Invasive Species Compendium

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Grapevine virus A
(grapevine closterovirus)

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Datasheet

Grapevine virus A (grapevine closterovirus)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Grapevine virus A
  • Preferred Common Name
  • grapevine closterovirus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Tymovirales
  •         Family: Betaflexiviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Grapevine virus A (grapevine closterovirus); Symptoms on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) - note uneven development of stem.
Title
CaptionGrapevine virus A (grapevine closterovirus); Symptoms on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) - note uneven development of stem.
Copyright©William M. Brown Jr./via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Grapevine virus A (grapevine closterovirus); Symptoms on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) - note uneven development of stem.
Grapevine virus A (grapevine closterovirus); Symptoms on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) - note uneven development of stem.©William M. Brown Jr./via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Grapevine virus A (grapevine closterovirus); Symptoms of Corky Bark Virus on the lower trunk of a grapevine (Vitis vinifera).
TitleSymptoms
CaptionGrapevine virus A (grapevine closterovirus); Symptoms of Corky Bark Virus on the lower trunk of a grapevine (Vitis vinifera).
Copyright©William M. Brown Jr./via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Grapevine virus A (grapevine closterovirus); Symptoms of Corky Bark Virus on the lower trunk of a grapevine (Vitis vinifera).
SymptomsGrapevine virus A (grapevine closterovirus); Symptoms of Corky Bark Virus on the lower trunk of a grapevine (Vitis vinifera).©William M. Brown Jr./via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Grapevine virus A

Preferred Common Name

  • grapevine closterovirus

Other Scientific Names

  • Grapevine corky bark closterovirus
  • Grapevine corky bark disease
  • Grapevine corky bark virus
  • Grapevine stem pitting disease
  • Grapevine stem pitting virus
  • Grapevine stem pitting-associated closterovirus
  • Grapevine stem-pitting virus

International Common Names

  • English: corky bark of grapevine; grapevine A trichovirus; grapevine legno riccio; grapevine stem pitting-associated virus; grapevine trichovirus; rugose wood; stem pitting of grapevine
  • Spanish: madera rizada
  • French: bois strié
  • Portuguese: estrias do lembo

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Holzrunzeligkeit
  • Italy: legno riccio; riccio legno

English acronym

  • GVA

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Tymovirales
  •                 Family: Betaflexiviridae
  •                     Genus: Vitivirus
  •                         Species: Grapevine virus A

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Grapevine virus A (GVA) was initially thought to resemble viruses included in the family Closteroviridae (Conti et al., 1980), and was later considered to be a tentative member of the Trichovirus genus (Martelli et al., 1994a; Candresse et al., 1995; Minafra et al., 1997). However, GVA is now recognized as the type species of the Vitivirus genus (Martelli et al., 2000), one of seven genera included in the newly recognized Flexiviridae family (Adams et al., 2003). The virus was earlier designated grapevine closterovirus, grapevine stem pitting-associated closterovirus and grapevine stem pitting-associated virus (Chevalier et al., 1995; Boscia et al., 1995) before Milne et al. (1984) suggested that the name be changed to Grapevine virus A. When later considered to be a trichovirus, it was occasionally referred to as Grapevine trichovirus (e.g., Boscia et al., 1995; Zabalgogeazcoa et al., 1997) or Grapevine A trichovirus (e.g.,Credi and Giunchedi,1996; Rubinson et al., 1997).

Description

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GVA has helically constructed flexuous filamentous particles, measuring ca 800 x 12 nm, with a pitch of 3.3-3.5 nm and ca 10 subunits per turn of the helix (Conti et al., 1980). The particles, contain ca 95% protein and 5% nucleic acid by weight and sediment as a single component with a sedimentation coefficient of ca 92 S. GVA is best purified from experimentally infected Nicotiana benthamiana (Monette and James, 1990a).The coat protein is composed of a single polypeptide of 21.5 kDa (Minafra et al., 1997). Each particle contains a single molecule of single-stranded RNA of 7.6 kb, the sequence (database sequence accession number X75433) of which has been determined (Minafra et al., 1997). The genomic RNA of GVA contains five open-reading frames encoding, respectively, the replication-related proteins (ORF 1), a 19 kDa product with unknown functions (ORF 2), the movement protein (ORF 3), the coat protein (ORF 4) and a 10 kDa product (ORF 5) with nucleotide binding properties, which is suspected to be a suppressor of gene silencing (Galiakparov et al., 2003; Turturo et al., 2003). Full length cDNA infectious clones have been produced (Galiakparov et al., 1999; Saldarelli et al., 2000a). The movement protein can be detected immunologically (Rubinson et al., 1997; Saldarelli et al., 2000b) and the epitopes of the viral coat protein have been mapped using monoclonal antibodies (Dell'Orco et al., 2002).

