, USDA-ARS (2008); EPPO (2020)
BrazilPresentNativeHolm et al. (1979); USA, USDA-ARS (2008); EPPO (2020)
-BahiaPresent, WidespreadNativeHolm et al. (1979)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008)
ParaguayPresent, WidespreadNativeHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
PeruPresentHolm et al. (1979); USA, USDA-ARS (2008); EPPO (2020)
UruguayPresentNativeUSA, USDA-ARS (2008); EPPO (2020)

History of Introduction and Spread

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G. spilanthoides was introduced into Australia from India by the aquarium industry in the mid 1970s, and was first recorded as naturalized on Oxley Island in the Manning River near Taree, New South Wales in 1980 (Weeds CRC, 2008). Subsequently, in 1985, it was reported growing in a farm dam near Dapto, where it had been deliberately planted to enable commercial harvesting for the aquarium trade (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). A third large infestation was found in Gloucester, near Barrington in New South Wales, Australia. In the early 1990s Senegal tea was found on sale in South Australia at a hardware shop. First discovery of Senegal tea in Victoria was located at Lake Nagambie about 150 km away from Melbourne and a further two small infestations were found in a garden and a farm dam (Gunasekera et al., 2002). It has also recently been found around Perth, Western Australia (Weeds CRC, 2008). It is likely to be more widely distributed than recorded in the distribution table, especially as an escaped aquarium plant, such as its spread in Hungary (Torok et al., 2003).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia India 1975 Pet trade (pathway cause) Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992); Parsons and WT, Cuthbertson (1992); ParsonsWT, and Cuthbertson (1992) As an aquarium plant
New Zealand 1991 Pet trade (pathway cause) Yes As an aquarium plant

Risk of Introduction

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G. spilanthoides is a declared weed in New Zealand, and in Australia where it is declared in all states and territories except Victoria and the Northern Territory (Weeds CRC, 2008), and its importation into these countries is not permitted because of the risk of further spread. It failed a risk assessment in Australia, scoring 7 (PIER, 2008). G. spilanthoides was also recently put on NAPPOs Phytosanitary Alert List, with the Weed Science Society of America noting that it was one of 16 weeds not yet present in the USA but posing the greatest potential threat to its ecosystems (WSSA, 2010). It continues to be available from websites and plant catalogues as a tropical aquarium plant and thus further introduction to other areas not only remains possible, but probable, especially when it is disposed of unwisely.

Habitat

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G. spilanthoides grows in humid tropics, subtropics and warm temperate regions where it forms dense floating mats, usually rooted in damp soil. It grows over the surface of slow moving or stationary water bodies, in wet marshy soils, wetlands and especially in degraded waterways. Rooting in the bank, it grows out into the waterway, though it can also survive and continues growing even when completely inundated; also growing on wet marshy soils near water.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Mangroves Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater
 
Irrigation channels Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Principal habitat Natural
Reservoirs Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Principal habitat Natural
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural
Ponds Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Ponds Principal habitat Natural
Brackish
Estuaries Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeOther

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

G. spilanthoides has a chromosome number of 2n=20 (Dematteis et al., 2007). There is also sufficient variability within the species to merit the identification of three varieties, the type variety var. spilanthoides, var. attenuata and var. subcordata.

Reproductive Biology

G. spilanthoides can reproduce by seeds and vegetatively from stem fragments. The seeds are quite heavy and most drop near the parent plant or can be spread in mud attached to animals or machinery. Recent research has shown that seed production in infestation in Queensland, Australia is extremely low, less than 1% of its potential, which indicates that spread by seed is not very important there (Weeds CRC, 2008). Research reported that Senegal tea seeds germination could be stimulated by light (Vivian Smith et al., 2005). Vegetative spread occurs when any part of the stem that includes a node breaks away from the main plant, sending out fine roots from the node wherever stem fragments settle on stream banks or beds, and the new plant can spread quickly and create a new colony by producing roots where nodes come in contact with moist soil. Leaves can also root from the veins.

Physiology and Phenology

In Australia, G. spilanthoides has active vegetative growth from September to November, and flowers from October to February, extending to May in optimal conditions, and seeds form from November to March, about one month after flowering. Plants become dormant during winter (June to August), and most seeds germinate in spring from September to November at the same time as the plant is actively growing (Weeds CRC, 2008). Seedling growth is rapid, and plants quickly reach the surface if submerged in shallow water. G. spilanthoides is a perennial that lives for at least several years (DEH, 2003).

Environmental Requirements

G. spilanthoides requires tropical, sub-tropical or warm temperate climates to thrive, and grows best at temperatures of 15-30°C. However, it also appears to be frost tolerant, at least in New Zealand. It also grows in slightly acid or alkaline water within the pH range of 5.5-8, but cannot tolerate saline or brackish water.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
B - Dry (arid and semi-arid) Tolerated < 860mm precipitation annually
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Tolerated Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 25
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 15 30
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 5 20

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Water pH (pH) Optimum 5.5-8 tolerated

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

G. spilanthoides reproduces by seeds and vegetatively, and both are spread by water. Movement of stem fragments around lakes or along rivers is probably the main means of dispersal. The seeds of G. spilanthoides are relatively heavy and not adapted for wind dispersal.

