Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Aceria tulipae
(dry bulb mite)



Aceria tulipae (dry bulb mite)


  • Last modified
  • 16 July 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aceria tulipae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • dry bulb mite
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •         Class: Arachnida
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aceria tulipae (Keifer, 1938)

Preferred Common Name

  • dry bulb mite

Other Scientific Names

  • Eriophyes tulipae Keifer, 1938

International Common Names

  • English: garlic mite; onion mite; wheat curl mite
  • Spanish: acaro blanco del bulbo; acaro del ajo (Dominican Republic); acaro del tulipan
  • French: acarien de l'ail; phytopte de la tulipe
  • Portuguese: eriofideo do alho

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Gallmilbe, Tulpen-; Tulpengallmilbe
  • Netherlands: Tulpegalmijt

EPPO code

  • ACEITU (Aceria tulipae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •                 Class: Arachnida
  •                     Subclass: Acari
  •                         Superorder: Acariformes
  •                             Suborder: Prostigmata
  •                                 Family: Eriophyidae
  •                                     Genus: Aceria
  •                                         Species: Aceria tulipae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


Georgia (Republic of)PresentChavchanidze, 1975; Chavchanidze, 1978
IndiaPresentPuttarudriah and Channabasavanna, 1958; Channabasavanna, 1966; Manson, 1984
-Tamil NaduPresentMohanasundaram, 1986
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-SulawesiPresentManson, 1984
JapanPresentYamashita et al., 1996
-HonshuPresentIchita and Fujimura, 1993; Murai and Sato, 1994
PhilippinesPresentAhmed and Benigno, 1984a; Ahmed and Benigno, 1985; Waterhouse, 1993
ThailandPresentChandrapatya, 1986; Lekprayoon and Smiley, 1986; Waterhouse, 1993
TurkeyPresentDenizhan, 2012
VietnamPresentWaterhouse, 1993


EgyptPresentWahba et al., 1980; Zaher and Abou-Awad, 1980; Hafez and Maksoud, 1984; Wahba et al., 1984; Doss and Wahba, 1985
South AfricaPresentMeyer, 1981; Daiber, 1996
TanzaniaPresentManson, 1984

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentKeifer, 1938; Keifer, 1952; Lange, 1955; Mann and Lange, 1960

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentAlmaguel et al., 1984; Almaguel et al., 1985; Almaguel et al., 1986; Ayala and Savon, 1986

South America

BrazilPresentChiavegato et al., 1968; Scalopi et al., 1970; Rossetto, 1972; Santos and Lima, 1976
-Espirito SantoPresentFornazier et al., 1987; Pereira et al., 1987
-Santa CatarinaPresentLorenzato, 1984; Mandelli and Almeida, 1984
ChilePresentLarrain, 1986
VenezuelaPresentDoreste, 1963; Doreste, 1966


BulgariaPresentNachev, 1976
DenmarkPresentBagger, 1976
FinlandPresentRoivainen, 1947; Liro and Roivainen, 1951
FrancePresentMonnet and Thibault, 2001
HungaryPresentTimár et al., 2004
ItalyPresentManson, 1984; Laffi and Raboni, 1994
MoldovaPresentKnaub and Buslawa, 1975
NetherlandsPresentMuller and Conijn, 1981; Koster and Conijn, 1987
PolandPresentBoczek and Chyczewski, 1974; Boczek et al., 1976; Budai et al., 1997
Russian FederationPresentRazvyazkina, 1971; Cheremushkina, 1975; Sukhareva and Sapozhnikova, 1975; Galochkina and Ivashchenko, 1981
SpainPresentEstal et al., 1985


AustraliaPresentHalliday and Knihinicki, 2004
FijiPresentManson, 1984
New ZealandPresentManson, 1970; Manson, 1984; Lammerink, 1990

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / wilting
Vegetative organs / internal feeding
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Blattisocius dentriticus Predator Adults Brazil; Santa Catarina garlic
Chelacaropsis moorei Predator Adults