Distribution

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The very wide geographical distribution of GVA is probably due to the inadvertent international dissemination of the virus in infected grapevine germplasm before the virus had been identified and methods developed for its detection and identification.

In addition to the countries listed, GVA has also been reported in China (D. Boscia, Instituto di Virologia Vegetale, Bari, Italy, unpublished data), Syria (G.P. Martelli, Instituto di Virologia Vegetale, Bari, Italy, unpublished data), Brazil (O. Nickel, Embrapa Uva e Vinho, Bento Goncalves, RS, Brazil, unpublished data) and New Zealand (R. Bonfiglioli, Department of Plant Science, Waite Agricultural Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Australia, unpublished data).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
EgyptPresent
MoroccoPresent
South AfricaPresent
TunisiaPresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
ArmeniaPresent
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-SichuanPresent
-XinjiangPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JordanPresent
KazakhstanPresent
LebanonPresent
PakistanPresent
SyriaPresent
TurkeyPresent
YemenPresent

Europe

AlbaniaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresent
CzechiaPresentOriginal citation: Komínek and Holleinová (2003)
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent
-SardiniaPresent
-SicilyPresent
MaltaPresent
North MacedoniaPresent
PortugalPresent
RussiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent
-ScotlandPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresent
-MissouriPresent
-WashingtonPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-South AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
New ZealandPresent2016

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent

Risk of Introduction

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Because GVA has been reported to occur in most major grapevine-producing countries, it poses no phytosanitary risk. However, it is recommended that only certified virus-free stocks be exchanged in national and international trade.

Hosts/Species Affected

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GVA has a very narrow natural host range, its only major hosts being only Vitis vinifera (grapevine) and American Vitis species and hybrids that are used as rootstocks. The virus is transmissible experimentally by grafting and by mealybugs to other Vitis species, and by mechanical inoculation with difficulty to Nicotiana clevelandii and N. benthamiana (Conti et al:, 1980; Minafra et al., 1998; Monette and James, 1990a, b). An isolate from Yemen induces local lesions in Chenopodium amaranticolor [C. giganteum], C. quinoa and Gomphrena globosa and infects latently Datura stramonium (Martelli et al., 1994b).

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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GVA is now known to induce in infected susceptible grapevine cultivars symptoms described as stem-pitting (e.g., Milne et al., 1984; Conti and Milne, 1985), Kober stem grooving (e.g., Garau et al., 1994b) and rugose wood (e.g., Digiaro et al., 1994; Martelli et al., 1992, 1994). Due to the then common occurrence of complexes of morphologically similar viruses and the earlier lack of procedures for their differentiation, GVA was originally thought to be associated with both leafroll and stem-pitting symptoms. However, Milne et al. (1984) and Conti and Milne (1985) demonstrated that leaf rolling was induced by one or more closteroviruses and stem-pitting by GVA. The virus is consistently associated with Kober stem grooving, one of the diseases of the rugose wood complex, and is thought to be its putative agent (Chevalier et al., 1995; Choueiri et al., 1997b). Reports from South Africa and Australia indicate that GVA may also be involved in the aetiology of a severe decline of cv. Shiraz and of so-called Shiraz disease of other grapevine cultivars (Goszczynski and Jooste, 2003a). Several strains of GVA are known which differ biologically (Monette and James, 1990b) and molecularly. Molecular variants cluster into three groups which can be selectively identified by RT-PCR using variant-specific primers. Single vines can be simultaneously infected by more than one variant (Goszczynski and Jooste, 2003b).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Stems / discoloration of bark

Biology and Ecology

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The only known source of GVA is infected grapevines, from which the virus is transmitted to healthy plants by its mealybug vectors and by grafting. Humans can prevent further dissemination of the virus by moving internationally and nationally only certified virus-free plants.

