Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae
(cedar apple rust)

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Datasheet

Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae (cedar apple rust)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cedar apple rust
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tiny cedar-apple rust galls with gelatinous spore horns in axils of cedar leaves.
TitleCedar-apple rust fungus
CaptionTiny cedar-apple rust galls with gelatinous spore horns in axils of cedar leaves.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Tiny cedar-apple rust galls with gelatinous spore horns in axils of cedar leaves.
Cedar-apple rust fungusTiny cedar-apple rust galls with gelatinous spore horns in axils of cedar leaves.©Alan L. Jones
Cedar-apple rust gall on cedar with gelatinous spore horns fully extended.
TitleCedar-apple rust gall
CaptionCedar-apple rust gall on cedar with gelatinous spore horns fully extended.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
Cedar-apple rust gall on cedar with gelatinous spore horns fully extended.
Cedar-apple rust gallCedar-apple rust gall on cedar with gelatinous spore horns fully extended.©Alan L. Jones
SEM of a pycnium of cedar-apple rust fungus with a few periphyses extended and some pycniospores. (Nectar drops were removed during preparation.)
TitleSEM
CaptionSEM of a pycnium of cedar-apple rust fungus with a few periphyses extended and some pycniospores. (Nectar drops were removed during preparation.)
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
SEM of a pycnium of cedar-apple rust fungus with a few periphyses extended and some pycniospores. (Nectar drops were removed during preparation.)
SEMSEM of a pycnium of cedar-apple rust fungus with a few periphyses extended and some pycniospores. (Nectar drops were removed during preparation.)©Alan L. Jones
SEM cross-section of an apple leaf showing young aecia cluster-cups of the cedar-apple rust fungus on the underside of the leaf.
TitleSEM
CaptionSEM cross-section of an apple leaf showing young aecia cluster-cups of the cedar-apple rust fungus on the underside of the leaf.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
SEM cross-section of an apple leaf showing young aecia cluster-cups of the cedar-apple rust fungus on the underside of the leaf.
SEMSEM cross-section of an apple leaf showing young aecia cluster-cups of the cedar-apple rust fungus on the underside of the leaf.©Alan L. Jones
SEM of a gelatinous spore horn from a cedar-apple rust gall. Teliospores of the cedar-apple rust fungus with slight constriction at the crosswall and single teliospore bearing promycelium (a) and formation of secondary basidiospore on a pointed sterigmata (b). Other basidiospores can be seen on the left.
TitleSEM
CaptionSEM of a gelatinous spore horn from a cedar-apple rust gall. Teliospores of the cedar-apple rust fungus with slight constriction at the crosswall and single teliospore bearing promycelium (a) and formation of secondary basidiospore on a pointed sterigmata (b). Other basidiospores can be seen on the left.
Copyright©Alan L. Jones
SEM of a gelatinous spore horn from a cedar-apple rust gall. Teliospores of the cedar-apple rust fungus with slight constriction at the crosswall and single teliospore bearing promycelium (a) and formation of secondary basidiospore on a pointed sterigmata (b). Other basidiospores can be seen on the left.
SEMSEM of a gelatinous spore horn from a cedar-apple rust gall. Teliospores of the cedar-apple rust fungus with slight constriction at the crosswall and single teliospore bearing promycelium (a) and formation of secondary basidiospore on a pointed sterigmata (b). Other basidiospores can be seen on the left.©Alan L. Jones

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae Schwein.

Preferred Common Name

  • cedar apple rust

Other Scientific Names

  • Aecidium pyrolatum Schwein.
  • Gymnosporangium macropus Link
  • Gymnosporangium virginianum Spreng.
  • Roestelia pyrata Thaxt.

