Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Allamanda blanchetii
(purple allamanda)

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Datasheet

Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Allamanda blanchetii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • purple allamanda
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Allamanda blanchetii is a shrubby climbing species with showy purple to pink flowers that has been cultivated as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is a fast-growing species that...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit. India. May 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit. India. May 2008.
Copyright©Prime Jyothi (Primejyothi)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit. India. May 2008.
HabitAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit. India. May 2008.©Prime Jyothi (Primejyothi)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit. India. August 2009.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit. India. August 2009.
Copyright©Prime Jyothi (Primejyothi)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit. India. August 2009.
Flowering habitAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit. India. August 2009.©Prime Jyothi (Primejyothi)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit. Kaua’i, Hawaii, USA. November 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit. Kaua’i, Hawaii, USA. November 2007.
Copyright©Jason Wehmhoener/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit. Kaua’i, Hawaii, USA. November 2007.
Flowering habitAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit. Kaua’i, Hawaii, USA. November 2007.©Jason Wehmhoener/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.0
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flower and leaves. Lowes Garden Center, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
TitleFlower
CaptionAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flower and leaves. Lowes Garden Center, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flower and leaves. Lowes Garden Center, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
FlowerAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flower and leaves. Lowes Garden Center, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowers. India. May 2008.
TitleFlowers
CaptionAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowers. India. May 2008.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via fiickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowers. India. May 2008.
FlowersAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowers. India. May 2008.©Dinesh Valke/via fiickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit, with an unopened bud. Home Depot Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit, with an unopened bud. Home Depot Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit, with an unopened bud. Home Depot Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
Flowering habitAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flowering habit, with an unopened bud. Home Depot Nursery, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flower bud. Ezhupunna. Kerala, India. June 2018.
TitleFlower
CaptionAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flower bud. Ezhupunna. Kerala, India. June 2018.
Copyright©Renjusplace/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flower bud. Ezhupunna. Kerala, India. June 2018.
FlowerAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); flower bud. Ezhupunna. Kerala, India. June 2018.©Renjusplace/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); stem and leaves. KiHana Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.
TitleLeaves
CaptionAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); stem and leaves. KiHana Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Allamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); stem and leaves. KiHana Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.
LeavesAllamanda blanchetii (purple allamanda); stem and leaves. KiHana Nursery, Kihei, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2011.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Allamanda blanchetii A. DC.

Preferred Common Name

  • purple allamanda

Other Scientific Names

  • Allamanda violacea Gardner

International Common Names

  • Portuguese: allamanda-roxa

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: alamanda-de-jacobina; allamanda-rosa; quatra patacas

Summary of Invasiveness

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Allamanda blanchetii is a shrubby climbing species with showy purple to pink flowers that has been cultivated as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is a fast-growing species that spreads rapidly by layering. Native to Brazil, A. blanchetii is listed as invasive in Anguilla and in Australia where it is considered a weed. A. blanchetii is also listed as a potentially invasive cultivated species in Hawaii. It is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Gentianales
  •                         Family: Apocynaceae
  •                             Genus: Allamanda
  •                                 Species: Allamanda blanchetii

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Apocynaceae comprises about 400 genera and 4,555 species distributed mostly in tropical and warm temperate regions of the world (Stevens, 2019). Allamanda is a small genus mostly restricted to Brazil, with a few native species occurring in Venezuela, Colombia and Peru (Sakane and Shepherd, 1986). Formerly, 13 species were recognized in this genus (Sakane and Shepherd, 1986), but an additional species endemic to limestone areas in the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais (Brazil) was recently described by Souza-Silva and Rapini (2009), increasing the number of species to 14 (Morales, 2014).

Description

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The following is based on the description given by Staples and Herbst (2005). Shrubby plant with some climbing stems (scandent shrub) suckering from roots. It often forms a clump about 2 m tall and 2-3 m wide, but can grow much higher when climbing  over other vegetation (up to 5 m in height). Stems and leaves with milky sap. Leaves sessile or subsessile, 8-12 cm long, in whorls of usually 4, oblong or obovate-oblong, abruptly acuminate; petioles up to 2 mm long; leaf blades broadly elliptic to orbicular, with trichomes on both surfaces. Calyx pubescent, corolla 6-9 cm long x 5-6 cm across at limb, rose-purple, darker in throat, tube not basally swollen. The fruits are globose and spiny follicles containing numerous flattened seeds equipped with a membranous wing.