GVA is a phloem-restricted virus which multiplies in phloem parenchyma cells, companion cells, and differentiating sieve tubes in which particles accumulate (Rosciglione et al., 1983) and are acquired by the vectors (La Notte et al., 1997). The cytopathology of GVA infections, in both grapevines and herbaceous hosts, is characterized by extensive modifications of the cell walls (thickenings and callose deposits), proliferation of cellular membranes, and vesicular evaginations of the tonoplast that contain fine fibrils. Large numbers of virus particles accumulate in the cytoplasm to form massive bundle-like aggregates (Rosciglione et al., 1983; Monette and Godkin, 1992; Faoro 1997). The viral movement protein localizes in the cell wall, plasmodesmata and in association with virus aggregates (Saldarelli et al., 2000b).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector Transmission

The virus is transmitted from infected to healthy grapevines in a non-circulative semi-persistent manner by the pseudococcid mealybugs Pseudococcus longispinus, Pseudococcus affinis [P. viburni], Planococcus citri and Planococcus ficus (Rosciglione et al., 1983; Engelbrecht and Kasdorf, 1990; Pedroso et al., 1991; Garau et al., 1995; La Notte et al., 1997) and by the scale insect Neopulvinaria innumerabilis (Fortusini et al., 1997). Zorloni et al. (2006) recently reported transmission of GVA by the mealybug Heliococcus bohemicus. Insects acquire the virus by feeding on infected plants for 15-180 min, remain viruliferous for up to 48 h while fasting and up to 15 h while feeding, and transmit virus without a latent period. Transmissibility is lost after moulting (La Notte et al., 1997).

Seedborne Spread

GVA is not seedborne.

Impact

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GVA causes crop losses of 5-22% in wine grape cultivars (Garau et al., 1997), and decline and death of table grapevines also infected by leafroll disease (Digiaro et al., 1997). In vines infected with both GVA and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, leaves senesce rapidly with consequent loss of pigments, soluble proteins, RuBPC proteins and reduced photosynthetic activity (Malossini et al., 2003). Elimination by heat therapy of GVA from vines also showing leafroll symptoms increased fruit yield by 30% and chlorophyll content of leaves, and improved graft take and the quality of the wines (Mannini and Credi, 2000).

Diagnosis

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Indexing

GVA induces stem grooving in Kober 5BB but no symptoms in LN33 and Vitis rupestris (Savino et al., 1989). In field-grown top or chip-bud grafted indicators, symptoms appear usually within 2 years.

Serological Methods

Immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) has been much used for detecting GVA (Conti and Milne, 1985; Milne et al., 1984; Rosciglione and Castellano, 1985; Engelbrecht and Kasdorf, 1987; Agran et al., 1990; Monette et al., 1990; Credi and Giunchedi, 1996; Choueiri et al., 1997a; Buzkan et al., 2001). For more than two decades, the standard form of double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) with polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies (Boscia et al., 1992) has been also used routinely for the detection and identification of GVA in grapevines and test plants (e.g., Monette and James, 1990b; Monette et al., 1990; Pedroso et al., 1991; Peressini et al., 1991; Mahfoudhi et al., 1998; Choueiri et al., 1997a; M'Hirsi et al., 2001; Buciumeanu et al., 2008). Indirect ELISA (Engelbrecht, 1987) and the western blotting technique (Monette and Green, 1992; Goszczynski et al., 1996), although used less frequently, have also been proved effective for detecting the virus. Borgo et al. (2006) were able to successfully detect GVA in mature canes with ELISA.

As the season advances, the reliability of the serological tests on leaf matrix increases (Borgo et al., 2006). With ELISA, the source of the virus also effects the efficiency of GVA detection (Buciumeanu et al., 2008).

Nucleic Acid Hybridization

Nucleic acid spot hybridization (NASH) was shown to be an effective method of detecting GVA (Gallitelli et al., 1985), and nucleic acid hybridization was later shown to have much greater sensitivity than ELISA (Minafra et al., 1992a). Saldarelli et al. (1994) demonstrated the effectiveness of non-radioactive probes.

Nucleic Acid Amplification

Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been used as a very sensitive method for the detection of GVA in grapevines (Minafra et al., 1992b; Mansinho et al., 1999; Basso et al., 2010); the procedure is so sensitive that it permits GVA to be detected in viruliferous mealybugs (Minafra and Hadidi, 1994). The sensitivity of the procedure has been further improved by the introduction of an initial Immuno-Capture step; this method permits the detection of GVA in sap diluted 1:100,000 (Chevalier et al., 1995).

