Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses
(leafroll disease)

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Datasheet

Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (leafroll disease)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 February 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses
  • Preferred Common Name
  • leafroll disease
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Closteroviridae
  •         Genus: Closterovirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses: classic leafroll symptoms in an infected red-berried grapevine.
TitleLeafroll symptoms in an infected red-berried grapevine
CaptionGrapevine leafroll-associated viruses: classic leafroll symptoms in an infected red-berried grapevine.
CopyrightG.P. Martelli
Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses: classic leafroll symptoms in an infected red-berried grapevine.
Leafroll symptoms in an infected red-berried grapevineGrapevine leafroll-associated viruses: classic leafroll symptoms in an infected red-berried grapevine.G.P. Martelli

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses

Preferred Common Name

  • leafroll disease

Other Scientific Names

  • Grapevine B virus
  • Grapevine C virus
  • Grapevine leafroll closterovirus
  • Grapevine leafroll disease

International Common Names

  • English: grapevine Ajinashika disease
  • Spanish: enrollado de la hoja
  • French: enroulement; grapevine nervures jaunes; rougeau de la vigne

Local Common Names

  • : enrollado de la hoja
  • Germany: Blatrollkrankheit
  • Italy: accartocciamento fogliare; rossore della vite
  • USA: white emperor disease

English acronym

  • GLRaV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Closteroviridae
  •                 Genus: Closterovirus
  •                     Species: Grapevine leafroll-associated viruses

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaWidespreadDigiaro et al., 2000
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HenanWidespreadLi et al., 1989
-LiaoningWidespreadLi et al., 1989
GazaWidespreadAlkowni et al., 1998
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MaharashtraPresentKumar et al., 2012
IsraelWidespreadTanne and Nitzany, 1973
JapanWidespreadTanaka, 1976; Namba et al., 1979
JordanWidespreadAl-Tamimi et al., 1998
KazakhstanPresentRyabushkina et al., 2009
Korea, Republic ofWidespreadKim et al., 2000
LebanonWidespreadHaidar et al., 1996
TaiwanWidespreadTzeng et al., 1994
TurkeyWidespreadAzeri, 1990; Ozaslan et al., 1993; Kaya et al., 2012
YemenRestricted distributionMartelli et al., 1994

Africa

AlgeriaWidespreadDigiaro et al., 2000
MoroccoWidespreadDigiaro et al., 2000
NigeriaPresentZongoma et al., 2018GLRaV-1 on grapevine
TunisiaWidespreadMahfoudi et al., 1998; Agran et al., 1990

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaWidespreadMacKenzie et al., 1996
-Nova ScotiaRestricted distributionMacKenzie et al., 1996
-OntarioWidespreadMacKenzie et al., 1996
-QuebecRestricted distributionMacKenzie et al., 1996
MexicoWidespreadTeliz et al., 1989
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaWidespreadHewitt, 1954
-MississippiPresentAboughanem-Sabanadzovic and Sabanadzovic, 2015Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2
-MissouriWidespreadMilkus and Goodman, 1999; Lunden et al., 2012
-New YorkWidespreadHu et al., 1989
-TexasPresentJones et al., 2014GLRaV-2 and GLRaV-3
-WashingtonPresentKarthikeyan et al., 2011

South America

BrazilWidespreadKuhn, 1992; Scagliusi, 1995; Fajardo et al., 2012
-Rio Grande do SulWidespreadKuhn, 1992
ChileWidespreadAuger et al., 1989

Europe

AlbaniaWidespreadMerkuri et al., 1994
AustriaWidespreadFlak and Gangl, 1994
BulgariaWidespreadAbracheva, 1977
CroatiaWidespreadSaric and Korosec-Koruza, 1991; Voncina et al., 2010
CyprusWidespreadIoannou, 1993
Czechoslovakia (former)WidespreadBlattny et al., 1960
FranceWidespreadVuittenez, 1958; Zimmermann et al., 1988
GermanyWidespreadScheu, 1935; Kassemeyer, 1991
GreeceWidespreadKatis et al., 1991
HungaryWidespreadLehoczky et al., 1969
ItalyWidespreadBelli et al., 1967; Faoro et al., 1981; Giampetruzzi et al., 2011
MaltaWidespreadMartelli et al., 1992
MoldovaWidespreadBondarchuk et al., 1991
PortugalWidespreadBoehm and Martins, 1991
-AzoresWidespreadLopes et al., 1997
RomaniaWidespreadPop et al., 1993
Russian FederationPresentPorotikova et al., 2019
-Southern RussiaPresentPorotikova et al., 2019Grapevine leaf roll-associated virus 2
SloveniaWidespreadSaric and Korosec-Koruza, 1991
SpainWidespreadFresno et al., 1997; Segura et al., 1993; Padilla et al., 2010; Padilla et al., 2013
SwitzerlandWidespreadBovey, 1968; Gugerli et al., 1984
UkraineWidespreadMilkus et al., 1991
Yugoslavia (former)WidespreadDimitrijevic, 1970