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Ahmed KM, Benigno DA, 1984. Control of the eriophyid mite Aceria tulipae Keifer, the cause of tangle-top malady and the vector of garlic mosaic virus. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 12(2):153-154

Ahmed KM, Benigno DA, 1984. Investigation into the relationship of the eriophyid mite (Aceria tulipp Keifer) with the 'tangle-top' and mosaic disease of garlic. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(1):38-47

Ahmed KM, Benigno DA, 1985. Virus-vector relationship in mosaic disease of garlic. Indian Phytopathology, 38(1):121-125

Almaguel L, Perez R, Caceres I, Feito E, Sanchez YG, 1986. Disinfection of garlic cloves by soaking prior to chemical treatment against Eriophyes (Aceria) tulipp. Ciencia y Tecnica en la Agricultura, Proteccion de Plantas, 9(3):57-72

Almaguel L, Sierra S, Martinez H, 1984. Report of the mite Aceria tulipae Keifer in Cuba. Centro Agricola, 11(3):114

Almaguel L, Sierra S, Martinez H, 1985. Record of Aceria tulipp in Cuba. Ciencia y Tecnica en la Agricultura, Proteccion de Plantas, 8(1):45-51

Amrine JW, Stasny TA, 1994. Catalog of the Eriophyoidea (Acarina: Prostigmata) of the world. West Bloomfield, USA; Indira Publishing House, viii + 798 pp

Ayala A, Sav=n JR, 1986. Comparative study of garlic (Allium sativum) clones. Ciencia y Te^acute~cnica en la Agricultura, Hortalizas, Papa, Granos y Fibras, 5(2):73-80; 6 ref

Boczek J, Chyczewski J, 1974. The curl mite Aceria tulipae K., a pest of garlic new to Poland. Ochr. Rosl., 18:1314

Boczek J, Chyczewski J, Lustgraaf Bde, 1976. Studies on the morphology of some eriophyid mites (Acarina: Eriophycidea) of grasses and of garlic. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, E, 6(1):41-58

Budai C, Regos A, Szeredi A, 1997. The occurrence of onion leaf mite (Aceria tulipae Keifer) in garlic bulbs. No^umlaut~ve^acute~nyve^acute~delem, 33(2):53-56; 7 ref

Chandrapatya A, 1986. External morphology of Aceria tulipae Keifer, a garlic pest in Thailand (Prostigmata: Eriophyidae). Kasetsart Journal (Natural Science), 20:217-220

Channabasavanna GP, 1966. A contribution to the knowledge of Indian eriophyid mites (Eriophyidae, Tetrapodili, Acarina). Hebbal, Bangalore, India: University of Agricultural Sciences, 62-63

Chavchanidze TM, 1975. Study of resistance to Aceria tulipae Keif. in some garlic varieties in the Georgian SSR. Tr. NI. I. I. Zashchity Rast. Gruz. SSR, 27:75-78

Chavchanidze TM, 1978. Control of tulip (garlic) eriphyid mite (Aceria tulipae K.) in Georgia (Russ.). Tr. NI. I. I. Zashchity Rast. Gruz. SSR, 29:138-147

Cheremushkina NP, 1975. The role of Aceria tulipp K. in the natural transmission of onion mosaic virus. Trudy Biologo-Pochvennogo Instituta, 28(2):174-177

Cheremushkina NP, 1989. Onion mosaic. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), 7:23

Chiavegato LG, Bernardi JB, Igue T, 1968. Prejuizos causados pelo acaro Aceria tulipae Keifer e pelo Thrips tabaci Lind., 1888, na cultura de alho (Allium sativum L.) cultivar Lavinia. An. 1 Reun. Piracicaba, SP, Brasil: Anual. Soc. Brasil. Entomol., 68-69

Cosenza GW, Menezes Sobrinho JA de, Regina SM, Gontijo VPM, 1981. Effect of fumigation on the protection of stored garlic. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 16:199-203

Daiber KC, 1996. Injurious insects, mites and nematodes on various vegetables in southern Africa. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 103(3):325-332; 21 ref

Denizhan E, 2012. Aceria tulipae (Keifer, 1938) new record for the Turkish eriophyoid fauna. (Türkiye eriophyoid faunasi için yeni bir kayit: Aceria tulipae (Keifer, 1938) (Acarina:Eriophyoidea).) Bitki Koruma Bülteni, 52(1):119-122.