Single strand conformational polymorphism has been used to investigate the molecular heterogeneity of GVA (Goszczynski and Jooste, 2002).

Detection and Inspection

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Because it can occur in complex with other viruses, it is not possible to identify GVA by symptoms induced in grapevine. To identify the virus specifically it is necessary to use one or more of the recommended diagnostic methods.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The major physicochemical properties and genome organization of GVA are similar to those of other members of the Vitivirus genus (Grapevine virus B, Grapevine virus D and Heracleum latent virus). Like Grapevine virus B, GVA is transmitted by mealybugs. The virus is serologically distantly related only to grapevine viruses B and D from which, however, it can be readily distinguished (Boscia et al., 1992; Goszczynski et al., 1996; Choueiri et al., 1997a).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

GVA is best controlled by the production, distribution and cultivation of virus-free plants.

Vector Control

No field trials for the chemical control of vectors have been reported.

Regulatory Measures

Certification schemes for grapevines requiring freedom from GVA are implemented in some European countries (Martelli, 1995). Such schemes are carried out by government officials or by State-recognized certification services operating under government control according to rules and standards set by legislation.

Cultural Control and Phytosanitary Methods

Virus-free plants have been obtained by heat therapy (Guidoni et al., 1997), in vitro culture (Bottalico et al., 2000), somatic embryogenesis using callus of anthers and ovaries (Goussard et al., 1991), and cryopreservation (Wang et al., 2003).

Host-Plant Resistance

No natural resistance to GVA is available (Goelles et al., 2000) so attempts have been made to produce resistant transgenic plants by insertion into the genomes of grapevine and/or herbaceous experimental hosts of virus sequences to the viral coat or movement proteins (Goelles et al., 2000; Radian-Sade et al., 2000; Buzkan et al., 2001; Martinelli et al., 2002).

Biological Control

There are no reports of attempts to control biologically the vectors of GVA. 

References

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Adams MJ; Antoniw JF; Bar-Joseph M; Brunt AA; Candresse T; Foster GD; Martelli GP; Milne RG; Zavriev SK; Fauquet CM, 2004. The new plant virus family Flexiviridae and assessment of molecular criteria for species demarcation. Archives of Virology, 149:1045-1060.

Agran MK; Terlizzi B di; Boscia D; Minafra A; Savino V; Martelli GP; Askri F, 1990. Occurrence of grapevine virus A (GVA) and other closteroviruses in Tunisian grapevines affected by leafroll disease. Vitis, 29(1):43-48

Ahmed HMH; Digaro M; Martelli GP, 2004. Viruses and virus diseases of grapevine in Egypt. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin (in press).

Alabi, O. J., Rwahnih, M. A., Mekuria, T. A., Naidu, R. A., 2014. Genetic diversity of Grapevine virus A in Washington and California vineyards. Phytopathology, 104(5), 548-560. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-06-13-0179-R

Alkowni R; Digiaro M; Savino V, 1998. Viruses and virus diseases of grapevine in Palestine. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 28:189, 195.

Anfoka GH; Wesam Shahrour; Nakhla MK, 2004. Detection and molecular characterization of grapevine virus A in Jordan. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 43(3):387-394.

Auger J, 1994. Virosis de la vid. Rep. VII Congreso Latinoamericano de Fitopatologia, Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, 155-166.

Avgelis AD; Tzortzakakis EA, 2001. Occurrence of viruses and Xiphinema spp. in vineyards of the Greek islands of Paros and Lemnos. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 40(3):284-288; 14 ref.

Basso MF; Fajardo TVM; Eiras M; Ayub RA; Nickel O, 2010. Molecular detection and identification of virus associated with symptomatic and symptomless grapevines. (Detecção e identificação molecular de vírus associados a videiras sintomáticas e assintomáticas.) Ciência Rural, 40(11):2249-2255. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/cr/v40n11/a782cr4041.pdf

Bayati, S., Shams-Bakhsh, M., Moini, A., 2011. Elimination of grapevine virus A (GVA) by cryotherapy and electrotherapy. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 13(3), 443-450. http://jast.journals.modares.ac.ir/?_action=showPDF&article=413&_ob=c51d0b2176daee020a071e9d33f2aa51&fileName=full_text.pdf

Bertin, S., Cavalieri, V., Graziano, C., Bosco, D., 2010. Survey of mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) vectors of Ampelovirus and Vitivirus in vineyards of northwestern Italy. Phytoparasitica, 38(4), 401-409. http://www.springerlink.com/content/a230816611h3026n/

Bonavia, M., Digiaro, M., Boscia, D., Boari, A., Bottalico, G., Savino, V., Martelli, G. P., 1996. Studies on "corky rugose wood" of grapevine and on the diagnosis of grapevine virus B. Vitis, 35(1), 53-58.