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesWidespreadFraser, 1958
-South AustraliaWidespreadHabili et al., 1996
-VictoriaWidespreadHabili et al., 1996
New ZealandWidespreadChamberlain, 1967; Mossop et al., 1985

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / reduced size
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Whole plant / early senescence

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes
Mail Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible

References

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Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic N, Sababadzovic S, Castellano MA, Boscia B, Martelli GP, 2000. Properties of a new isolate of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2. Vitis, 39:119-121

Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic N, Sabanadzovic S, 2015. First report of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 infecting muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) and summer grape (Vitis aestivalis) in the United States. Plant Disease, 99(1):163. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Abrasheva P, 1977. Grapevine leaf roll virus. Rastitelna Zashchita, 25(9):32-33

Agran MK, Terlizzi B di, Boscia D, Minafra A, Savino V, Martelli GP, Askri F, 1990. Occurrence of grapevine virus A (GVA) and other closteroviruses in Tunisian grapevines affected by leafroll disease. Vitis, 29(1):43-48

Akad F, Dotan N, Czosnek H, 2004. Trapping of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and other plant viruses with a GroEL homologue from the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Archives of Virology, 149(8):1481-1497

Alkowni R, Digiaro M, Savino V, 1998. Viruses and virus diseases of grapevine in Palestine. Bulletin OEPP, 28(1/2):189-195; 20 ref

Al-Tamimi N, Digiaro M, Savino V, 1998. Viruses of grapevine in Jordan, Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 37:122-126

Auger J, Arancibia R, Gugerli P, 1989. Isolation and identification of virus particles in leafroll-infected grapevines in Chile. Proceedings 9th Meeting of the International Council for the Study of Viruses and Virus Diseases of the Grapevine (ICVG), Kiryat Anavim 1987, 95

Azeri T, 1990. Detection of grapevine leafroll virus in different grapevine varieties by indexing. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 19(3):103-109

Barba M, Cupidi A, Martino L, 1991. Comparison of different methods to obtain virus-free grape propagative material. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG, Volos 1990, 399-406

Barlass M, Skene KGM, Woodham RC, Krake LR, 1982. Regeneration of virus-free grapevines using in vitro apical culture. Annals of Applied Biology, 101(2):291-295

Belli G, Cesati R, 1967. Frequent occurrence of grapevine leafroll in Lombardia (northern Italy). Rivista di Patologia Vegetale (SIV), 3:105-112

Belli G, Fortusini A, Casati P, Belli L, Bianco PA, Prati S, 1994. Transmission of a grapevine leafroll associated closterovirus by the scale insect Pulvinaria vitis L. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 4(3):105-108

Blattny C, Dohnal T, Prochazkova Z, 1960. Uber das virose Blatrollen der Weinrebe. Presslia, 32:418-419

Boehm J, Martins E, 1991. O virus do enrolamento da videira. Vida Rural, 40:44-48

Bondarchuk VV, Litvak LA, Kostantinova IS, 1991. Closterovirus-like particles associated with leafroll of grapevine in Moldavia. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG, Volos 1990, 408

Boscia D, Digiaro M, Savino V, Martelli GP, 2000. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 6 and Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal: an intriguing association. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG, Adelaide 2000, 21-22

Boscia D, Greif C, Gugerli P, Martelli GP, Walter B, Gonsalves D, 1995. Nomenclature of grapevine leafroll-associated putative closteroviruses. Vitis, 34(3):171-175

Boscia D, Savino V, Elicio V, Jebahi SD, Martelli GP, 1991. Detection of closteroviruses in grapevine tissues. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG, Volos 1990, 52-57