Denmark, State Plant Pathology Institute, 1976. Plant diseases in Denmark in 1975. 92nd annual survey,. In: Bagger O, ed. Plantesygdomme i Danmark 1975. 92. Arsoversigt. State Plant Pathology Inst. Lyngby Denmark, 66 pp

Dijk P van, Verbeek M, Bos L, 1991. Mite-borne virus isolates from cultivated Allium species, and their classification into two new rymoviruses in the family Potyviridae. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 97(6):381-399

Dijk P van, Vlugt RAA van der, 1994. New mite-borne virus isolates from rakkyo, shallot and wild leek species. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 100(3-4):269-277

Doreste ES, 1963. Avances obtenidos en el control del acaro del ajo (Aceria tulipae) (K.), nueva plaga de este cultivo en Venezuela. Ingenieria Agronomica, 11:13-18

Doreste ES, 1966. Control del acaro del ajo (Aceria tulipae (K.)) mediante tratamiento a la "semilla". Agron. Trop., 16:199-203

Doss SA, Wahba ML, 1985. Studies on garlic pests in field and store. Proceedings of the 1st National Conference of Pests and Diseases of Vegetables and Field Crops held in Ismailiya, Egypt, October, 1985, pp 102-110

Estal P del, Arroyo M, Vinuela E, Budia F, 1985. Mites that attack garlic crops in Spain. Anales del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias, Agricola, 28(Num. Extr.):131-145

Farkas HK, 1965. Spinnentiere, Eriophyidae (Gallmilben), Die Tierwelt der Mitteleuropas, 3. Leipzig, Germany: Quelle & Meyer

Fornazier MJ, Carmo CAS do, Souza JL de, Dessaune Filho N, 1987. The response of different garlic cultivars to Eriophyes tulipp attack. Pesquisa em Andamento, Empresa Capixaba de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, EMCAPA, Brazil, No. 44:6 pp

Galochkina LA, Ivashchenko II, 1981. Onion mosaic on leek. Zashchita Rastenii, 10:29

Hafez SM, Maksoud MA, 1984. Control of Eriophyes tulipae K. attacking garlic (Acari: Eriophyidae). I. Chemical control. Egyptian Journal of Horticulture, 11:93-97

Halliday RB, Knihinicki DK, 2004. The occurrence of Aceria tulipae (Keifer) and Aceria tosichella Keifer in Australia (Acari: Eriophyidae). International Journal of Acarology, 30(2):113-118

Hamed K, Menzel W, Mohamed ME, Dafallah G, Gadelseed AMA, Winter S, 2012. First report of Shallot virus X in onion in Sudan. Plant Disease, 96(7):1075.

Ichita T, Fujimura T, 1993. Occurrence of the dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae (Keifer), on garlic in Aomori Prefecture and chemical control by seed bulb dipping. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, 44:151-158

Jeppson LR, Keifer HH, Baker EW, 1975. Mites Injurious to Economic Plants. Berkeley, USA: University of California Press

Katkar SM, Pawar DB, Warade SD, Kulkarni SS, 1998. Effect of pesticides on the eriophyid mite (Aceria tulipae K.) in garlic. Insect Environment, 4(3):103

Keifer HH, 1938. Eriophyid studies. Bulletin of the California Department of Agriculture, 27:181-206

Keifer HH, 1952. The eriophyid mites of California. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey, 2. Berkeley and Los Angeles, USA: University of California Press