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Stem fragments and seeds can accidentally spread in mud attached to the feet of animal.

Accidental Introduction

Stem fragments can be spread by transport and machinery such as boats, trailers, lawnmowers, etc., but it is likely, however, that one of the main reasons for its introduction to new areas may be from the unwise disposal of aquarium plants in freshwater (Weeds CRC, 2008).

Intentional Introduction

G. spilanthoides has been itroduced internationally through the aquarium and horticultural industry as an ornamental plant, and was spread within Australia also as an ornamental.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeFrom disposal of aquarium contents Yes Weeds CRC, 2008
Flooding and other natural disastersHighly likely Yes Weeds CRC, 2008
Nursery trade Yes
Ornamental purposesAs a pond plant Yes Yes Weeds CRC, 2008
Pet tradeIndia to Australia Yes Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Floating vegetation and debrisStem fragments Yes Weeds CRC, 2008
Machinery and equipment Yes Weeds CRC, 2008
Pets and aquarium speciesAs an aquarium/pond plant Yes Yes Weeds CRC, 2008
Water Yes Weeds CRC, 2008

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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The annual cost of weeds to Australian agriculture in terms of decreased productivity and management costs is conservatively estimated at $4 billion, and environmental impacts are also significant and lead to a loss of biodiversity (Weeds CRC, 2008). To limit escalation of these impacts, it is vital to prevent further introduction of G. spilanthoides into uninfested natural ecosystems, though specific costs for control are not available.

Environmental Impact

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G. spilanthoidesposes a significant risk for wetland ecosystems (Weeds CRC, 2008). It can invade and degrade natural wetlands, competing strongly with slower growing native plants and affecting wetland birds and other animals depend upon them. Native species can also be submerged causing death. Water quality may also be negatively affected if lots of plant material dies off and rots under water (Weeds CRC, 2008).

Social Impact

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G. spilanthoides grows very quickly and rapidly covers water bodies with a floating mat. The effects of flooding are made much worse as infestations block drainage systems. Recreational activities, irrigation and navigation may also be affected (Weeds CRC, 2008).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Increases vulnerability to invasions
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Transportation disruption
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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G. spilanthoides is a valued ornamental plant, either in aquariums or garden ponds. It grows very quickly, and has large showy flowers that are also especially attractive to butterflies.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Invertebrate food

General

  • Pet/aquarium trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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G. spilanthoides is easily recognized when in flower but otherwisecould be confused with a number of species which grow in or near water. It may be confused with Hygrophila corymbosa, although leaves of G. spilanthoides are fleshier and less rigid than those of H. corymbosa; and with the invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) although G. spilanthoides has serrated leaf margins whereas alligator weed has rounded margins. It is also similar to Veronica anagallis-aquatica (blue water speedwell) which has hollow stems, an erect habit and rhizomes, opposite finely toothed stalkless leaves whereas G. spilanthoides has leaves on short stalks, and the flowers are very different, being pale blue or mauve and arranged in long terminal spikes with large gaps between flowers. Another similar species is Hygrophila costata, which is also emergent with serrated leaf margins, is reddish four angled and white flower produced at each leaf joins without any stalk.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

Prevention is better and more cost effective than control. In Australia and New Zealand it is illegal to import and cultivate G. spilanthoides. Early detection and eradication are also important to prevent the spread of this species. Small infestations can be eradicated if they are detected early but an ongoing commitment is needed to ensure new infestations do not establish (DEH, 2003). It is illegal to cultivate G. spilanthoides in most Australian states and territories as it is declared noxious weed. Unfortunately, as with many aquatic weeds, there is evidence that it has been deliberately planted and farmed on public lands, and these activities must be stopped to prevent its introduction and further spread. The importation of G. spilanthoides into Australia is not permitted because of the risk of further spread, as some 65% of weeds including G. spilanthoides recently established in Australia have escaped from ornamental plantings in gardens and aquaria, and the detrimental impacts of these weeds far outweigh any potential horticultural benefits (Weeds CRC, 2008). The public is being made aware of these impacts and other issues such as how to identify G. spilanthoides and what to do if they find it through a variety of extension activities.

Control

Physical/mechanical control

Hand pulling of small patches is unlikely to remove all plant parts, and infestations would be able to regenerate and spread. Mechanical removal of infestations can be carried out at the same time as de-silting operations to clear drains. This can be done after herbicide spraying to reduce the risk of spreading plant parts, and then plant material up to 1 m deep can be removed by heavy machinery and spread out and dried and then burnt (Weeds CRC, 2008). Care must be taken not to leave broken plant pieces in the area. Parsons and Cuthbertson (1992) suggest that control is possible by raking the plant material from the water, then spreading it thinly over a suitable surface to dry before raking into heaps and burning it, repeating as required. Collected plant parts can also be deep buried.