Boscia D, Savino V, Minafra A, Namba S, Elicio V, Castellano MA, Gonsalves D, Martelli GP, 1993. Properties of a filamentous virus isolated from grapevines affected by corky bark. Archives of Virology, 130:109-120

Bovey R, 1968. Die Blattrollkrankheit der rebe in der Schweiz. Weinberg und Keller, 15:471-478

Bovey R, Gartel W, Hewitt WB, Martelli GP, Vuittenez A, 1980. Virus and virus-like diseases of grapevines. Colour atlas of symptoms. Maladies a virus et affections similaires de la vigne. Atlas en couleurs des symptomes. Editions Payot. Lausanne Switzerland, 183 pp

Brelie D von der, Nienhaus F, 1982. Histological and cytological studies on the infectious leafroll disease of the grapevine. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 89(8/9):508-517

Cabaleiro C, Segura A, 1997. Some characteristics of the transmission of grapevine leafroll associated virus 3 by Planococcus citri Risso. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103(4):373-378; 34 ref

Cabaleiro C, Segura S, 1997. Field transmission of grapevine leafroll associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) by the mealybug Planococcus citri. Plant Disease, 81(3):283-287; 38 ref

Castellano MA, Abou-Ghanmen N, Choueiri E, Martelli GP, 2000. Ultrastructure of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 and 7 infections. Journal of Plant Pathology, 82:9-15

Chamberlain EE, 1967. Leafroll virus in the grapevines. Wine Review, 4:29-32

Choueiri E, Boscia D, Digiaro M, Castellano MA, Martelli GP, 1996. Some properties of a hitherto undescribed filamentous virus of the grapevine. Vitis, 35(2):91-93; 19 ref

Corbett MK, Wiid J, 1985. Closterovirus-like particles in extracts from diseased grapevines. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 24(1/2):91-100

Credi D, Santucci A, 1991. Serological detection of grapevine leafroll-associated closterovirus-like particles: apparent absence of viral antigens in leaves of graft-inoculated American rootstocks. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG, Volos 1990, 71-80

Digiaro M, Boscia D, Simeone V, Savino V, 1998. Gravi casi di accartocciamento fogliare su cultivar ad uva da tavola di recente introduzione in Puglia. Informatore Fitopatologico, 48(1-2):76-79

Digiaro M, Martelli GP, Savino V, 2000. Phloem-limited viruses of the grapevine in the Mediterranean and the Near East. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG, Adelaide 2000, 75-76

Dimitrijevic B, 1970. The occurrence of leafroll of grapevine in Yugoslavia. Zastita Bilja, 21:373-378

Engelbrecht DJ, Kasdorf GGF, 1990. Field spread of corky bark, fleck, leafroll and Shiraz decline diseases and associated viruses in South African grapevines. Phytophylactica, 22(3):347-354

Faggioli F, Pasquini G, Riccioni L, Barba M, 1991. Further characterization and serology of grape leafroll associated virus III isolated from grape in Italy. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG, Volos 1990, 473-476

Fajardo TVM, Eiras M, Nickel O, Dubiela CR, Souto ERde, 2012. Detection and partial molecular characterization of Grapevine fleck virus, Grapevine virus D, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-5 and -6 infecting grapevines in Brazil. Ciência Rural, 42(12):2127-2130. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782012001200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Faoro F, 1997. Cytopathology of closteroviruses and trichoviruses infecting grapevines. In: Monette PL, ed. Filamentous Viruses of Woody Plants. Research Signpost, Trivandrum, 29-47

Faoro F, Carzaniga R, 1995. Cytochemistry and immunocytochemistry of the inclusion bodies induced by grapevine leafroll-associated closteroviruses GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 5(3):85-94; 12 ref

Faoro F, Tornaghi R, Belli G, 1991. Localization of closteroviruses on grapevine thin sections and their identification by immunogold labelling. Journal of Phytopathology, 133(4):297-306

Faoro F, Tornaghi R, Fortusini A, Belli G, 1981. Association of a possible closterovirus with grapevine leafroll in Northern Italy. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 17(3/4):183-189

Fazeli CF, Rezaian MA, 2000. Nucleotide sequence and organization of ten open reading frames in the genome of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 and identification of three subgenomic RNAs. Journal of General Virology, 81(3):605-615; 47 ref