Keifer HH, 1953. Eriophyid studies XXI. Bulletin of the California Department of Agriculture, 42:65-79

Keifer HH, Baker EW, Kono T, Delfinado M, Styer WE, 1982. An illustrated guide to plant abnormalities caused by eriophyid mites in North America. Agriculture Handbook, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 573:178 pp

Knaub VZ, Buslawa LA, 1975. Control measures for Aceria tulipae (Acarina: Eriophyoidea) on garlic in the Moldavian SSR-USSR. Izvestia Akad. Nauk. Mold. SSR, Ser. Biol. Khim. Nauk, 6:82-84

Koster ATJ, Conijn CGM, 1987. Prevention and control of pests in ornamental bulb crops. Jaarverslag van het Laboratorium voor Bloembollenonderzoek Lisse, Netherlands, 68-69, 112

Laffi F, Raboni F, 1994. Aceria tulipae (Keifer): an eriophyid mite dangerous on garlic plants. Informatore Fitopatologico, 44(9):38-40

Lammerink J, 1990. Effects of fumigation, cold storage, and fungicide treatment of planting cloves on yield and quality of garlic. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 18(1):55-59

Lange WH Jr, 1955. Aceria tulipae (K.) damaging garlic in California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 48:612-613

Larrain S P, 1986. Incidence of attack by the bulb mite Eriophyes tulipp Keifer (Acar., Eriophyidae) on the yield and quality of garlic (Allium sativum L.). Agricultura Tecnica, 46(2):147-150

Lekprayoon C, Smiley RL, 1986. Chelacaropsis moorei Baker (Acari: Cheyletidae): redescription of the male and female. International Journal of Acarology, 12(2):69-73

Lindquist EE, Sabelis MW, Brun J, 1996. Eriophyoid Mites - Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier

Liro JI, Roivainen H, 1951. -kSmSpunkit (Eriophyidae). Suomen ElSimet, Animalia Fennica, 6: 281 pp

Lorenzato D, 1984. Tests for the control of mites damaging stored garlic (Allium sativum L.). Agronomia Sulriograndense, 20(2):153-165

Mandelli MA, Almeida AA, 1984. Survey of insects and mites in stored garlic. XXIV Congresso Brasileiro de Olericultura. I, Reuniao Latino-Americana de Olericultura, Jaboticabal, 16-21 Julho 1984, Resumos e Palestras. Brazil: Sociedade de Olericultura do Brasil, 135

Mann LK, Lange WH, 1960. Fumigation controls for microscopic mite attacking garlic. California Agriculture, December:9-10

Manson D CM, 1970. Wheat curl midge on garlic. New Zealand Journal of Agriculture, 121(4):61-62

Manson DCM, 1984. Eriophyinp (Arachnida: Acari: Eriophyoidea). Fauna of New Zealand, No. 5. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, 123 pp

Meyer MKP, 1981. South African Eriophyidae (Acari); the genus Aceria Keifer, 1944. Phytophylactica, 13:271-274

Mohanasundaram M, 1986. Two new species and a new record of eriophyid mites (Eriophyidae: Acari) from Tamil Nadu, India. Entomon, 11(4):227-230

Monnet Y, Thibault J, 2001. Diseases and pests of garlic. (Maladies et ravageurs de l'ail.) PHM Revue Horticole, No.427:50-51

Muller PJ, Conijn CGM, 1981. New possibilities of controlling tulip gall mites during storage. Bloembollencultuur, 91:1350-1352

Murai T, Sato N, 1994. Survey of dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae (Keifer) (Acarina: Eriophyidae), on garlic in Aomori Prefecture. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, 45:192-194

Na SeungYong, Cho MyoungRae, Jeon HeungYong, Yiem MyoungSoon, Oh DaeGun, Park KwonWoo, 1998. Damage of garlic gall mite, Aceria tulipae (Keifer), on stored garlic and its chemical control. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 37(1):81-89