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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Allamanda blanchetii is native to Brazil. This species has been introduced as an ornamental species and can be found cultivated in India, Singapore, Laos, Colombia, Puerto Rico, the Lesser Antilles (Saba) and on many islands in the Pacific region (Chong et al., 2009; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; PIER, 2019; USDA-ARS, 2019; Pagad, 2020; Senterre et al., 2020). A. blanchetii is listed as invasive throughout Anguilla (Connor, 2008) and reported as having naturalized somewhere in Australia where it is listed as a weed (Randall, 2007).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 08 Jul 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

SeychellesPresentIntroducedSenterre et al. (2020)

Asia

IndiaPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2019)Cultivated
-DelhiPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal (2019)Cultivated
LaosPresentIntroducedPagad (2020)
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al. (2009)

North America

AnguillaPresentIntroducedInvasiveConnor (2008)
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-SabaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Cultivated
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Cultivated
United StatesPresentIntroducedPIER (2019)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedPIER (2019)Cultivated

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveRandall (2009)Listed as a weed
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2019)Cultivated
FijiPresentIntroducedPIER (2019)Cultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedPIER (2019)Cultivated
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER (2019)Cultivated
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER (2019)Cultivated
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedPIER (2019)Cultivated
PalauPresentIntroducedPIER (2019)Cultivated

South America

BrazilPresentNativeKoch et al. (2015)Present, based on regional distribution
-AlagoasPresentNativeKoch et al. (2015)
-BahiaPresentNativeKoch et al. (2015)
-CearaPresentNativeKoch et al. (2015)
-GoiasPresentNativeKoch et al. (2015)
-MaranhaoPresentNativeKoch et al. (2015)
-ParaibaPresentNativeKoch et al. (2015)
-PernambucoPresentNativeKoch et al. (2015)
-PiauiPresentNativeKoch et al. (2015)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeKoch et al. (2015)
-SergipePresentNativeKoch et al. (2015)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedMorales (2014)Cultivated

Habitat

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In Brazil, within its native distribution range, A. blanchetii grows in the dry forest locally known as the Caatinga, occurring on rocky outcroppings (Alves et al., 2017). It can also be found in secondary dry forests, mangrove swamps and lowland riverbanks. It is planted as an ornamental in gardens and parks and can be found naturalized in nearby disturbed areas and along roadsides (Araújo et al., 2011; Morales, 2014).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for A. blanchetii is 2= 18, 36 (Tapadar, 1964Balamani and Rao, 1981; Brito et al., 2014).

Reproductive Biology

Allamanda blanchetii has tubular hermaphrodite flowers with strong herkogamy that prevents self-pollination. Flowers are pollinated by insects, mostly bees and butterflies. A study carried out in Brazil showed that the euglossine bee Eulaema nigrita is the main pollinator of this species, and four species of butterflies from the genera Anteos, Phoebis and Epargyreus are listed as secondary pollinators (Araújo et al., 2011).

Physiology and Phenology

Within its native distribution range, A. blanchetii produces flowers from February to July, with a peak in March-April. Fruits are produced following flowering until September (Araújo et al., 2011).

Environmental Requirements

Allamanda blanchetii prefers full sun, growing in hot and dry habitats with mean annual temperatures of 24-30°C and mean annual rainfall of 250-1000 mm. This species is well adapted to drought with moderate wind tolerance. In cultivation, it prefers loamy or sandy-loam soil (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).  

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
24 30

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 24 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration7 number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall2501000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Allamanda blanchetii spreads by seeds and vegetatively by stem segments, layering and root suckers. Seeds have a thin, membranous wing and are dispersed by wind. However, in cultivation fruits are rarely seen and plants are often propagated by cuttings (Morales, 2014; Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosCultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2019
DisturbanceNaturalized in disturbed sites Yes Yes Morales, 2014
Escape from confinement or garden escapeStem fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Randall, 2007
Garden waste disposalStem fragments escaped from cultivation Yes Yes Randall, 2007
Hedges and windbreaksCultivated as a hedge plant Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2019
HorticultureCultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2019
Intentional releaseCultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2019
Internet salesPlants sold online Yes Yes
Nursery tradeCultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2019
Ornamental purposesCultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2019

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesCultivated as an ornamental Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2019
WindSeeds dispersed by wind Yes Yes Morales, 2014
MailPlants sold online Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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All parts of the plant are toxic to animals (livestock and pets) (Sena Filho et al., 2007) and humans if consumed, and the milky sap (latex) may irritate the skin upon contact (Tobar-Vargas et al., 2013Useful Tropical Plants, 2019).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Allamanda blanchetii is cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens and parks. It is also used as a hedge or screen plant. In Brazil, the roots and other parts of the plant are utilized in traditional medicine (Useful Tropical Plants, 2019; USDA-ARS, 2019).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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There are two other Allamanda species also cultivated as ornamentals: A. schottii and A. cathartica. These species can be distinguished by the following traits (Queensland Government, 2019): A. cathartica has hairless (glabrous) stems and relatively large yellow flowers (7-11 cm long and 5-7.5 cm across); A. schottii has hairless (glabrous) stems and leaves that contain a clear sap. It has an upright shrubby habit and relatively small yellow flowers (4-6 cm long and about 4 cm across); A. blanchetii has long, hirsute trichomes in stems and leaves and relatively large purplish flowers.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Alves, M. M., Albuquerque, M. B. de, Pereira, W. E., Lucena, M. de F. de A., Azevedo, J. P. da S., 2017. Morpho-physiological analyses of Allamanda blanchetii A. DC. seedlings under water deficit. Bioscience Journal, 33(5), 1134-1143. http://www.seer.ufu.br/index.php/biosciencejournal/article/view/36408/20818