Flak W, Gangl H, 1994. Rough mapping of grape virosis infection in the Burgenland wine growing region by means of ELISA. Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg, Rebe und Wein, Obstbau und Fruchteverwertung, 44(5):163-167

Fortusini A, Cinquanta S, Belli G, 1991. Serological identification of different closteroviruses associated with grapevine leafroll in Italy. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG, Volos 1990, 412-415

Fortusini A, Scattini G, Prati S, Cinquanta S, Belli G, 1997. Transmission of grapevine leafroll virus 1 (GLRV-1) and grapevine virus A (GVA), by scale insects. Extended Abstracts 12th Meeting of ICVG, Lisbon 1997, 121-122

Fraser L, 1958. Report on observations on virus diseases of grapevines in the USA and on the occurrence of leafroll and other virus diseases of grapevine in New South Wales. New South Wales Department of Agriculture Report

Giampetruzzi A, Chiumenti M, Roberto R, Pirolo C, Minafra A, Saldarelli P, 2011. First detection of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 9 in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(4, Supplement):S4.88. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/118

Goheen AC, Luhn CF, Hewitt WB, 1965. Inactivation of grapevine viruses in vivo. Proceeding International Conference on Virus and Vector on Perennial Hosts, Davis, 1965, 255-265

Golino DA, Sim S, Rowhani A, 1995. Transmission studies of grapevine leafroll-associated virus and grapevine corky bark associated virus by the obscure mealybug. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 46:408

Golino DA, Sim S, Rowhani A, 2000. Experimental transmission of grapevine leafroll associated viruses by mealybugs. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG, Adelaide 2000, 19-20

Golino DA, Sim S, Rowhani A, 2000. Identification of the latent viruses associated with young vine decline in California. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG, Adelaide 2000, 85-86

Gonsalves D, 2000. Progress towards understanding the genomic organization and expression of grapevine closteroviruses. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG, Adelaide 2000, 6-7

Goszczynski DE, Kasdorf GGF, Pietersen G, 1995. Production and use of antisera specific to grapevine leafroll-associated viruses following electrophoretic separation of their proteins and transfer to nitrocellulose. African Plant Protection, 1:1-8

Goszczynski DE, Kasdorf GGF, Pietersen G, Tonder Hvan, 1996. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2)- mechanical transmission, purification, production and properties of antisera, detection by ELISA. South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, 17(1):15-26; 25 ref

Goszczynski DE, Kasdorf GGF, Pietersen G, Tonder Hvan, Goszczynski DE, Kasdorf GGF, Pietersen G, Tonder Hvan, 1996. Detection of two strains of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2. Vitis, 35(3):133-135; 15 ref

Goussard PG, Wiid J, Kasdorf GGF, 1991. The effectiveness of in vitro somatic embryogenesis in eliminating fanleaf virus and leafroll associated viruses from grapevines. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 12(2):77-81

Greif C, Garau R, Boscia D, Prota VA, Fiori M, Bass P, Walter B, Prota U, 1995. The relationship of grapevine leafroll-associated closterovirus 2 with a graft incompatibility condition of grapevines. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 34(3):167-173; 12 ref

Gugerli P, 2000. Detection of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses by chemiluminometric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LUMINO-ELSA). Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG, Adelaide 2000, 134-136

Gugerli P, 2000. Diagnosis of grapevine virus diseases: an overview and a practical implementation. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG, Adelaide 2000, 121-123

Gugerli P, Brugger JJ, Basler P, 1990. Les maladies de l'enroulement, du bois striT et de l'Tcorce liTgeuse de la vigne (grapevine leafroll, rugose wood and corky bark). Revue Suisse de Viticulture, Arboriculture et Horticulture, 22:35-36

Gugerli P, Brugger J-J, Boveny R, 1984. Grapevine leafroll: detection of virus particles and development of an immuno-enzymatic method for rapid diagnosis. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 16(5):299-304

Gugerli P, Brugger JJ, Ramel ME, 1997. Identification immuno-chimique du 6e virus associT a la maladie de l'enroulement de la vigne et amFlioration des techniques de diagnostic pour la sTlection sanitaire en viticulture. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, Arboriculture et Horticulture, 29:137-141