Nachev P, 1976. Study on eriophyid mites in Bulgaria. X. Eriophyid mites on cereal plants. Rastitelnozashchitna Nauka, 4:92-99

Oldfield GN, Proeseler G, 1996. Eriophyoid mites as vectors of plant pathogens. In: Lindquist EE, Sabelis MW, Bruin J, eds. Eriophyoid Mites - Their Biology Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, 6: 259-275

Pereira EB, Fornazier MJ, Ventura JA, Carmo CAS do, Souza JL de, Prezotti LC, Dessaune Filho N, 1987. Effect of organic compost on the productivity of garlic and the reaction of pests and pathogens. Comunicado Tecnico, Empresa Capixaba de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, EMCAPA, Brazil, No. 48:1-8

Perring TM, 1996. Vegetables. In: Lindquist EE, Sabelis MW, Bruin J, eds. Eriophyoid Mites - Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, 6: 593-610

Puttarudriah M, Channabasavanna GP, 1958. Occurrence of an eriophyid mite as a new pest of garlic (Allium sativum) in Mysore. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 6:123-126

Razvyazkina GM, 1971. Onion mosaic virus and its distribution in the field. Tagunsbericht Deutsche Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften zu Berlin, 115:69-76

Roivainen H, 1947. Eriophyid news from Finland. Acta Entomologica Fennica, 3:1-49

Rossetto CJ, 1972. Acaros eriofiidos pragas de fruteiras e outras plantas no Brasil. Ciencia e Cultura, S. P., Brasil, 24:817-829

Santos JHR, Lima PJBG, 1976. Estudo sobre o alho no Ceara. III. Perdas de peso, no armazenamento, de bulbos de plantas que sofreram ataque de acaros no campo. Bol. Cear. Agron., Fortaleza, Ceara, Brasil, 17:27-30

Scalopi EJ, Basconcellos EFC, Nakano O, 1970. Sintomatologia do ataque de acaros a variedades de alho. Solo, Centro Acad. Luiz de Queiroz, Piracicaba, S. P., Brasil, 63:37-38

Shevtchenko VG, De-Millo AP, Razvyazkina GM, Kapkova EA, 1970. Taxonomic separation of similar species of eriophyid mites, Aceria tulipae Keif. and A tritici sp. n. (Acarina, Eriophyoidea) - vectors of the viruses of onion and wheat. Zoologicheskiy Zhurnal, 49:224-235

Slykhuis JT, 1963. Mite transmission of plant viruses. Advances in Acarology, 1:326-340

Smalley EB, 1956. The production on garlic by an eriophyid mite of symptoms like those produced by viruses. Phytopathology, 46:346-347

Styer WE, Nault LR, 1996. Corn and grain plants. In: Lindquist EE, Sabelis MW, Bruin J, eds. Eriophyoid Mites - Their Biology Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, 6:611-618

Sukhareva SI, Sapozhnikova FD, 1975. Seasonal adaptations of some species of eriophyid mites (Acarina, Eriophyoidea). Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta, Biologiya, 9(2):47-55

Timár E, Bozai J, Bürgés G, 2004. Additions to the knowledge of mites living on garlic. (Adalékok a fokhagymán élo´´ atkák ismeretéhez.) Növényvédelem, 40(1):17-25

Wahba ML, Doss SA, Farrag AMI, 1984. Source of re-infestation by Eriophyes tulipp K. for garlic plant with some biological aspects. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 65:179-182

Wahba ML, Hanna MA, Farrag AMI, 1980. Population study on Eriophyes tulipae K. infesting garlic. Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Plant Protection Research Institute, 3:53-59

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

Yamashita K, Sakai J, Hanada K, 1996. Characterization of a new virus from garlic (Allium sativum L.), garlic mite-borne mosaic virus. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 62(5):483-489; 36 ref

Zaher MA, Abou-Awad BA, 1980. A new species and new record of some eriophyid mites in Egypt (Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae). Acarologia, 21(1):61-64

Distribution Maps

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