International Common Names

  • English: American apple rust; cedar-apple rust; rust: apple; rust: cedar; rust: Juniperus spp.
  • Spanish: roya de Virginia del manzano; roya del enebro
  • French: rouille de Virginie du pommier; rouille du genevrier

EPPO code

  • GYMNJV (Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Family: Pucciniaceae
  •                             Genus: Gymnosporangium
  •                                 Species: Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2020)Based on long-term annual surveys.
SloveniaAbsentEPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedAldwinckle (1974); UK, CAB International (1994); EPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentAldwinckle (1975); EPPO (2020)
-QuebecPresentEPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedAldwinckle (1974); Korban et al. (1987); EPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentAldwinckle (1974); EPPO (2020)
-ArkansasPresentAldwinckle (1974); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-ColoradoPresentUK, CAB International (1994); EPPO (2020)
-ConnecticutPresentUK, CAB International (1994); EPPO (2020)
-District of ColumbiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1994); EPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1994); EPPO (2020)
-IllinoisPresentNeely (1983); Nichols (1985); EPPO (2020)
-IndianaPresentAldwinckle (1975); EPPO (2020)
-IowaPresentUK, CAB International (1994); EPPO (2020)
-KansasPresentUK, CAB International (1994); Tisserat and Pair (1997); EPPO (2020)
-KentuckyPresentHartman et al. (1997)
-MarylandPresentKeil et al. (1980); UK, CAB International (1994); EPPO (2020)
-MassachusettsPresentNichols (1985); EPPO (2020)
-MichiganPresentAldwinckle (1975); EPPO (2020)
-MississippiPresentUK, CAB International (1994); EPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresentUK, CAB International (1994); EPPO (2020)
-NebraskaPresentUK, CAB International (1994); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-New JerseyPresentPerry (1977)
-New YorkPresentPearson et al. (1980); EPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentArauz et al. (1990); EPPO (2020)
-North DakotaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-OhioPresentNichols (1985); EPPO (2020)
-OklahomaPresentUK, CAB International (1994); EPPO (2020)
-PennsylvaniaPresentNichols (1985); EPPO (2020)
-Rhode IslandPresentNichols (1985); EPPO (2020)
-South DakotaPresentUK, CAB International (1994); Schaefer (1995); EPPO (2020)
-TennesseePresentUK, CAB International (1994); EPPO (2020)
-VermontPresentBower et al. (1995)
-VirginiaPresentYoder and Hickey (1981); EPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresentNichols (1985); EPPO (2020)
-WisconsinPresentNichols (1985); EPPO (2020)
-WyomingPresentEPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / fungal growth
Stems / galls

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) fruiting bodies Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves fruiting bodies Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fruiting bodies Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Aldwinckle HS, 1974. Field susceptibility of 41 apple cultivars to cedar apple rust and quince rust. Plant Disease Reporter, 58(8):696-699.

Aldwinckle HS, 1975. Pathogenic races of Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae on apple. Phytopathology, 65(9):958-961

Aldwinckle HS, 1990. Rust diseases. In: Compendium of apple and pear diseases. St Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society, 10-14.

Arauz LF; Sutton TB; Pope LR, 1990. Simultaneous use of infection criteria for three apple diseases for timing of fungicide sprays. Phytopathology, 80(11):1212-1218

Bower KN; Berkett LP; Costante JF, 1995. Nontarget effect of a fungicide spray program on phytophagous and predacious mite populations in a scab-resistant apple orchard. Environmental Entomology, 24(2):423-430

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

EPPO, 2006. Gymnosporangium spp. (non-European). Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 36(3):441-446. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=epp

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Hartman JR; Bessin RT; Brown GR; Jones RT; Strang JG, 1997. Managing apple diseases in Kentucky using integrated pest management. An example of apple disease control. Phytoma, 49(495):45-47; 5 ref.

HEPTING GH, 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the United States., USA: USDA, 658 pp. [Agricultural Handbook, No. 386.]

IMI, 1994. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases No. 61 (edition 3). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Joung H; Korban SS; Skirvin RM, 1987. Screening shoot cultures of Malus for cedar-apple rust infection by in vitro inoculation. Plant Disease, 71(12):1119-1122

Keil HL; Retzer HJ; Barrat RE; Maas JL, 1980. Ultralow-volume spray control of three apple diseases. Plant Disease, 64(7):681-684

Kern FD, 1973. A Revised Taxonomic Account of Gymnosporangium. University Park, USA: Penn State University Press.

Korban SS; Chen H; Ries SM, 1987. Interaction of apple cultivars with populations of cedar-apple rust. Journal of Phytopathology, 119(3):272-278

Laundon G, 1977. Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 547. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Neely D, 1983. Chemical control of cedar-apple and cedar-hawthorn rusts. Journal of Arboriculture, 9(3):85-87

Nichols LP, 1985. Disease resistant crabapples. (Results of 1984 survey). Shade Tree, 58(5):54-56

OEPP/EPPO, 2000. EPPO Standards PM 1/2(8) EPPO A1 and A2 lists of quarantine pests. In: EPPO Standards PM 1, General Phytosanitary Measures. Paris, France: EPPO, 5-17.