Borgo M; Bazzo I; Bertazzon N; Angelini E, 2006. Sanitary controls for grapevine virus diagnosis. (Accertamenti sanitari per la diagnosi dei virus della vite.) Informatore Fitopatologico, 56(4):15-17.

Boscia D; Aslouj E; Elicio V; Savino V; Castellano MA; Martelli GP, 1992. Production, characterization and use of monoclonal antibodies to grapevine virus A. Archives of Virology, 127(1-4):185-194

Boscia D; Masannat KM; Abu-Zurayk AR; Martelli GP, 1995. Rugose wood of the grapevine in Jordan. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 34(2):126-128

Bottalico G; Savino V; Campanale A, 2000. Improvements in grapevine sanitation protocols. Extended Abstracts of the 13th Meeting of ICVG, Adelaide, South Australia, 2000, 167.

Buciumeanu EC; Guta IC; Visoiu E, 2008. Improvement of grapevine virus A (GVA) diagnosis by ELISA testing. Analele Universitatcedilla~ii din Craiova - Biologie, Horticultura, Tehnologia Prelucrarii Produselor Agricole, Ingineria Mediului, 13:105-110. http://anucraiova.3x.ro/

Buzkan N; Minafra A; Saldarelli P; Castellano A; Dell'Orco M; Martelli GP; G÷lles R; Machado MLda C, 2001. Heterologous encapsidation in non-transgenic and transgenic Nicotiana plants infected by Grapevine viruses A and B. Journal of Plant Pathology, 83(1):37-43; 32 ref.

Candresse T; Namba S; Martelli GP, 1995. Genus Trichovirus. In: Virus Taxonomy; Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (Murphy FA; Fauquet CM; Bishop DHL; Ghabrial SA; Jarvis AW; Martelli GP; Mayo MA; Summers MD, eds), Academic Press, San Diego, 468-470.

Chevalier S; Grief C; Clauzel JM; Walter B; Fritsch C, 1995. Use of an immunocapture-polymerase chain reaction procedure for the detection of grapevine virus A in Kober stem grooving-infected grapevines. Journal of Phytopathology, 143(6):369-373

Choueiri E; Abou-Ghanem N; Boscia D, 1997. Grapevine virus A and grapevine virus D are serologically distantly related. Vitis, 36(1):39-41; 17 ref.

Choueiri S; Digiaro M; Savino V, 1997. Further evidence that grapevine virus A is the agent of Kober stem grooving. Extended Abstracts of the 12th Meeting of ICVG Lisbon, Portugal 1997, 39-40.

Conti M; Milne RG, 1985. Closterovirus associated with leafroll and stem pitting in grapevine. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 24(1/2):110-113

Conti M; Milne RG; Luisoni E; Boccardo G, 1980. A closterovirus from a stem-pitting-diseased grapevine. Phytopathology, 70(5):394-399

Credi R; Giunchedi L, 1996. Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses and grapevine virus A in selected Vitis vinifera cultivars in northern Italy. Plant Pathology, 45(6):1110-1116; 21 ref.

Credi, R., 1997. Characterization of grapevine rugose wood disease sources from Italy. Plant Disease, 81(11), 1288-1292. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1997.81.11.1288

Cseh E; Lázár J; Takács A; Kazinczi G; Gáborjányi R, 2008. Review of grapevine viruses and virus diseases in Hungary. (A szo?lo? magyarországon elo?forduló és várhatóan megjeleno? virusos betegségeinek és kórokozóinak áttekintése.) Növényvédelem, 44(11):535-544.

Dell'Orco M; Saldarelli P; Minafra A; Boscia D; Gallitelli D, 2002. Epitope mapping of Grapevine virus A capsid protein. Archives of Virology, 147(3):627-634; 24 ref.