Chemical control

G. spilanthoidesis very hard to kill and herbicides are effective only on the upper parts of the plant, as submerged parts are not killed and can regrow. Following repeated efforts, glyphosate has proven to be ineffective in south Queensland, and it shows some resistance to the most commonly approved aquatic herbicides (Sainty and Jacobs, 2003).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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  1. Research on the total distribution of the species in the world
  2. Impact of the species
  3. Biology and ecology of the species
  4. Management methods – suitable herbicide

  5. References

    Top of page

    Ardenghi NMG; Barcheri G; Ballerini C; Cauzzi P; Guzzon F, 2016. Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Asteraceae, Eupatorieae), a new naturalized and potentially invasive aquatic alien in S Europe. Willdenowia, 46(2):265-273. http://www.bioone.org/loi/will

    Australia Department of Environment and Heritage, 2003. Senegal tea plant (Gymnocoronis spilanthoides). Alert list of Environmental Weeds: Weed Management Guide. Canberra, Australia: Department of Environment and Heritage, 6.

    Csurhes S; Edwards R, 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: candidate species for preventative control. Canberra, Australia: Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia, 208 pp.

    DEH, 2003. Senegal tea plant (Gymnocoronis spilanthoides). Alert list of Environmental Weeds: Weed Management Guide. Canberra, Australia: Department of Environment and Heritage, 6 pp.

    Dematteis M; Molero J; Angulo MB; Rovira AM, 2007. Chromosome studies on some Asteraceae from South America. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 153(2):221-230.

    EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

    Gunasekera L; Krake K; Pigott P, 2002. New aquatic weed threats in northern Victoria. In: 13th Australian Weeds Conference: weeds "threats now and forever?", Sheraton Perth Hotel, Perth, Western Australia, 8-13 September 2002: papers and proceedings [ed. by Jacob HS, Dodd J, Moore JH] Victoria Park, Australia: Plant Protection Society of Western Australia Inc, 124-125.

    Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

    Parsons WT; Cuthbertson EG, 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 692 pp.

    PIER, 2008. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

    Sainty GR; Jacobs SWL, 2003. Water Plants in Australia. New South Wales, Australia: Sainty and Associates Pty Ltd, 227.

    Torok K; Duckat Z; Dancza I; Nemeth I; Kiss J; Mihaly B; Magyar D, 2003. Invasion gateways and corridors in the Carpathian Basin: biological invasions in Hungary. Biological Invasions, 5:349-356.

    USDA-ARS, 2008. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

    Vivian-Smith G; Hinchliffe D; Weber J, 2005. Fecundity and germination of the invasive aquatic plant, Senegal tea (Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (D.Don) DC.). Plant Protection Quarterly, 20(4):145-147.

    Weeds CRC, 2008. Weed management guide: G. spilanthoides - Gymnocoronis spilanthoides. http://www.weeds.au/documents/wmg_senegal_tea.pdf

    WSSA, 2010. Gymnocoronis spilanthoides. Weed Science Society of America Invasive Plant Fact Sheets. http://www.wssa.net/Weeds/Invasive/FactSheets/Gymnocoronis%20spilanthoides.pdf

    Distribution References

    Ardenghi N M G, Barcheri G, Ballerini C, Cauzzi P, Guzzon F, 2016. Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Asteraceae, Eupatorieae), a new naturalized and potentially invasive aquatic alien in S Europe. Willdenowia. 46 (2), 265-273. http://www.bioone.org/loi/will DOI:10.3372/wi.46.46208

    Australia, Department of Environment and Heritage, 2003. Senegal tea plant (Gymnocoronis spilanthoides). In: Alert list of Environmental Weeds: Weed Management Guide, Canberra, Australia: Department of Environment and Heritage. 6.

    CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

    Gunasekera L, Krake K, Pigott P, 2002. New aquatic weed threats in northern Victoria. In: 13th Australian Weeds Conference: weeds "threats now and forever?", Sheraton Perth Hotel, Perth, Western Australia, 8-13 September 2002: papers and proceedings. [ed. by Jacob H S, Dodd J, Moore J H]. Victoria Park, Australia: Plant Protection Society of Western Australia Inc. 124-125.

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    PIER, 2008. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

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    Weeds CRC, 2008. Weed management guide: G. spilanthoides - Gymnocoronis spilanthoides., http://www.weeds.au/documents/wmg_senegal_tea.pdf

    Links to Websites

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    WebsiteURLComment
    Auckland Regional Council, New Zealandhttp://www.arc.govt.nz
    Cooperative Research Centre for Australian Weed Managementhttp://www.weeds.crc.org.au
    Pacific Island Ecosystems at Riskhttp://www.hear.org/pier/
    Southern Tablelands and South Coast Noxious Plants Committeehttp://www.southeastweeds.org.au
    Taranaki Regional Council, New Zealandhttp://www.trc.govt.nz

    Organizations

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    Australia: Department of Primary Industries-Queensland, Queensland, http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au

    Contributors

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    31/09/08 Original text by:

    Lalith Gunasekera, Primary Industries Research Victoria, Department of Primary Industries, Frankston Centre, PO Box 48, Victoria 3199, Australia

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