Pearson RC; Seem RC; Meyer FW, 1980. Environmental factors influencing the discharge of basidiospores of Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianp. Phytopathology, 70(3):262-266

Perry RG, 1977. The cedar-apple fungus and its control. McIlvainea, 3(1):36-41

Peterson RS, 1967. Studies of juniper rusts. The West Madrono, 19: 9-91.

Schaefer PR, 1995. Ten-year results of an eastern redcedar and Rocky Mountain juniper provenance test in eastern South Dakota. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry, 12(1):30-35; 17 ref.

Smith IM; Dunez J; Lelliott RA; Phillips DH; Archer SA(Editors), 1988. European handbook of plant diseases. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.

Tisserat NA; Pair JC, 1997. Susceptibility of selected juniper cultivars to cedar-apple rust, Kabatina tip blight, Cercospora needle blight and Botryosphaeria canker. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 15(3):160-163; 12 ref.

Warner J, 1990. Field susceptibility of scab-resistant apple cultivars and selections to cedar apple rust, quince rust and hawthorn rust. Fruit Varieties Journal, 44(4):216-224

Yoder KS; Hickey KD, 1981. Sterol-inhibiting fungicides for control of certain diseases of apple in the Cumberland-Shenandoah region. Plant Disease, 65(12):998-1001

Distribution References

Aldwinckle H S, 1974. Field susceptibility of 41 apple cultivars to cedar apple rust and quince rust. Plant Disease Reporter. 58 (8), 696-699.

Aldwinckle H S, 1975. Pathogenic races of Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae on apple. Phytopathology. 65 (9), 958-961. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-65-958

Arauz L F, Sutton T B, Pope L R, 1990. Simultaneous use of infection criteria for three apple diseases for timing of fungicide sprays. Phytopathology. 80 (11), 1212-1218. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-80-1212

Bower K N, Berkett L P, Costante J F, 1995. Nontarget effect of a fungicide spray program on phytophagous and predacious mite populations in a scab-resistant apple orchard. Environmental Entomology. 24 (2), 423-430. DOI:10.1093/ee/24.2.423

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Hartman J R, Bessin R T, Brown G R, Jones R T, Strang J G, 1997. Managing apple diseases in Kentucky using integrated pest management. An example of apple disease control. (La protection intégrée en verger de pommiers dans le Kentucky. Exemple de la maîtrise des maladies du pommier.). Phytoma. 49 (495), 45-47.

Keil H L, Retzer H J, Barrat R E, Maas J L, 1980. Ultralow-volume spray control of three apple diseases. Plant Disease. 64 (7), 681-684. DOI:10.1094/PD-64-681

Korban S S, Chen H, Ries S M, 1987. Interaction of apple cultivars with populations of cedar-apple rust. Journal of Phytopathology. 119 (3), 272-278. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.1987.tb04398.x

Neely D, 1983. Chemical control of cedar-apple and cedar-hawthorn rusts. Journal of Arboriculture. 9 (3), 85-87.

Nichols L P, 1985. Disease resistant crabapples. (Results of 1984 survey). Shade Tree. 58 (5), 54-56.

NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:

Pearson R C, Seem R C, Meyer F W, 1980. Environmental factors influencing the discharge of basidiospores of Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae. Phytopathology. 70 (3), 262-266. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-70-262

Perry R G, 1977. The cedar-apple fungus and its control. McIlvainea. 3 (1), 36-41.

Schaefer P R, 1995. Ten-year results of an eastern redcedar and Rocky Mountain juniper provenance test in eastern South Dakota. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. 12 (1), 30-35.

Tisserat N A, Pair J C, 1997. Susceptibility of selected juniper cultivars to cedar-apple rust, Kabatina tip blight, Cercospora needle blight and Botryosphaeria canker. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 15 (3), 160-163.

UK, CAB International, 1994. Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 61.

Yoder K S, Hickey K D, 1981. Sterol-inhibiting fungicides for control of certain diseases of apple in the Cumberland-Shenandoah region. Plant Disease. 65 (12), 998-1001. DOI:10.1094/PD-65-998

Distribution Maps

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