Digiaro M; Bedzrob MP; D'Onghia AM; Boscia D; Savino V, 1994. On the correlation between grapevine virus A and rugose wood. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 33(3):187-193

Digiaro M; Boscia D; Simeone V; Savino V, 1997. Detrimental effects of filamentous viruses to table grape varieties newly introduced in Southern Italy. Extended Abstracts 12th Meeting ICVG, Lisbon, Portugal 1997, 169-170.

Digiaro M; Martelli GP; Savino V, 1999. Phloem-limited viruses of the grapevine in the Mediterranean and Near East: a synopsis. Options Méditerranéennes, Série B. 29: 83-92.

Engelbrecht DJ, 1987. Unique procedure to detect grapevine leafroll disease. Plant Protection News, South Africa, No. 8:7

Engelbrecht DJ; Kasdorf GGF, 1985. Association of a closterovirus with grapevines indexing positive for grapevine leafroll disease and evidence for its natural spread in grapevine. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 24(1/2):101-105

Engelbrecht DJ; Kasdorf GGF, 1987. Occurrence and transmission of grapevine virus A in South African grapevines. South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, 8(1):23-29

Engelbrecht DJ; Kasdorf GGF, 1990. Transmission of grapevine leafroll disease and associated closteroviruses by the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus. Phytophylactica, 22(3):341-346

Faoro F, 1997. Cytopathology of closteroviruses and trichoviruses infecting grapevines. In: Monette PL, ed. Filamentous Viruses of Woody Plants. Research Signpost, Trivandrum, 29-47.

Fortusini A; Scattini G; Prati S; Cinquanta S; Belli G, 1997. Transmission of grapevine leafroll virus 1 (GLRV-1) and grapevine virus A (GVA), by scale insects. Extended Abstracts 12th Meeting of ICVG, Lisbon 1997, 121-122.

G÷lles R; Moser R; Pnhringer H; Katinger H; CGmara Machado MLda; Minafra A; Savino V; Saldarelli P; Martelli GP; CGmara Machado Ada, 2000. Transgenic grapevines expressing coat protein gene sequences of grapevine fanleaf virus, arabis mosaic virus, grapevine virus A and grapevine virus B. Acta Horticulturae, No. 528:305-311; 21 ref.

Galiakparov N; Tanne E; Sela I; Gafny R, 1999. Infectious RNA transcripts from grapevine virus A cDNA clone. Virus Genes, 19(3):235-242; 25 ref.

Galiakparov N; Tanne E; Sela I; Gafny R, 2003. Functional analysis of the grapevine virus A genome. Virology, 306(1):42-50; 12 ref.

Gallitelli D; Savino V; Martelli GP, 1985. The use of a spot hybridization method for the detection of grapevine virus A in the sap of grapevine. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 24(1/2):221-224

Garau R; Fiori PP; Prota V; Tolu G; Fiori M; Prota U, 1997. Effect of virus infection on own-rooted clones of different wine grape cultivars from Sardinia. Extended Abstracts of the 12th Meeting of ICVG, Lisbon, Portugal 1997, 171-172.

Garau R; Prota VA; Boscia D; Fiori M; Prota U, 1995. Pseudococcus affinis Mask., new vector of grapevine trichoviruses A and B. Vitis, 34(1):67-68

Garau R; Prota VA; Piredda R; Boscia D; Prota U, 1994. On the possible relationship between Kober stem grooving and grapevine virus A. Vitis, 33(3):161-163

Garau R; Prota VA; Piredda R; Prota U, 1994. Investigations on a stunting factor in Vitis vinifera L. transmissible by grafting to 'Kober 5BB'. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 33(2):113-118; 10 ref.

Garau R; Prota VA; Tolu G; Mungianu MPM; Sechi A; Prota U, 2003. On the sanitary improvement of grapevine in Sardinia. (Sul miglioramento sanitario della vite in Sardegna.) Informatore Fitopatologico, 53(12):41-44.

Goszczynski DE; Jooste AEC, 2002. The application of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique for the analysis of molecular heterogeneity of grapevine virus A. Vitis, 41(2):77-82; 23 ref.

Goszczynski DE; Jooste AEC, 2003. Identification of divergent variants of Grapevine virus A. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 109(4):397-403; 19 ref.

Goszczynski DE; Jooste AEC, 2003. Identification of grapevine infected with divergent variants of Grapevine virus A using variant-specific RT-PCR. Extended Abstracts of the 14th Meeting of ICVG, Locorotondo, Italy, 2003, 131-132.

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