Gugerli P, Ramel ME, 1993. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus II analyzed by monoclonal antibodies. Extended Abstacts 11th Meeting of ICVG, Montreux 1993, 23-24

Habili N, Ewart AJW, Fazeli CF, Scott NS, Krake LR, Rezaian MA, 1996. Virus types associated with grapevine leafroll disease in Australia. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker, 33:25-28

Habili N, Fazeli CF, Rezaian MA, 1997. Identification of a cDNA clone specific to grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1, and occurrence of the virus in Australia. Plant Pathology, 46(4):516-522; 24 ref

Habili N, Krake LR, Barlass M, Rezaian MA, 1992. Evaluation of biological indexing and dsRNA analysis in grapevine virus elimination. Annals of Applied Biology, 121(2):277-283

Habili N, Symons RH, 2000. Grapevine viruses detected by Waite Diagnostics in Australia. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG, Adelaide 2000, 124-126

Haidar MM, Digiaro M, Khoury W, Savino V, 1996. Viruses and virus diseases of grapevine in Lebanon. Bulletin OEPP, 26(1):147-153; 12 ref

Hewitt WB, 1954. Some virus and virus-like diseases of grapevines. Bulletin of the California Department of Agriculture, 43:47-64

Hoefert LL, Gifford EM, 1967. Grapevine leafroll virus. History and anatomical effects. Hilgardia, 38:403-426

Hu JS, Gonsalves D, Boscia D, Namba S, 1990. Use of monoclonal antibodies to characterize grapevine leafroll associated closteroviruses. Phytopathology, 80(10):920-925

Hu JS, Gonsalves D, Teliz D, 1989. Detection and characterization of closterovirus-like particles associated with grapevine leafroll disease in New York. Proceedings 9th Meeting of ICVG, Kiryat Anavim 1987, 117-118

Hu JS, Gonsalves D, Teliz D, 1990. Characterization of closterovirus-like particles associated with grapevine leafroll disease. Journal of Phytopathology, 128(1):1-14

Ioannou N, 1993. Occurrence and natural spread of grapevine leafroll-associated closteroviruses in Cyprus. Extended Abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG, Montreux 1993, 111-112

Ioannou N, Hadjinicolis A, Hadjinicoli A, 1997. Epidemiology of the grapevine leafroll-mealybug complex in Cyprus. Extended Abstracts 12th Meeting of ICVG, Lisbon 1997, 123-124

Jones TJ, Westover F, Nita M, 2014. First report of grapevine leafroll-associated virus-2 and -3 in Texas vineyards. Plant Disease, 98(11):1592. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Karasev AV, 2000. Genetic diversity and evolution of closteroviruses. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 38:293-324; 157 ref

Karthikeyan G, Alabi OJ, Naidu RA, 2011. Occurrence of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 in two ornamental grapevine cultivars in Washington State. Plant Disease, 95(5):613. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Kassemeyer HH, 1991. Investigations about the occurrence of closterovirus-like particles in grapevines in Germany. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG, Volos 1990, 81-88

Katis N, Hatziloukas S, Tsagris M, Rumbos I, Roubelakis-Angelakis KA, 1991. Presence of closteroviruses and viroids in grapevine varieties with symptoms of leafroll and stem pitting. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG, Volos 1990, 450-457

Kaya A, Erilmez S, Paylan IC, Erkan S, 2012. First report of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 4 in vineyards of Turkey. Plant Disease, 96(8):1230. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Kim HR, Choi YM, Lee BC, Yiem MS, Chung JD, Kim KR, Park JW, Cho MR, 2000. Occurrence of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 in South Korea and analysis of its molecular and biological characteristics. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG, Adelaide 2000, 24

Krake LR, 1993. Characterization of grapevine leafroll disease by symptomatology. Australian & New Zealand Wine Industry Journal, 8(1):40-44

Krastanova T, Ling KS, Zhu HY, Xue B, Burr T, Gonsalves D, 1998. Development of transgenic grape rootstocks with genes from grapevine fanleaf virus and grapevine leafroll-associated closteroviruses 2 and 3. Phytopathology, 88:49

Kuhn GB, 1989. Identifitao, incidencia e controle do virus do enrolamento da folha da videira no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 14:220-226