Araújo, L. D. A. de, Quirino, Z. G. M., Machado, I. C., 2011. Reproductive phenology, floral biology and pollination of Allamanda blanchetii, an Apocynaceae endemic of the Caatinga. (Fenologia reprodutiva, biologia floral e polinização de Allamanda blanchetii, uma Apocynaceae endêmica da Caatinga). Revista Brasileira de Botânica, 34(2), 211-222. doi: 10.1590/S0100-84042011000200008

Balamani GVA , Rao RS , 1981. Chromosome number reports LXXIII. Taxon, 30, 855-856.

Brito JG, da Silva Santos R, Meira PRH, Alves LIF, Gomes de Andrade MJ, Rapini A, Felix LP, 2014. Apocynaceae: IAPT/IOPB Chromosome data 17. Taxon, 63(15), 1148-1155.

Chong, K. Y., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Connor, RA, 2008. Anguilla Invasive Species Strategy (draft). http://www.gov.ai/documents/Anguilla%20Invasive%20Species%20Strategy%202008%20(2).pdf

Morales, JF, 2014. Studies in the Neotropical Apocynaceae L: The genus Allamanda in Colombia and a new combination. Phytotaxa, 162(1), 51-56.

Pagad, S, 2020. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species- Laos. v1.1. Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG.https://cloud.gbif.org/griis/resource?r=griis-laos&v=1.1

PIER, 2019. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Queensland Government, 2019. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Australia: Queensland Government.http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/media/Html/search.html

Randall, R. P., 2007. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status, [ed. by Randall, R. P.]. Glen Osmond, Australia: CRC for Australian Weed Management.iv + 524 pp.

Sakane M, Shepherd GJ, 1986. (Uma revisão do gênero Allamanda L. (Apocynaceae)). Revista Brasileira de Botânica, 9, 125-149.

Sena Filho, J. G., Pontual, K. A. Q., Ferreira, C. P., Florencio, D. C., Xavier, H. S., 2007. Ornamental plants in Southern Brazil with toxic potential for companion animals. In: Poisonous plants: global research and solutions, [ed. by Panter, K. E., Wierenga, T. L., Pfister, J. A.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. 55-57. doi: 10.1079/9781845932732.0055

Senterre, B, Rocamora, G, Morel, C , Beaver, K, Padayachy, T, Henriette, E, Wong, LJ, Pagad, S, 2020. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species - Seychelles. v2.8. Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG.http://doi.org/10.15468/9e9pfi

Souza-Silva, R. F. de, Rapini, A., 2009. Allamanda calcicola (Apocynaceae), an overlooked new species from limestone outcrops in the States of Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil. Kew Bulletin, 64(1), 171-174. doi: 10.1007/s12225-008-9087-x

Staples GW, Herbst DR, 2005. A tropical garden flora: plants cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and other tropical places, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Bishop Museum Press.908 pp.

Stevens, P. F., 2019. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Tapadar NR, 1964. Cytotaxonomic studies in Apocynaceae and delineation of the different evolutionary tendencies operating within the family. Caryologia, 17(1), 103-138.

Tobar-Vargas A, Gavio B, Fernández JL , 2013. New records of plants for San Andres and Old Providence islands (International Biosphere Reserve Seaflower), Caribbean Colombia. Check List , 9(6), 1361–1366.

USDA-ARS, 2019. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Useful Tropical Plants, 2019. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Connor RA, 2008. Anguilla Invasive Species Strategy (draft)., http://www.gov.ai/documents/Anguilla%20Invasive%20Species%20Strategy%202008%20(2).pdf

India Biodiversity Portal, 2019. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Koch I, Rapini A, Simões AO, Kinoshita LS, Spina AP, Castello ACD, 2015. Apocyanaceae in the list of species of the flora of Brazil. (Apocynaceae in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB80256

Morales JF, 2014. Studies in the Neotropical Apocynaceae L: The genus Allamanda in Colombia and a new combination. Phytotaxa. 162 (1), 51-56.

Pagad S, 2020. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species- Laos. v1.1. Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG. https://cloud.gbif.org/griis/resource?r=griis-laos&v=1.1

PIER, 2019. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Randall R P, 2009. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status. In: CRC for Australian Weed Management, Glen Osmond, Australia: University of Adelaide. http://www.weedscrc.org.au/documents/intro_flora_australia.pdf

Senterre B, Rocamora G, Morel C , Beaver K, Padayachy T, Henriette E, Wong LJ, Pagad S, 2020. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species - Seychelles. v2.8. Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG. http://doi.org/10.15468/9e9pfi

Contributors

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09/11/2019 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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