Kumar S, Sawant SD, Sawant IS, Prabha K, Jain RK, Baranwal VK, 2012. First report of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 infecting grapevines in India. Plant Disease, 96(12):1828. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Lehoczky J, Martelli GP, Sarospataki G, 1969. Leafroll of grapevine in Hungary. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarium Hungaricae, 4:117-124

Li X, Martelli GP, Prota U, 1989. Virus and virus-like diseases of the grapevine in the People's Republic of China. Proceedings 9th Meeting of ICVG, Kiryat Anavim 1987, 31-34

Ling K, Krastanova T, Xue B, Zhu H, Meng B, Gonsalves D, 2000. Complete genome sequence of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and developing of transgenic plants expressing its genes. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG, Adelaide 2000, 52

Ling KS, Zhu HY, Alvizo H, Hu JS, Drong RF, Slightom JL, Gonsalves D, 1997. The coat protein gene of grapevine leafroll associated closterovirus-3: cloning, nucleotide sequencing and expression in transgenic plants. Archives of Virology, 142(6):1101-1116; 48 ref

Ling KS, Zhu HY, Drong RF, Slightom JL, McFerson JR, Gonsalves D, 1998. Nucleotide sequence of the 3-terminal two-thirds of the grapevine leafroll-associated virus-3 genome reveals a typical monopartite closterovirus. Journal of General Virology, 79(5):1299-1307; 46 ref

Ling KS, Zhu HY, Gonsalves D, 2008. Grapevine leafroll associated viruses. In: Characterization, diagnosis & management of plant viruses. Volume 2: horticultural crops [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Myrta, A.\Ling, K. S.]. Houston, USA: Studium Press LLC, 181-199

Lopes MS, Mendonta D, Laimer da Camara Machado M, da Camara Machado A, 1997. Occurrence of grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and grapevine leafroll associated virus 3 (GLRaV 3) in the Azorean islands Pico and Terceira. Extended Abstracts of the 12th Meeting ICVG, Lisbon, Portugal, 29 September-2 October 1997, 114

Lunden S, Qiu W, Darr WH, 2012. First report of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 in a hybrid grape 'Vidal Blanc' in Missouri. Plant Disease, 96(3):462. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

MacKenzie DJ, Johnson RC, Warner C, 1996. Incidence of four important viral pathogens in Canadian vineyards. Plant Disease, 80(8):955-958; 11 ref

Mahfoudhi N, Digiaro M, Savino V, Di Terlizzi B, 1998. Viruses and virus diseases of grapevine in Tunisia. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 28:197-204

Mannini F, Credi R, 2000. Appraisal of agronomic and enological modification in the performances of grapevine clones after virus eradication. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG, Adelaide 2000, 151-154

Martelli GP, 1993. Graft-transmissible Diseases of Grapevines. Handbook for Detection and Diagnosis. Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations Publication Division

Martelli GP, 1999. The impact of propagation material on vine health. A European perspective. Proceedings 10th Australian Wine Industry Technical Conference, Sydney 1998, 197-207

Martelli GP, Boscia D, Choueiri E, Digiaro M, Castellano MA, Savino V, 1994. Occurrence of filamentous viruses and rugose wood of grapevine in Yemen. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 33(2):146-151; 13 ref

Martelli GP, Graniti A, Ercolani GL, 1986. Nature and physiological effects of grapevine diseases. Experientia, 42:933-942

Martelli GP, Piro G, 1975. Virus diseases of the grapevine in a Sicilian herbarium of the past century. Vitis, 13:329-335

Martelli GP, Saldarelli P, Boscia D, 1997. Filamentous viruses of the grapevine: Closterovirus. In: Monette PL, ed. Filamentous Viruses of Woody Plants. Research Signpost, Trivandrum, 1-9

Meng B, Goszczynski DE, Zhu HY, Ling KS, Gonsalves D, 2000. The 5' sequence of grapevine leafroll associated closterovirus 2 genome. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG, Adelaide 2000, 28

Milkus B, Kartuzova V, Muljukina N, Feld B, 1991. Detection of virus diseases of grapevine in Ukraine. Proceedings 10th Meeting ICVG, Volos 1990, 390-395

Milkus BN, Goodman RN, 1999. A survey of Missouri vineyards for the presence of five grape viruses. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 50(1):133-134; 7 ref

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